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Physics

Short Answer

PhysicsShort Answer
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Short Answer

5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods

56.
Find A B for the following vectors: A = ( 122 cm , 145 ) B = ( 110 cm , 270 )
  1. 108 cm, θ = 119.0
  2. 108 cm, θ = 125.0
  3. 206 cm, θ = 119.0
  4. 206 cm, θ = 125.0
57.
Find A + B for the following vectors: A = ( 122 cm , 145 ) B = ( 110 cm , 270 )
  1. 108 cm, θ = 119.1
  2. 108 cm, θ = 201.8
  3. 232 cm, θ = 119.1
  4. 232 cm, θ = 201.8
58.

Consider six vectors of 2 cm each, joined from head to tail making a hexagon. What would be the magnitude of the addition of these vectors?

  1. Zero
  2. Six
  3. Eight
  4. Twelve
59.

Two people pull on ropes tied to a trolley, each applying 44 N of force. The angle the ropes form with each other is 39.5°. What is the magnitude of the net force exerted on the trolley?

  1. 0.0 N
  2. 79.6 N
  3. 82.8 N
  4. 88.0 N

5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods

60.

True or False—A vector can form the shape of a right angle triangle with its x and y components.

  1. True
  2. False
61.

True or False—All vectors have positive x and y components.

  1. True
  2. False
62.
Consider A B = R . What is R x in terms of A x and B x ?
  1. R x = A x B x
  2. R x = B x A x
  3. R x = A x + B x
  4. R x = A x B x
63.
Consider A B = R . What is R y in terms of A y and B y ?
  1. R y = A y B y
  2. R y = B y A y
  3. R y = A y + B y
  4. R y = A y B y
64.

When a three dimensional vector is used in the study of atmospheric sciences, what is z?

  1. Altitude
  2. Heat
  3. Temperature
  4. Wind speed
65.

Which method is not an application of vector calculus?

  1. To find the rate of change in atmospheric temperature
  2. To study changes in wind speed and direction
  3. To predict changes in atmospheric pressure
  4. To measure changes in average rainfall

5.3 Projectile Motion

66.
How can you express the velocity, v , of a projectile in terms of its initial velocity, v 0 , acceleration, a , and time, t ?
  1. v = a t
  2. v = v 0 + a t
  3. v + v 0 = a t
  4. v 0 + v + a t
67.

In the equation for the maximum height of a projectile, what does v0y v0y stand for? h= v 0y 2 2g h= v 0y 2 2g

  1. Initial velocity in the x direction
  2. Initial velocity in the y direction
  3. Final velocity in the x direction
  4. Final velocity in the y direction
68.

True or False—Range is defined as the maximum vertical distance travelled by a projectile.

  1. True
  2. False
69.
For what angle of a projectile is its range equal to zero?
  1. 0 or 30
  2. 0 or 45
  3. 90 or 0
  4. 90 or 45

5.4 Inclined Planes

70.
What are the units of the coefficient of friction?
  1. N
  2. m/s
  3. m/s 2
  4. unitless
71.
Two surfaces in contact are moving slowly past each other. As the relative speed between the two surfaces in contact increases, what happens to the magnitude of their coefficient of kinetic friction?
  1. It increases with the increase in the relative motion.
  2. It decreases with the increase in the relative motion.
  3. It remains constant and is independent of the relative motion.
72.
When will an object slide down an inclined plane at constant velocity?
  1. When the magnitude of the component of the weight along the slope is equal to the magnitude of the frictional force.
  2. When the magnitude of the component of the weight along the slope is greater than the magnitude of the frictional force.
  3. When the magnitude of the component of the weight perpendicular to the slope is less than the magnitude of the frictional force.
  4. When the magnitude of the component of the weight perpendicular to the slope is equal to the magnitude of the frictional force.
73.
A box is sitting on an inclined plane. At what angle of incline is the perpendicular component of the box's weight at its maximum?
  1. 0
  2. 30
  3. 60
  4. 90

5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion

74.

What is the term used for changes in shape due to the application of force?

  1. Amplitude
  2. Deformation
  3. Displacement
  4. Restoring force
75.

What is the restoring force?

  1. The normal force on the surface of an object
  2. The weight of a mass attached to an object
  3. Force which is applied to deform an object from its original shape
  4. Force which brings an object back to its equilibrium position
76.

For a given oscillator, what are the factors that affect its period and frequency?

  1. Mass only
  2. Force constant only
  3. Applied force and mass
  4. Mass and force constant
77.

For an object in simple harmonic motion, when does the maximum speed occur?

  1. At the extreme positions
  2. At the equilibrium position
  3. At the moment when the applied force is removed
  4. Midway between the extreme and equilibrium positions
78.

What is the equilibrium position of a pendulum?

  1. When the tension in the string is zero
  2. When the pendulum is hanging straight down
  3. When the tension in the string is maximum
  4. When the weight of the mass attached is minimum
79.

If a pendulum is displaced by an angle θ, what is the net restoring force it experiences?

  1. mgsinθ
  2. mgcosθ
  3. mgsinθ
  4. mgcosθ
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