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b. Community health refers to a community’s physical, mental, and social well-being and involves health promotion, risk reduction, and disease prevention efforts to support health. Promoting a weekly farmer’s market of locally grown produce provides the opportunity for the community to engage in healthy eating practices to reduce the risk for heart disease.
b. Following WWII, nurses sought professional roles with greater autonomy and found that public/community health nursing met this need. In this public/community health role, nurses provided education to raise public awareness of health issues, including the promotion of vaccinations to increase the proportion of the population receiving a vaccination.
c. Scope of practice refers to the professional activities involved in the role of registered nurse. Defining a scope of practice helps nurses work within and to their level of qualification, expertise, and competence. Standards of practice are the principles and guidelines professionals must adhere to in their role.
b. The ANA has identified nine core concepts of practice based on the dynamic and complex work of public health nursing: social determinants of health, community collaboration, population health, ecological model of health, culturally congruent practice, levels of prevention, ethics, social justice, and health equity.
c. The public health sciences domain of the Quad Council Coalition’s Community/Public Health Nursing Competencies focuses on understanding the foundation and prominent events of public health, applying public sciences to practice, critiquing and developing research, using evidence when developing policies and programs, and establishing academic partnerships.
b. The Quad Council Coalition’s Community/Public Health Nursing Competencies were developed to guide the professional development of community health nurses. Cultural competency skills include understanding and responding to diverse needs, assessing organizational cultural diversity and competence, assessing effects of policies and programs on different populations, and taking action to support a diverse public health workforce.
b. Downstream interventions include responses to health issues without focusing on solving or preventing health problems, such as assisting clients in the management of their diagnoses.
c. Social prescribing involves referring clients and families to community resources, activities, and groups other than those traditionally thought of as being related to the health care setting. Volunteering is an example of social prescribing that can improve a client’s emotional health, social connectedness, and feelings of empowerment.
b. Promoting health via a television news interview about bike safety tips for children represents primary prevention, as viewers will receive health education to prevent accidents and injury.
a. Secondary prevention activities are those aimed at early disease detection, such as educating the public about the signs and symptoms of influenza.

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