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Organic Chemistry

25.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides

Organic Chemistry25.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides

Table of contents
  1. Dedication and Preface
  2. 1 Structure and Bonding
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 1.1 Atomic Structure: The Nucleus
    3. 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals
    4. 1.3 Atomic Structure: Electron Configurations
    5. 1.4 Development of Chemical Bonding Theory
    6. 1.5 Describing Chemical Bonds: Valence Bond Theory
    7. 1.6 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Methane
    8. 1.7 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethane
    9. 1.8 sp2 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethylene
    10. 1.9 sp Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Acetylene
    11. 1.10 Hybridization of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 1.11 Describing Chemical Bonds: Molecular Orbital Theory
    13. 1.12 Drawing Chemical Structures
    14. Chemistry Matters—Organic Foods: Risk versus Benefit
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  3. 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 2.1 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity
    3. 2.2 Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments
    4. 2.3 Formal Charges
    5. 2.4 Resonance
    6. 2.5 Rules for Resonance Forms
    7. 2.6 Drawing Resonance Forms
    8. 2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted–Lowry Definition
    9. 2.8 Acid and Base Strength
    10. 2.9 Predicting Acid–Base Reactions from pKa Values
    11. 2.10 Organic Acids and Organic Bases
    12. 2.11 Acids and Bases: The Lewis Definition
    13. 2.12 Noncovalent Interactions between Molecules
    14. Chemistry Matters—Alkaloids: From Cocaine to Dental Anesthetics
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  4. 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 3.1 Functional Groups
    3. 3.2 Alkanes and Alkane Isomers
    4. 3.3 Alkyl Groups
    5. 3.4 Naming Alkanes
    6. 3.5 Properties of Alkanes
    7. 3.6 Conformations of Ethane
    8. 3.7 Conformations of Other Alkanes
    9. Chemistry Matters—Gasoline
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  5. 4 Organic Compounds: Cycloalkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 4.1 Naming Cycloalkanes
    3. 4.2 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
    4. 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain
    5. 4.4 Conformations of Cycloalkanes
    6. 4.5 Conformations of Cyclohexane
    7. 4.6 Axial and Equatorial Bonds in Cyclohexane
    8. 4.7 Conformations of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes
    9. 4.8 Conformations of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
    10. 4.9 Conformations of Polycyclic Molecules
    11. Chemistry Matters—Molecular Mechanics
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  6. 5 Stereochemistry at Tetrahedral Centers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 5.1 Enantiomers and the Tetrahedral Carbon
    3. 5.2 The Reason for Handedness in Molecules: Chirality
    4. 5.3 Optical Activity
    5. 5.4 Pasteur’s Discovery of Enantiomers
    6. 5.5 Sequence Rules for Specifying Configuration
    7. 5.6 Diastereomers
    8. 5.7 Meso Compounds
    9. 5.8 Racemic Mixtures and the Resolution of Enantiomers
    10. 5.9 A Review of Isomerism
    11. 5.10 Chirality at Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 5.11 Prochirality
    13. 5.12 Chirality in Nature and Chiral Environments
    14. Chemistry Matters—Chiral Drugs
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  7. 6 An Overview of Organic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 6.1 Kinds of Organic Reactions
    3. 6.2 How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms
    4. 6.3 Polar Reactions
    5. 6.4 An Example of a Polar Reaction: Addition of HBr to Ethylene
    6. 6.5 Using Curved Arrows in Polar Reaction Mechanisms
    7. 6.6 Radical Reactions
    8. 6.7 Describing a Reaction: Equilibria, Rates, and Energy Changes
    9. 6.8 Describing a Reaction: Bond Dissociation Energies
    10. 6.9 Describing a Reaction: Energy Diagrams and Transition States
    11. 6.10 Describing a Reaction: Intermediates
    12. 6.11 A Comparison Between Biological Reactions and Laboratory Reactions
    13. Chemistry Matters—Where Do Drugs Come From?
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  8. 7 Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 7.1 Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkenes
    3. 7.2 Calculating the Degree of Unsaturation
    4. 7.3 Naming Alkenes
    5. 7.4 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Alkenes
    6. 7.5 Alkene Stereochemistry and the E,Z Designation
    7. 7.6 Stability of Alkenes
    8. 7.7 Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes
    9. 7.8 Orientation of Electrophilic Additions: Markovnikov’s Rule
    10. 7.9 Carbocation Structure and Stability
    11. 7.10 The Hammond Postulate
    12. 7.11 Evidence for the Mechanism of Electrophilic Additions: Carbocation Rearrangements
    13. Chemistry Matters—Bioprospecting: Hunting for Natural Products
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  9. 8 Alkenes: Reactions and Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 8.1 Preparing Alkenes: A Preview of Elimination Reactions
    3. 8.2 Halogenation of Alkenes: Addition of X2
    4. 8.3 Halohydrins from Alkenes: Addition of HO-X
    5. 8.4 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Oxymercuration
    6. 8.5 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Hydroboration
    7. 8.6 Reduction of Alkenes: Hydrogenation
    8. 8.7 Oxidation of Alkenes: Epoxidation and Hydroxylation
    9. 8.8 Oxidation of Alkenes: Cleavage to Carbonyl Compounds
    10. 8.9 Addition of Carbenes to Alkenes: Cyclopropane Synthesis
    11. 8.10 Radical Additions to Alkenes: Chain-Growth Polymers
    12. 8.11 Biological Additions of Radicals to Alkenes
    13. 8.12 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to an Achiral Alkene
    14. 8.13 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to a Chiral Alkene
    15. Chemistry Matters—Terpenes: Naturally Occurring Alkenes
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  10. 9 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 9.1 Naming Alkynes
    3. 9.2 Preparation of Alkynes: Elimination Reactions of Dihalides
    4. 9.3 Reactions of Alkynes: Addition of HX and X2
    5. 9.4 Hydration of Alkynes
    6. 9.5 Reduction of Alkynes
    7. 9.6 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes
    8. 9.7 Alkyne Acidity: Formation of Acetylide Anions
    9. 9.8 Alkylation of Acetylide Anions
    10. 9.9 An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    11. Chemistry Matters—The Art of Organic Synthesis
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  11. 10 Organohalides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 10.1 Names and Structures of Alkyl Halides
    3. 10.2 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkanes: Radical Halogenation
    4. 10.3 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkenes: Allylic Bromination
    5. 10.4 Stability of the Allyl Radical: Resonance Revisited
    6. 10.5 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alcohols
    7. 10.6 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Grignard Reagents
    8. 10.7 Organometallic Coupling Reactions
    9. 10.8 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
    10. Chemistry Matters—Naturally Occurring Organohalides
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  12. 11 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 11.1 The Discovery of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
    3. 11.2 The SN2 Reaction
    4. 11.3 Characteristics of the SN2 Reaction
    5. 11.4 The SN1 Reaction
    6. 11.5 Characteristics of the SN1 Reaction
    7. 11.6 Biological Substitution Reactions
    8. 11.7 Elimination Reactions: Zaitsev’s Rule
    9. 11.8 The E2 Reaction and the Deuterium Isotope Effect
    10. 11.9 The E2 Reaction and Cyclohexane Conformation
    11. 11.10 The E1 and E1cB Reactions
    12. 11.11 Biological Elimination Reactions
    13. 11.12 A Summary of Reactivity: SN1, SN2, E1, E1cB, and E2
    14. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Summary of Reactions
    18. Additional Problems
  13. 12 Structure Determination: Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 12.1 Mass Spectrometry of Small Molecules: Magnetic-Sector Instruments
    3. 12.2 Interpreting Mass Spectra
    4. 12.3 Mass Spectrometry of Some Common Functional Groups
    5. 12.4 Mass Spectrometry in Biological Chemistry: Time-of-Flight (TOF) Instruments
    6. 12.5 Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    7. 12.6 Infrared Spectroscopy
    8. 12.7 Interpreting Infrared Spectra
    9. 12.8 Infrared Spectra of Some Common Functional Groups
    10. Chemistry Matters—X-Ray Crystallography
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  14. 13 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 13.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    3. 13.2 The Nature of NMR Absorptions
    4. 13.3 Chemical Shifts
    5. 13.4 Chemical Shifts in 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    6. 13.5 Integration of 1H NMR Absorptions: Proton Counting
    7. 13.6 Spin–Spin Splitting in 1H NMR Spectra
    8. 13.7 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Proton Equivalence
    9. 13.8 More Complex Spin–Spin Splitting Patterns
    10. 13.9 Uses of 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    11. 13.10 13C NMR Spectroscopy: Signal Averaging and FT–NMR
    12. 13.11 Characteristics of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    13. 13.12 DEPT 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    14. 13.13 Uses of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    15. Chemistry Matters—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Additional Problems
  15. 14 Conjugated Compounds and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 14.1 Stability of Conjugated Dienes: Molecular Orbital Theory
    3. 14.2 Electrophilic Additions to Conjugated Dienes: Allylic Carbocations
    4. 14.3 Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control of Reactions
    5. 14.4 The Diels–Alder Cycloaddition Reaction
    6. 14.5 Characteristics of the Diels–Alder Reaction
    7. 14.6 Diene Polymers: Natural and Synthetic Rubbers
    8. 14.7 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    9. 14.8 Interpreting Ultraviolet Spectra: The Effect of Conjugation
    10. 14.9 Conjugation, Color, and the Chemistry of Vision
    11. Chemistry Matters—Photolithography
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  16. 15 Benzene and Aromaticity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 15.1 Naming Aromatic Compounds
    3. 15.2 Structure and Stability of Benzene
    4. 15.3 Aromaticity and the Hückel 4n + 2 Rule
    5. 15.4 Aromatic Ions
    6. 15.5 Aromatic Heterocycles: Pyridine and Pyrrole
    7. 15.6 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
    8. 15.7 Spectroscopy of Aromatic Compounds
    9. Chemistry Matters—Aspirin, NSAIDs, and COX-2 Inhibitors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  17. 16 Chemistry of Benzene: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 16.1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Bromination
    3. 16.2 Other Aromatic Substitutions
    4. 16.3 Alkylation and Acylation of Aromatic Rings: The Friedel–Crafts Reaction
    5. 16.4 Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions
    6. 16.5 Trisubstituted Benzenes: Additivity of Effects
    7. 16.6 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
    8. 16.7 Benzyne
    9. 16.8 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds
    10. 16.9 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds
    11. 16.10 Synthesis of Polysubstituted Benzenes
    12. Chemistry Matters—Combinatorial Chemistry
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  18. 17 Alcohols and Phenols
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 17.1 Naming Alcohols and Phenols
    3. 17.2 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols
    4. 17.3 Preparation of Alcohols: A Review
    5. 17.4 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Reduction
    6. 17.5 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Grignard Reaction
    7. 17.6 Reactions of Alcohols
    8. 17.7 Oxidation of Alcohols
    9. 17.8 Protection of Alcohols
    10. 17.9 Phenols and Their Uses
    11. 17.10 Reactions of Phenols
    12. 17.11 Spectroscopy of Alcohols and Phenols
    13. Chemistry Matters—Ethanol: Chemical, Drug, and Poison
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  19. 18 Ethers and Epoxides; Thiols and Sulfides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 18.1 Names and Properties of Ethers
    3. 18.2 Preparing Ethers
    4. 18.3 Reactions of Ethers: Acidic Cleavage
    5. 18.4 Cyclic Ethers: Epoxides
    6. 18.5 Reactions of Epoxides: Ring-Opening
    7. 18.6 Crown Ethers
    8. 18.7 Thiols and Sulfides
    9. 18.8 Spectroscopy of Ethers
    10. Chemistry Matters—Epoxy Resins and Adhesives
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
    15. Preview of Carbonyl Chemistry
  20. 19 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 19.1 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
    3. 19.2 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones
    4. 19.3 Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 19.4 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
    6. 19.5 Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration
    7. 19.6 Nucleophilic Addition of HCN: Cyanohydrin Formation
    8. 19.7 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydride and Grignard Reagents: Alcohol Formation
    9. 19.8 Nucleophilic Addition of Amines: Imine and Enamine Formation
    10. 19.9 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrazine: The Wolff–Kishner Reaction
    11. 19.10 Nucleophilic Addition of Alcohols: Acetal Formation
    12. 19.11 Nucleophilic Addition of Phosphorus Ylides: The Wittig Reaction
    13. 19.12 Biological Reductions
    14. 19.13 Conjugate Nucleophilic Addition to α,β‑Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones
    15. 19.14 Spectroscopy of Aldehydes and Ketones
    16. Chemistry Matters—Enantioselective Synthesis
    17. Key Terms
    18. Summary
    19. Summary of Reactions
    20. Additional Problems
  21. 20 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 20.1 Naming Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    3. 20.2 Structure and Properties of Carboxylic Acids
    4. 20.3 Biological Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    5. 20.4 Substituent Effects on Acidity
    6. 20.5 Preparing Carboxylic Acids
    7. 20.6 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: An Overview
    8. 20.7 Chemistry of Nitriles
    9. 20.8 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    10. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin C
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  22. 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 21.1 Naming Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    3. 21.2 Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    4. 21.3 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
    5. 21.4 Chemistry of Acid Halides
    6. 21.5 Chemistry of Acid Anhydrides
    7. 21.6 Chemistry of Esters
    8. 21.7 Chemistry of Amides
    9. 21.8 Chemistry of Thioesters and Acyl Phosphates: Biological Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    10. 21.9 Polyamides and Polyesters: Step-Growth Polymers
    11. 21.10 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    12. Chemistry Matters—β-Lactam Antibiotics
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  23. 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 22.1 Keto–Enol Tautomerism
    3. 22.2 Reactivity of Enols: α-Substitution Reactions
    4. 22.3 Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 22.4 Alpha Bromination of Carboxylic Acids
    6. 22.5 Acidity of Alpha Hydrogen Atoms: Enolate Ion Formation
    7. 22.6 Reactivity of Enolate Ions
    8. 22.7 Alkylation of Enolate Ions
    9. Chemistry Matters—Barbiturates
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Summary of Reactions
    13. Additional Problems
  24. 23 Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 23.1 Carbonyl Condensations: The Aldol Reaction
    3. 23.2 Carbonyl Condensations versus Alpha Substitutions
    4. 23.3 Dehydration of Aldol Products: Synthesis of Enones
    5. 23.4 Using Aldol Reactions in Synthesis
    6. 23.5 Mixed Aldol Reactions
    7. 23.6 Intramolecular Aldol Reactions
    8. 23.7 The Claisen Condensation Reaction
    9. 23.8 Mixed Claisen Condensations
    10. 23.9 Intramolecular Claisen Condensations: The Dieckmann Cyclization
    11. 23.10 Conjugate Carbonyl Additions: The Michael Reaction
    12. 23.11 Carbonyl Condensations with Enamines: The Stork Enamine Reaction
    13. 23.12 The Robinson Annulation Reaction
    14. 23.13 Some Biological Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    15. Chemistry Matters—A Prologue to Metabolism
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  25. 24 Amines and Heterocycles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 24.1 Naming Amines
    3. 24.2 Structure and Properties of Amines
    4. 24.3 Basicity of Amines
    5. 24.4 Basicity of Arylamines
    6. 24.5 Biological Amines and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    7. 24.6 Synthesis of Amines
    8. 24.7 Reactions of Amines
    9. 24.8 Reactions of Arylamines
    10. 24.9 Heterocyclic Amines
    11. 24.10 Spectroscopy of Amines
    12. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry II: Ionic Liquids
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  26. 25 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 25.1 Classification of Carbohydrates
    3. 25.2 Representing Carbohydrate Stereochemistry: Fischer Projections
    4. 25.3 D,L Sugars
    5. 25.4 Configurations of the Aldoses
    6. 25.5 Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides: Anomers
    7. 25.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides
    8. 25.7 The Eight Essential Monosaccharides
    9. 25.8 Disaccharides
    10. 25.9 Polysaccharides and Their Synthesis
    11. 25.10 Some Other Important Carbohydrates
    12. Chemistry Matters—Sweetness
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  27. 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 26.1 Structures of Amino Acids
    3. 26.2 Amino Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation: Isoelectric Points
    4. 26.3 Synthesis of Amino Acids
    5. 26.4 Peptides and Proteins
    6. 26.5 Amino Acid Analysis of Peptides
    7. 26.6 Peptide Sequencing: The Edman Degradation
    8. 26.7 Peptide Synthesis
    9. 26.8 Automated Peptide Synthesis: The Merrifield Solid-Phase Method
    10. 26.9 Protein Structure
    11. 26.10 Enzymes and Coenzymes
    12. 26.11 How Do Enzymes Work? Citrate Synthase
    13. Chemistry Matters—The Protein Data Bank
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  28. 27 Biomolecules: Lipids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 27.1 Waxes, Fats, and Oils
    3. 27.2 Soap
    4. 27.3 Phospholipids
    5. 27.4 Prostaglandins and Other Eicosanoids
    6. 27.5 Terpenoids
    7. 27.6 Steroids
    8. 27.7 Biosynthesis of Steroids
    9. Chemistry Matters—Saturated Fats, Cholesterol, and Heart Disease
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  29. 28 Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 28.1 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
    3. 28.2 Base Pairing in DNA
    4. 28.3 Replication of DNA
    5. 28.4 Transcription of DNA
    6. 28.5 Translation of RNA: Protein Biosynthesis
    7. 28.6 DNA Sequencing
    8. 28.7 DNA Synthesis
    9. 28.8 The Polymerase Chain Reaction
    10. Chemistry Matters—DNA Fingerprinting
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  30. 29 The Organic Chemistry of Metabolic Pathways
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 29.1 An Overview of Metabolism and Biochemical Energy
    3. 29.2 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: The Fate of Glycerol
    4. 29.3 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: β-Oxidation
    5. 29.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
    6. 29.5 Catabolism of Carbohydrates: Glycolysis
    7. 29.6 Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
    8. 29.7 The Citric Acid Cycle
    9. 29.8 Carbohydrate Biosynthesis: Gluconeogenesis
    10. 29.9 Catabolism of Proteins: Deamination
    11. 29.10 Some Conclusions about Biological Chemistry
    12. Chemistry Matters—Statin Drugs
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Additional Problems
  31. 30 Orbitals and Organic Chemistry: Pericyclic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 30.1 Molecular Orbitals of Conjugated Pi Systems
    3. 30.2 Electrocyclic Reactions
    4. 30.3 Stereochemistry of Thermal Electrocyclic Reactions
    5. 30.4 Photochemical Electrocyclic Reactions
    6. 30.5 Cycloaddition Reactions
    7. 30.6 Stereochemistry of Cycloadditions
    8. 30.7 Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    9. 30.8 Some Examples of Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    10. 30.9 A Summary of Rules for Pericyclic Reactions
    11. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin D, the Sunshine Vitamin
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  32. 31 Synthetic Polymers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 31.1 Chain-Growth Polymers
    3. 31.2 Stereochemistry of Polymerization: Ziegler–Natta Catalysts
    4. 31.3 Copolymers
    5. 31.4 Step-Growth Polymers
    6. 31.5 Olefin Metathesis Polymerization
    7. 31.6 Intramolecular Olefin Metathesis
    8. 31.7 Polymer Structure and Physical Properties
    9. Chemistry Matters—Degradable Polymers
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  33. A | Nomenclature of Polyfunctional Organic Compounds
  34. B | Acidity Constants for Some Organic Compounds
  35. C | Glossary
  36. D | Periodic Table
  37. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
  38. Index

25.6 • Reactions of Monosaccharides

Because monosaccharides have only two kinds of functional groups, hydroxyls and carbonyls, most of the chemistry of monosaccharides is the familiar chemistry of these two groups. As we’ve seen, alcohols can be converted into esters and ethers and can be oxidized; carbonyl compounds can react with nucleophiles and can be reduced.

Ester and Ether Formation

Monosaccharides behave as simple alcohols in much of their chemistry. For example, carbohydrate –OH groups can be converted into esters and ethers, which are often easier to work with than the free sugars. Because of their many hydroxyl groups, monosaccharides are usually soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents such as ether. They are also difficult to purify and have a tendency to form syrups rather than crystals when water is removed. Ester and ether derivatives, however, are soluble in organic solvents and are easily purified and crystallized.

Esterification is normally carried out by treating a carbohydrate with an acid chloride or acid anhydride in the presence of a base (Section 21.4 and Section 21.5). All the –OH groups react, including the anomeric one. For example, β-D-glucopyranose is converted into its pentaacetate by treatment with acetic anhydride in pyridine solution.

Beta-D-Glucopyranose reacts with acetic anhydride in pyridine at zero degree Celsius to form penta-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (91 percent yield).

Carbohydrates are converted into ethers by treatment with an alkyl halide in the presence of base—the Williamson ether synthesis (Section 18.2). Standard Williamson conditions using a strong base tend to degrade sensitive sugar molecules, but silver oxide works well as a mild base and gives high yields of ethers. For example, α-D-glucopyranose is converted into its pentamethyl ether in 85% yield on reaction with iodomethane and Ag2O.

Alpha-D-Glucopyranose reacts with iodomethane in the presence of silver oxide to form alpha-D-glucopyranose pentamethyl ether (85 percent yield).
Problem 25-16

Draw the products you would obtain by reaction of β-D-ribofuranose with: (a) CH3I, Ag2O (b) (CH3CO)2O, pyridine

The structure of beta-D-ribofuranose with three axial  O H groups at C 1, C 2, and C 3.  The molecular formula is C 5 H 10 O 5.

Glycoside Formation

We saw in Section 19.10 that treatment of a hemiacetal with an alcohol and an acid catalyst yields an acetal.

The reversible reaction of a hemiacetal with alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst yields an acetal in which anomeric O H has been replaced by O R group.

In the same way, treatment of a monosaccharide hemiacetal with an alcohol and an acid catalyst yields an acetal called a glycoside, in which the anomeric –OH has been replaced by an –OR group. For example, reaction of β-D-glucopyranose with methanol gives a mixture of α and β methyl D-glucopyranosides. (Note that a glycoside is the functional group name for any sugar, whereas a glucoside is formed specifically from glucose.)

The reversible reaction of beta-D-glucopyranose with methanol in the presence of an acid gives a mixture of alpha and beta methyl D-glucopyranosides in sixty-six and thirty-three percent yield, respectively.

Glycosides are named by first citing the alkyl group and then replacing the -ose ending of the sugar with -oside. Like all acetals, glycosides are stable in neutral water. They aren’t in equilibrium with an open-chain form, and they don’t show mutarotation. They can, however, be hydrolyzed to give back the free monosaccharide plus alcohol on treatment with aqueous acid (Section 19.10).

Glycosides are abundant in nature, and many biologically important molecules contain glycosidic linkages. For example, digitoxin, the active component of the digitalis preparations used for treatment of heart disease, is a glycoside consisting of a steroid alcohol linked to a trisaccharide. Note also that the three sugars are linked to one another by glycoside bonds.

The structure of digitoxin, a glycoside. The trisaccharide and steroid in the structure are labeled.

The laboratory synthesis of glycosides can be difficult because of the numerous –OH groups on the sugar molecule. One method that is particularly suitable for preparing glucose β-glycosides involves treatment of glucose pentaacetate with HBr, followed by addition of the appropriate alcohol in the presence of silver oxide. Called the Koenigs–Knorr reaction, the sequence involves formation of a pyranosyl bromide, followed by nucleophilic substitution. For example, methylarbutin, a glycoside found in pears, has been prepared by reaction of tetraacetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl bromide with p-methoxyphenol.

Treatment of pentaacetyl-beta-D-glucopyranose with hydrogen bromide converts anomeric O H to bromine and forms tetraacetyl-alpha-D-pyranosyl bromide. It undergoes further reaction and forms methylarbutin.

Although the Koenigs–Knorr reaction appears to involve a simple backside SN2 displacement of bromide ion by alkoxide ion, the situation is actually more complex. Both α and β anomers of tetraacetyl-D-glucopyranosyl bromide give the same β-glycoside product, implying that they react by a common pathway.

This result can be understood by assuming that tetraacetyl-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (either α or β anomer) undergoes a spontaneous SN1-like loss of Br, followed by internal reaction with the ester group at C2 to form an oxonium ion. Since the acetate at C2 is on the bottom of the glucose ring, the C–O bond also forms from the bottom. Backside SN2 displacement of the oxonium ion then occurs with the usual inversion of configuration, yielding a β-glycoside and regenerating the acetate at C2 (Figure 25.7).

Tetraacetyl-D-glucopyranosyl bromide undergoes the elimination of bromide and the anomeric cation is stabilized by neighboring C 2 acetyl. Alcohol displacement of the oxonium ion gives a beta-glycoside.
Figure 25.7 Mechanism of the Koenigs–Knorr reaction, showing the neighboring-group effect of a nearby acetate.

The participation shown by the nearby acetate group in the Koenigs–Knorr reaction is referred to as a neighboring-group effect and is a common occurrence in organic chemistry. Neighboring-group effects are usually noticeable only because they affect the rate or stereochemistry of a reaction; the nearby group itself does not undergo any evident change during the reaction.

Biological Ester Formation: Phosphorylation

In living organisms, carbohydrates occur not only in the free form but also linked through their anomeric center to other molecules such as lipids (glycolipids) or proteins (glycoproteins). Collectively called glycoconjugates, these sugar-linked molecules are components of cell walls that are crucial to the mechanism by which different cell types recognize one another.

Glycoconjugate formation occurs by reaction of the lipid or protein with a glycosyl nucleoside diphosphate. This diphosphate is itself formed by initial reaction of a monosaccharide with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to give a glycosyl monophosphate, followed by reaction with uridine triphosphate (UTP), to give a glycosyl uridine diphosphate. (We’ll see the structures of nucleoside phosphates in Section 28.1.) The purpose of the phosphorylation is to activate the anomeric –OH group of the sugar and make it a better leaving group in a nucleophilic substitution reaction by a protein or lipid (Figure 25.8).

The conversion of D-glucose to a glycoprotein through three different steps is depicted. All the structures are in the pyranose form (Haworth projection).
Figure 25.8 Glycoprotein formation occurs by initial phosphorylation of the starting carbohydrate with ATP to a glycosyl monophosphate, followed by reaction with UTP to form a glycosyl uridine 5′-diphosphate. Nucleophilic substitution by an –OH (or –NH2) group on a protein then gives the glycoprotein.

Reduction of Monosaccharides

Treatment of an aldose or ketose with NaBH4 reduces it to a polyalcohol called an alditol. The reduction occurs by reaction of the open-chain form present in the aldehyde/ketone hemiacetal equilibrium. Although only a small amount of the open-chain form is present at any given time, that small amount is reduced, more is produced by opening of the pyranose form, that additional amount is reduced, and so on, until the entire sample has undergone reaction.

The chair structure of beta-D-glucopyranose is converted to open chain, shown as a Fischer projection. This undergoes reduction with sodium borohydride and water to form D-glucitol which is an alditol.

D-Glucitol, the alditol produced by reduction of D-glucose, is itself a naturally occurring substance found in many fruits and berries. It is used under the name D-sorbitol as a sweetener and sugar substitute in many foods.

Problem 25-17
Reduction of D-glucose leads to an optically active alditol (D-glucitol), whereas reduction of D-galactose leads to an optically inactive alditol. Explain.
Problem 25-18
Reduction of L-gulose with NaBH4 leads to the same alditol (D-glucitol) as reduction of D-glucose. Explain.

Oxidation of Monosaccharides

Like other aldehydes, aldoses are easily oxidized to yield the corresponding carboxylic acids, called aldonic acids. A buffered solution of aqueous Br2 is often used for this purpose.

The Haworth projection of D-glucose is converted to its Fischer projection. It reacts with bromine, water at pH 6 to form D-gluconic acid.

Historically, the oxidation of an aldose with either Ag+ in aqueous ammonia (called Tollens’ reagent) or Cu2+ with aqueous sodium citrate (Benedict’s reagent) formed the basis of simple tests for what are called reducing sugars. (Reducing because the aldose reduces the metal oxidizing agent.) Some simple diabetes self-test kits sold in drugstores still use Benedict’s reagent to detect glucose in urine, though more modern methods have largely replaced it.

All aldoses are reducing sugars because they contain an aldehyde group, but some ketoses are reducing sugars as well. Fructose reduces Tollens’ reagent, for example, even though it contains no aldehyde group. Reduction occurs because fructose is readily isomerized to a mixture of aldoses (glucose and mannose) in basic solution by a series of keto–enol tautomeric shifts (Figure 25.9). Glycosides, however, are nonreducing because the acetal group is not hydrolyzed to an aldehyde under basic conditions.

The Fischer projection of converting D-fructose to a mixture of D-glucose and D-mannose using aqueous sodium hydroxide. An enediol intermediate is formed shown in parenthesis.
Figure 25.9 Fructose, a ketose, is a reducing sugar because it undergoes two base-catalyzed keto–enol tautomerizations that result in conversion to a mixture of aldoses.

If warm, dilute HNO3 (nitric acid) is used as the oxidizing agent, an aldose is oxidized to a dicarboxylic acid called an aldaric acid. Both the aldehyde carbonyl and the terminal –CH2OH group are oxidized in this reaction.

The Haworth projection of D-glucose is converted to its Fischer projection. It reacts with H N O 3 and water to form D-glucaric acid.

Finally, if only the –CH2OH end of the aldose is oxidized without affecting the –CHO group, the product is a monocarboxylic acid called a uronic acid. The reaction can only be done enzymatically; no chemical reagent is known that can accomplish this selective oxidation in the laboratory.

The Haworth projection of D-glucose is oxidized through an enzymatic reaction to yield D-glucuronic acid, a uronic acid
Problem 25-19
D-Glucose yields an optically active aldaric acid on treatment with HNO3, but D-allose yields an optically inactive aldaric acid. Explain.
Problem 25-20
Which of the other six D aldohexoses yield optically active aldaric acids on oxidation, and which yield optically inactive (meso) aldaric acids? (See Problem 25-19.)

Chain Lengthening: The Kiliani–Fischer Synthesis

Much early activity in carbohydrate chemistry was devoted to unraveling the stereochemical relationships among monosaccharides. One of the most important methods used was the Kiliani–Fischer synthesis, which results in the lengthening of an aldose chain by one carbon atom. The C1 aldehyde group of the starting sugar becomes C2 of the chain-lengthened sugar, and a new C1 carbon is added. For example, an aldopentose is converted by Kiliani–Fischer synthesis into two aldohexoses.

Discovery of the chain-lengthening sequence was initiated by the observation of Heinrich Kiliani in 1886 that aldoses react with HCN to form cyanohydrins (Section 19.6). Emil Fischer immediately realized the importance of Kiliani’s discovery and devised a method for converting the cyanohydrin nitrile group into an aldehyde.

Fischer’s original method for conversion of the nitrile into an aldehyde involved hydrolysis to a carboxylic acid, ring closure to a cyclic ester (lactone), and subsequent reduction. A modern improvement involves reducing the nitrile over a palladium catalyst, yielding an imine intermediate that is hydrolyzed to an aldehyde. Note that the cyanohydrin is formed as a mixture of stereoisomers at the new chirality center, so two new aldoses, differing only in their stereochemistry at C2, result from Kiliani–Fischer synthesis. Chain extension of D-arabinose, for example, yields a mixture of D-glucose and D-mannose.

Aldoses form cyanohydrins with hydrogen cyanide. Cyanohydrins are reduced with hydrogen and palladium catalyst to yield an imine intermediate that is hydrolyzed to form two chain lengthened aldoses.
Problem 25-21
What product(s) would you expect from Kiliani–Fischer reaction of D-ribose?
Problem 25-22
What aldopentose would give a mixture of L-gulose and L-idose on Kiliani–Fischer chain extension?

Chain Shortening: The Wohl Degradation

Just as the Kiliani–Fischer synthesis lengthens an aldose chain by one carbon, the Wohl degradation shortens an aldose chain by one carbon. Wohl degradation is almost the exact opposite of the Kiliani–Fischer sequence. That is, the aldose aldehyde carbonyl group is first converted into a nitrile, and the resulting cyanohydrin loses HCN under basic conditions—the reverse of a nucleophilic addition reaction.

Conversion of the aldehyde into a nitrile is accomplished by treatment of an aldose with hydroxylamine to give an imine called an oxime (Section 19.8), followed by dehydration of the oxime with acetic anhydride. The Wohl degradation does not give particularly high yields of chain-shortened aldoses, but the reaction is general for all aldopentoses and aldohexoses. For example, D-galactose is converted by Wohl degradation into D-lyxose.

Wohl degradation reaction. D-galactose reacts with hydroxylamine to form D-galactose oxime which reacts with acetic anhydride to give cyanohydrin. Cyanohydrin reacts with sodium methoxide to form D-lyxose (37 percent yield).
Problem 25-23
Two of the four D aldopentoses yield D-threose on Wohl degradation. What are their structures?

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