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Review Questions

1.
c. Mortality is the number of deaths in a certain group of people during a certain period of time.
2.
d. The social determinants of health (SDOH) are the conditions of the environments in which an individual is born, lives, learns, works, plays, and worships. They include economic stability, education access and quality, health care access and quality, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community context.
3.
d. Vital statistics—the records of birth, death, marriages, health, and disease—are a critical national information resource for understanding public health.
4.
c. Increased lifespan has largely been attributed to improvements in sanitation, water supplies, workplace safety, food and drug safety, immunization rates, nutrition, hygiene, and housing.
5.
d. Health can be defined as the absence of disease or impairment, as a state of being that allows the individual to adequately cope with all the demands of daily life, or as a state of balance that an individual has established within themselves and with their social and physical environment. The client who perceives that they are in good health despite being treated for high blood pressure is displaying an internal balance in which chronic illness is not negatively affecting well-being.
6.
c. The years of reasonable quality of life that the client will gain after quitting smoking are referred to as quality-adjusted life years.
7.
c. The combined measure of mortality and morbidity rates is referred to as the burden of disease, an indication of the effects of disease on a population. The burden of disease is measured by disability-adjusted life years.
8.
a. Heart disease has been the leading cause of death globally for more than 20 years and is the most common cause of death for both men and women overall and for most racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
9.
a. United Nations member countries established sustainable development goals to create a more fair, just, and equitable world. Goals related to the planet address climate change and managing natural resources.
10.
a. Life expectancy in the United States has increased over the past 100 years, and the rate of death has decreased.
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