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b. Notifiable infectious diseases, such as hepatitis A, require health care providers to report the disease to public health officials. Reporting is mandated by law at state and local levels, whereas reporting to the CDC is voluntary.
c. Upstream interventions target the root causes or sources of health issues instead of focusing on symptom management or consequences of disease. Obtaining funding for a walking trail addresses a deficit in the community that may contribute to sedentary lifestyles.
d. Public health focuses on improving the health of the entire public and supports population health, which focuses on the health of a group of people. The public health nurse recommends and organizes efforts in public policy, governance, and health services to protect and advance the health of the population.
b. Reform movements concerning child labor, working conditions, and overcrowding of cities led to policies and regulations aiming to protect the health of the public. This period in U.S. history, and the efforts of workers to reform practices, are credited with establishing the modern public health system.
c. Illness surveillance and monitoring is one example of public health supporting population health. Public health departments collect data on the health of the population through various channels. They may use formal surveillance systems, such as requesting hospital or county reports, or they may conduct targeted surveys. Data is collected and analyzed to obtain a complete picture on rates of disease, injury, contamination, contagiousness, health impact, and other variables or indicators.
b. The three core functions of public health include assessment, policy development, and assurance. When engaged in the core function of assessment, the public health nurse monitors a community’s health trends, health disparities and injustices, and health problems requiring intervention and resource support.
d. The three core functions of public health include assessment, policy development, and assurance. The assurance function aims to promote justice and equity in health care and actively works to make health attainable for all.
d. Quaternary prevention refers to actions taken to protect individuals from health interventions that may be unnecessary or potentially harmful. Clients should not be subjected to tests that will ultimately not change the treatment plan. Similarly, clients should not undergo treatments or procedures that may do more harm than good.
c. The goal of tertiary prevention strategies is to reduce the negative impact of a health condition and prevent complications.
d. Primary prevention activities focus on preventing adverse health outcomes by targeting populations or groups at high risk of a disease, disorder, or condition. Providing education to adolescents on reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections can address lifestyle factors and promote healthy behaviors.

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