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Organic Chemistry

Summary of Reactions

Organic ChemistrySummary of Reactions

23 • Summary of Reactions

23 • Summary of Reactions

  1. Aldol reaction (Section 23.1)
    The reversible reaction shows two aldehydes with sodium hydroxide/ethanol, forming beta-hydroxy aldehyde. The product is R C H 2 C H O H C H R C H O.
  2. Mixed aldol reaction (Section 23.5)
    A ketone reacts with phenylaldehyde and sodium hydroxide, ethanol to form a compound with hydroxyl and keto. A ketone reacts with formaldehyde to form a compound with alcohol.
  3. Intramolecular aldol reaction (Section 23.6)
    The reaction shows the intramolecular aldol formation of a diketocarbonyl compound with sodium ethoxide in ethanol, forming a cyclic carbonyl compound and water as the products.
  4. Dehydration of aldol products (Section 23.3)
    The reaction shows the dehydration of a beta-hydroxy carbonyl compound, in the presence of sodium hydroxide or hydronium ions, forming an alpha-beta-unsaturated carbonyl compound and water.
  5. Claisen condensation reaction (Section 23.7)
    Claisen condensation of two molecules of an ester in the presence of sodium ethoxide in ethanol forms a beta keto ester product, releasing alcohol as a byproduct.
  6. Mixed Claisen condensation reaction (Section 23.8)
    A mixed Claisen condensation between two different esters produces a beta-ketoester product and ethyl alcohol as a byproduct. This reaction forms new carbon-carbon bonds and releases alcohol.
  7. Intramolecular Claisen condensation (Dieckmann cyclization; Section 23.9)
    The first reaction shows the intramolecular condensation of a diester (six-carbon) forming a cyclic five-membered dicarbonyl. The second reaction shows the formation of cyclic six-membered dicarbonyl (seven-carbon) using sodium ethoxide/ethanol.
  8. Michael reaction (Section 23.10)
    The reaction of dicarbonyl and alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compound with sodium ethoxide and ethanol, forms a new carbon-carbon bond between the two reactants.
  9. Carbonyl condensations with enamines (Stork enamine reaction; Section 23.11)
    An enamine reacts with alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compound in T H F solvent followed by acid hydrolysis, yielding a dicarbonyl product, forming a new carbon-carbon bond.
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