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b. Cultural dietary practices are complex and multifaceted. Therefore, the nurse should approach cultural dietary practices with respect and cultural sensitivity and ask the client about their unique dietary needs and preferences. The nurse should not make assumptions.
c. Features of holistic medicine include a balance between physical, psychological, and spiritual health and between nature and humanity to produce wholeness.
a. Culture consists of visible and invisible elements. Invisible elements are the intangible parts of a culture, such as communication styles, rules, etiquette, views of time and space, and handling of emotions.
c. Nonverbal communication conveys messages without words. Cultures use different nonverbal cues to convey meaning or express emotion. The nurse should pay attention to the client’s use of nonverbal cues and not force nonverbal communication on the client.
a. The microsystem consists of the immediate environment in which an individual interacts, including family, friends, and other close relationships. Cultural factors at this level may include family traditions and beliefs, cultural values, and customs related to health and wellness.
b. Present-oriented people focus on the moment and respond to immediate needs. They live in the here and now, with future consequences playing a less significant role.
a. Values and beliefs are non-visible aspects of culture that shape a client’s perspective. The nurse should acknowledge this and listen to the client’s concerns.
b. Nurses should be prepared to ask clients questions that encourage them to share their health beliefs and cultural practices. Asking if the client has used any medications, herbs, or home treatments recognizes that there are other remedies, outside of traditional medical treatments, that clients may use when sick.
b. Locus of control refers to an individual’s beliefs about the extent of their control over the environment and what happens to them. An individual with an external locus of control believes that external forces, such as luck or fate, determine outcomes.
b. Collectivist cultures encourage interdependence and promote the interests of the collective over the individual. Interdependence and fitting in to maintain harmony are preferred.

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