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Review Questions

1.
c. Homelessness refers to individuals or families who lack a regular, fixed, and adequate nighttime residence. This includes those living in shelters or in public or private locations not designed for regular sleeping, such as in cars, parks, abandoned buildings, transportation stations, and campgrounds.
2.
b. Advocating for affordable health care is the only upstream intervention and is a primary method to prevent individuals from becoming homeless by addressing contributing factors.
3.
b. Agent Orange is a tactical herbicide that is associated with cancer.
4.
a. Heteronormativity is a form of implicit bias. Discussing oral contraception with all women of childbearing age regardless of their sexual orientation is a classic example of heteronormativity. Other examples of implicit bias include referring to same-sex partners as “friends” or intentionally excluding same-sex partners from health conversations.
5.
c. Secondary prevention measures include screening activities to identify and treat diseases as early as possible to prevent complications.
6.
d. Many children are required to work alongside their parents to help increase the family’s income. These families often live in poverty and need the extra money to survive.
7.
a. Individuals with disabilities face frequent barriers to care. Aspects of care that create barriers to providing optimal and equitable care are an inaccessible physical environment, a lack of assistive technology for communication, programmatic barriers of lack of time for medical examinations, negative attitudes toward individuals with disabilities, and social and transportation barriers. Allotting 15 minutes per client encounter is a barrier to providing comprehensive care to individuals who require modifications due to mobility, hearing, or vision difficulties.
8.
c. The underlying theme of universal design is ensuring access for everyone. It refers to the design of spaces, communication modalities, environments, and products that are accessible and usable by all individuals including those with disability needs and chronic illness.
9.
b. ACEs are traumatic events occurring in childhood that can have a lifelong negative impact on health. Traumatic events may include experiencing violence or neglect, witnessing violence in the home or community, or having a family member attempt or die by suicide. Additionally, growing up in an environment that undermines a sense of safety, stability, or bonding also contributes to ACEs.
10.
c. Disadvantaged populations are groups of individuals with a higher risk for adverse health outcomes. Individuals experiencing homelessness, veterans, LGBTQIA+ populations, migrant workers, individuals with disabilities, and those who have experienced ACEs are all considered disadvantaged populations that increase their risk for significant health disparities.
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