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Unfolding Case Study

1.
a. Underrepresented populations, such as ethnic minorities, tend to be impacted the most by chronic health conditions such as hypertension and heart disease.
2.
c. Jose’s unstable financial situation makes it likely he will experience a health disparity or a preventable difference in disease experienced by members of a vulnerable population.
3.
b. The nurse should be open with the client when communicating to establish trust.
4.
d. Frequently clients do not take medications as prescribed due to costs. In this situation, with a client who has lost his job and has limited financial resources, the most effective strategy to encourage him to take the medication to make sure he can afford it.

Review Questions

1.
b. As baby boomers born from 1946 to 1964 continue to age, the United States will have an increased need for health care services in nursing homes, long-term care, and home health care facilities.
2.
a. The working poor are individuals who make too much to qualify for public health insurance programs such as Medicaid but do not make enough money to afford health insurance premiums. These clients tend to have poor health outcomes because they often wait to seek care until their disease processes are more advanced.
3.
a. Health disparities overwhelmingly affect ethnic minorities and are defined as “preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations” (CDC, 2020, para. 1).
4.
c. Telehealth allows for improved communication and ease of communication between the client and provider, especially for the client who lives far from the provider.
5.
c. Many nurses reported that, because the stress of working through the COVID-19 epidemic adversely affected their emotional health and well-being, they chose to leave their jobs.
6.
a. Asian/Pacific Islanders experience the highest rate of hepatitis B when compared with other ethnic groups.
7.
b. Vulnerable populations, including transgender individuals, often face discrimination and stigma by health care providers and, therefore, may have a lack of trust in the health care system.
8.
b. To increase trust with clients from underrepresented populations, the nurse should be attuned to the client’s access to resources, such as transportation, and work to address any barriers.
9.
b. The ACA lowered Medicaid eligibility requirements, increasing opportunities for those who need it.
10.
b. Telehealth allows for increased access to health care services, especially for those living in rural areas. Home monitoring is often paired with telehealth to allow for the long-term and continuous monitoring of chronic diseases, such as hypertension. When upward trends in blood pressure are observed, the health care team can more readily address the issue.
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