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Chapter 1 Introduction to Nutrition for Nurses

Agusala, B. (2022, January 26). 9 diet fads to try (or skip completely) in 2022. UT Southwestern Medical Center. https://utswmed.org/medblog/diets-best-and-worst/

American Heart Association. (2023). The American Heart Association diet and lifestyle recommendations. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/aha-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations

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Bendowska, A. & Baum, E. (2023). The significance of cooperation in interdisciplinary health care teams as perceived by Polish medical students. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 20(2), DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fijerph20020954

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (2022, September 30). What dieticians and nutritionists do. Occupational outlook handbook. https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/dietitians-and-nutritionists.htm#tab-2

Callahan, A., Leonard, H., & Powell, T. (2021). Nutrition: Science and everyday application. Creative Commons. https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/nutritionscience/

Calorie Calculator, (2023). https://www.calculator.net/calorie-calculator.html

Center for Integrative Nutrition (n.d.). Integrative nutrition. https://cih.ucsd.edu/medicine/integrative-nutrition-overview

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). About nutrition. https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/about-nutrition/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Defining Adult Overweight & Obesity. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/basics/adult-defining.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Populations and vulnerabilities. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/tracking/topics/PopulationsVulnerabilities.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Healthy People. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/healthy_people/index.htm Chien L. Y. (2019). Evidence-based practice and nursing research. The Journal of Nursing Research: JNR27(4), e29. https://doi.org/10.1097/jnr.0000000000000346

Clem & Thyme Nutrition. (2023). The best nutritionists to follow on social media in 2022. Clem & Thyme Nutrition Wellness. https://clemandthyme.com/2022/03/25/the-best-nutritionists-to-follow-on-social-media-in-2022/

County Health Rankings & Roadmaps (n.d.). https://www.countyhealthrankings.org/

Davis, C. & Saltos, E. (n.d.). Dietary recommendations and how they have changed over time. In USDA/ERS (pp. 33-50). https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/42215/5831_aib750b_1_.pdf

Devine, A., & Lawlis, T. (2019). Nutrition and vulnerable groups. Nutrients, 11(5), 1066. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051066

Diet, culture, timeline.(2023). https://dietculturetimeline.com/2000s/

Digitalis. (N.D.) Pros and cons of social media in healthcare. The Digitalis Blog: Cutting Edge Healthcare Marketing. ed from https://digitalismedical.com/blog/pros-and-cons-of-social-media-in-healthcare/

English, Emily. (n.d.). The dangers of social media. Emily English Nutrition. https://www.emilyenglish.com/blog/socialmediaandnutrition

Feeding America (2023). Hunger and food insecurity. https://www.feedingamerica.org/hunger-in-america/food-insecurity

Gattu, R., Paik, G., Wang, Y., Ray, P., Lichenstein, R., & Black., M. (2019). The Hunger Vital Sign identifies household food insecurity among children in emergency departments and primary care. Children (Basel, Switzerland)6(10), 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/children6100107

Gbareen, M., Barnoy, S. & Theilla, M. (2021). Subjective and objective nutritional assessment: nurses’ role and the effect of cultural differences. BMC Nurs 20 (157). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00683-3

Global Wellness Institute (n.d.). What is wellness? https://globalwellnessinstitute.org/what-is-wellness/

Hendler, C. (2022, August 5). 10 tactics to improve patient teaching. https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/expert-insights/ten-tactics-to-improve-patient-teaching

HHS https://health.gov/sites/default/files/2019-09/Health_Literacy_Action_Plan.pdf

Ignatavicius, D., & Silvestri, L. (2023). Getting ready for the next-generation NCLEX (NGN): How to shift from the nursing process to clinical judgment in nursing. https://evolve.elsevier.com/education/expertise/next-generation-nclex/ngn-transitioning-from-the-nursing-process-to-clinical-judgment/#article-anchor-bottom

Jahns, L., Davis-Shaw, W., Lichtenstein, A. H., Murphy, S. P., Conrad, Z., & Nielsen, F. (2018). The history and future of dietary guidance in America. Adv Nutr. 9(2):136-147. https://doi: 10.1093/advances/nmx025. PMID: 29659693; PMCID: PMC5916427.

Johns Hopkins Sheridan Libraries (2023, February 26). Evaluating information. Johns Hopkins University. https://guides.library.jhu.edu/evaluate/social-media

Jorgensen, M. (2022, October 12). What is evidence-based nutrition? Trifecta Nutrition. Retrieved 1/4/2023 from https://www.trifectanutrition.com/blog/what-is-evidence-based-nutrition

Kabata, P., Winniczuk-Kabata, D., Kabata, P. M., Jaśkiewicz, J., & Połom, K. (2022). Can social media profiles be a reliable source of information on nutrition and dietetics? Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2), 397. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020397

Kahm Clinic. (2022, January 25). The connection between social media, eating disorders, and diet culture. https://www.thekahmclinic.com/blog/the-connection-between-social-media-eating-disorders-and-diet-culture.

King, H. (2019, October 8). Hippocrates now: Quoting the father of medicine. https://blogs.bmj.com/medical-humanities/2019/10/08/hippocrates-now-quoting-the-father-of-medicine/

Lam, C. & Patel, P. (2022). Food, drug, and cosmetic act. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishinghttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK585046/

Mattes, R., Rowe, S., Ohlhorst, S., Brown, A., Hoffman, D., Liska, D., Feskens, E., Dhillon, J., Tucker, K., Epstein, L., Neufeld, L., Kelley, M., Fukagawa, N., Sunde, R., Zeisel, S., Basile, A., Borth, L., & Jackson, E. (2022). Valuing the Diversity of Research Methods to Advance Nutrition Science. Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)13(4), 1324–1393. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmac043

Mozaffarian D, Rosenberg I, Uauy R. (2018). History of modern nutrition science-implications for current research, dietary guidelines, and food policy. BMJ.;361:k2392. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2392.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (2019). NGN Talks: Clinical Judgment Measurement Model. https://www.ncsbn.org/video/ngn-talks-clinical-judgment-measurement-model

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (2023). Clinical judgment measurement model. Next generation NCLEX. https://www.nclex.com/clinical-judgment-measurement-model

National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (n.d.). Food Accessibility, Insecurity, and Health Outcomes. https://www.nimhd.nih.gov/resources/understanding-health-disparities/food-accessibility-insecurity-and-health-outcomes.html

North Dakota State University. (2019). Finding the truth 1: Reliable nutrition and health information. https://www.ndsu.edu/agriculture/extension/publications/finding-truth-i-reliable-nutrition-and-health-information Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. Public Law No: 101-535, (1990). https://www.congress.gov/bill/101st-congress/house-bill/3562

OSU Extension Service. (2023). About food hero. https://www.foodhero.org/about-food-hero.

Stillerman, K. (2019, June 6). “Big Food” Companies spend big money in hopes of shaping the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The Equation. https://blog.ucsusa.org/karen-perry-stillerman/big-food-companies-spend-big-money-in-hopes-of-shaping-the-dietary-guidelines-for-americans/

Thornton, L. (2019). A Brief History and Overview of Holistic Nursing. Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.)18(4), 32–33.

Toney-Butler, T., & Thayer, J. (2023). Nursing process. In StatPearls [Internet] StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499937/

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Learn how to eat healthy with MyPlate. https://www.myplate.gov/

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2021). MyPlate/MiPlato. https://www.fns.usda.gov/resource/myplate-miplato

U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services (n.d.). History of the Dietary Guidelines. https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/about-dietary-guidelines/history-dietary-guidelines

U.S. Department of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. (2020). Dietary guidelines for Americans. https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/

U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (n.d.) The role of the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. https://www.fns.usda.gov/

U.S. Department of Agriculture Science. (n.d.). Nutrition.gov. https://www.nutrition.gov.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy. Washington, DC: Author. https://health.gov/our-work/national-health-initiatives/health-literacy/national-action-plan-improve-health-literacy

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2021, October 26). Health literacy and health equity: Connecting the dots. https://health.gov/news/202110/health-literacy-and-health-equity-connecting-dots

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (n.d.). Browse evidence-based resources. Healthy People 2030. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/tools-action/browse-evidence-based-resources#social-determinants-of-health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (n.d.). Nutrition and healthy eating. Healthy People 2030. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/nutrition-and-healthy-eating

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2018). FDA History. https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/fda-history

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (n.d.) The new nutrition facts label: What’s in it for you? https://www.fda.gov/food/nutrition-education-resources-materials/new-nutrition-facts-label

Van De Walle, G. (2019). What Is the Waist-to-Hip Ratio? Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/waist-to-hip-ratio

Weill Cornell Medicine. (n.d.) The Food and Drug Administration: the continued history of drug advertising. https://library.weill.cornell.edu/about-us/snake%C2%A0oil%C2%A0-social%C2%A0media-drug-advertising-your-health/food-and-drug-administration-continued

World Health Organization (n.d). Constitution. https://www.who.int/about/governance/constitution

Yinusa G., Scammell, J., Murphy, J., Ford, G., & Baron, S. Multidisciplinary provision of food and nutritional care to hospitalized adult in-patients: a scoping review. (2021). J Multidisciplinary Healthcare.;14:459-491. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S255256

Chapter 2 A Holistic View of Macronutrients

Alzahrani, M., AlGhrab, S., Althwabi, M., Sudan, A., Jurays, N., Alalyani, F., Bin Fudhayl, S., Alfahadi, M., Asiri, Y., & Alshahrani, A. (2022). Awareness of Lactose Intolerance Disorder in Saudi Arabia Population. Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care, 11(6), 3118–3124. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2247_21

American Diabetes Association. (2019) 5. Lifestyle management: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2019. Diabetes Care, 42(Suppl. 1), S46–S60. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-S005

American Heart Association. (2018). Mono-unsaturated fats from plants, not animals may reduce risk of death from heart disease and other causes. ScienceDaily, 21 March 2018. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180321162252.htm

American Heart Association. (2021, November 21). Saturated fat. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/fats/saturated-fats

American Kidney Fund. (2022, October 26). Stages of kidney disease. https://www.kidneyfund.org/all-about-kidneys/stages-kidney-disease

Amico, A., Wootan, M. G., Jacobson, M. F., Leung, C., & Willet, A. W. (2021). The demise of artificial trans fat: A history of a public health achievement. Milbank Quarterly99(3), 746–770. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12515

Amiri, M., Ghiasvand, R., Kaviani, M., Forbes, S. C., & Salehi-Abargouei, A. (2019). Chocolate milk for recovery from exercise: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition73(6), 835–849. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0187-x

Ampong, I., Watkins, A., Gutierrez-Merino, J., Ikwuobe, J., & Griffiths, H. R. (2020). Dietary protein insufficiency: An important consideration in fatty liver disease? British Journal of Nutrition123(6), 601–609. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114519003064

Atkinson, F. S., Brand-Miller, J. C., Foster-Powell, K., Buyken, A. E., & Goletzke, J. (2021). International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values 2021: A systematic review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 114(5), 1625–1632. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab233

Bendsen, N. T., Christensen, R., Bartels, E. M., & Astrup, A. (2011). Consumption of industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(7), 773–783. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.34

Beslay, M., Srour, B., Méjean, C., Allès, B., Fiolet, T., Debras, C., Chazelas, E., Deschasaux, M., Wendeu-Foyet, M. G., Hercberg, S., Galan, P., Monteiro, C. A., Deschamps, V., Calixto Andrade, G., Kesse-Guyot, E., Julia, C., & Touvier, M. (2020). Ultra-processed food intake in association with BMI change and risk of overweight and obesity: A prospective analysis of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort. PLoS Medicine, 17(8), e1003256. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003256

Borer, K. T. (2023). Are gastrointestinal signals the principal guides to human appetite and energy balance? Medical Research Archives11(1), 10.18103/mra.v11i1.3548. https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v11i1.3548

Catanzaro, R., Sciuto, M., & Marotta, F. (2021). Lactose intolerance: an update on its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Nutrition Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2021.02.003

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, November 3). Bottled Water. https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/faqs/bottled_water.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Boil water advisory. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/emergency/drinking/drinking-water-advisories/boil-water-advisory.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Making water safe in an emergency. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/emergency/making-water-safe.html

Charles, S. (2022, February 25). Difference between glycemic index and glycemic load. Verywell Health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/glycemic-index-vs-load-5214363

Clark, C., Imran, J., Madni, T., & Wolf, S. E. (2017). Nutrition and metabolism in burn patients. Burns & Trauma, 5(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186%2Fs41038-017-0076-x

Clemente-Suárez VJ, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Martín-Rodríguez A, Ramos-Campo DJ, Redondo-Flórez L, Tornero-Aguilera JF. (2022, September 15). The Burden of Carbohydrates in Health and Disease. Nutrients, 14(18):3809. doi: 10.3390/nu14183809. PMID: 36145184; PMCID: PMC9505863.

Currenti, W., Godos, J., Alanazi, A. M., Grosso, G., Cincione, R. I., Vignera, S. L., Buscemi, S., & Galvano, F. (2022). Dietary fats and cardio-metabolic outcomes in a cohort of Italian adults. Nutrients14(4294), 4294. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204294

Dickerson, R. N. (2016). Nitrogen balance and protein requirements for critically ill older patients. Nutrients8(4), 226. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fnu8040226

Dupuis, C., Bret, A., Janer, A., Guido, O., Bouzgarrou, R., Dopeux, L., Hernandez, G., Mascle, O., Calvet, L., Thouy, F., Grapin, K., Couhault, P., Kinda, F., Laurichesse, G., Bonnet, B., Adda, M., Boirie, Y., & Souweine, B. (2022). Association of nitrogen balance trajectories with clinical outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients: A retrospective cohort study. Clinical Nutrition41(12), 2895–2902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2022.08.023

Fiolet, T., Srour, B., Sellem, L., Kesse-Guyot, E., Allès, B., Méjean, C., Deschasaux, M., Fassier, P., Latino-Martel, P., Beslay, M., Hercberg, S., Lavalette, C., Monteiro, C. A., & Touvier, M. (2018). Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: Results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort. The British Medical Journal, 360, k322. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k322

Garden-Robinson, J., & Christenson, J. (2019). Teens and protein: How much do you need? North Dakota State University. https://www.ndsu.edu/agriculture/extension/publications/teens-and-protein-how-much-do-you-need

Gebhardt, S.E., & Thomas, R.G. (2022, October). Nutritive Value of Foods. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Home and Garden Bulletin, 72. https://www.ars.usda.gov/arsuserfiles/80400525/data/hg72/hg72_2002.pdf

Gordon, B., & Klemm, S. (2022, June 23). How much water do you need? The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. https://www.eatright.org/health/essential-nutrients/water/how-much-water-do-you-need

Guasch-Ferré, M., Zong, G., Willett, W. C., Zock, P. L., Wanders, A. J., Hu, F. B., & Sun, Q. (2019). Associations of monounsaturated fatty acids from plant and animal sources with total and cause-specific mortality in two U.S. prospective cohort studies. Circulation Research, 124(8), 1266–1275. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313996

Guilbeau, J., & Watson, C. S. (2022). Assessment and management of vitamin D deficiency. Women’s Healthcare: A Clinical Journal for NPs10(1), 36–40.

Hauser, M. E., McMacken, M., Lim, A., & Shetty, P. (2022). Nutrition—An evidence-based, practical approach to chronic disease prevention and treatment. Journal of Family Practice71(Suppl. 1), S5–S16. https://doi-org.ezproxy.gvsu.edu/10.12788/jfp.0292

Iwayama, K., Tanabe, Y., Yajima, K., Tanji, F., Onishi, T., & Takahashi, H. (2023). Preexercise high-fat meal following carbohydrate loading attenuates glycogen utilization during endurance exercise in male recreational runners. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research37(3), 661–668. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000004311

Katoch, G. K., Nain, N., Kaur, S., & Rasane, P. (2022). Lactose intolerance, and its dietary management: An update, Journal of the American Nutrition Association, 41:4, 424–434. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2021.1891587

Kris-Etherton, P. M., & Krauss, R. M. (2020). Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat consumption as much as possible: YES. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 112(1), 13–18. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa110

Liu, A. G., Ford, N. A., Hu, F. B., Zelman, K. M., Mozaffarian, D., & Kris-Etherton, P. M. (2016). A healthy approach to dietary fats: Understanding the science and taking action to reduce consumer confusion. Nutrition Journal, 16(1), 53. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-017-0271-4

Llavero-Valero, M., Escalada-San Martín, J., Martínez-González, M. A., Basterra-Gortari, F. J., de la Fuente-Arrillaga, C., & Bes-Rastrollo, M. (2021). Ultra-processed foods and type-2 diabetes risk in the SUN project: A prospective cohort study. Clinical Nutrition40(5), 2817–2824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.039

MacDonald, C. J., Madkia, A.-L., Mounier-Vehier, C., Severi, G., & Boutron-Ruault, M.-C. (2022). Associations between saturated fat intake and other dietary macronutrients and incident hypertension in a prospective study of French women. European Journal of Nutrition, 62(3), 1207–1215. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-022-03053-0

McDermott, B. P., Anderson, S. A., Armstrong, L. E., Casa, D. J., Cheuvront, S. N., Cooper, L., Kenney, W. L., O’Connor, F. G., & Roberts, W. O. (2017). National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Fluid replacement for the physically active. Journal of Athletic Training52(9), 877–895. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-52.9.02

Metropulos, M. (2023, June 23). What to know about soy. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/320472#types-and-uses

Munoz, N., & Posthauer, M. E. (2022). Nutrition strategies for pressure injury management: Implementing the 2019 International Clinical Practice Guideline. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 37(3), 567–582. https://doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10762

Munoz-Urtubia, N., Vega-Munoz, A., Estrada-Munoz, C., Salazar-Sepulveda, G., Contreras-Barraza, N., & Castillo, D. (2023). Healthy Behavior and Sports Drinks: A Systematic Review. NUTRIENTS15(13), 2915. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15132915

National Kidney Foundation of Hawaii. (n.d.). Understanding the Renal Diet: Protein. https://kidneyhi.org/dietitian-blog/how-much-protein-do-i-need-on-a-ckd-diet/

Precker, M. (2022, January 27). Sound the fiber alarm! Most of us need more of it in our diet. American Heart Association News. https://www.heart.org/en/news/2022/01/27/sound-the-fiber-alarm-most-of-us-need-more-of-it-in-our-diet

Quagliani D, Felt-Gunderson P. Closing America's Fiber Intake Gap: Communication Strategies From a Food and Fiber Summit. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2016 Jul 7;11(1):80-85. doi: 10.1177/1559827615588079. PMID: 30202317; PMCID: PMC6124841.

Rajan, E. (2023, April 12). Can you recommend a diet after gallbladder removal? Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/cholecystectomy/expert-answers/gallbladder-removal-diet/faq-20057813

Seal, C. J., Courtin, C. M., Venema, K., & de Vries, J. (2021). Health benefits of whole grain: Effects on dietary carbohydrate quality, the gut microbiome, and consequences of processing. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety20(3), 2742–2768. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12728

Shoaibinobarian, N., Danehchin, L., Mozafarinia, M., Hekmatdoost, A., Eghtesad, S., Masoudi, S., Mohammadi, Z., Mard, A., Paridar, Y., Abolnezhadian, F., Malihi, R., Rahimi, Z., Cheraghian, B., Mir-Nasseri, M. M., Shayesteh, A. A., & Poustchi, H. (2023). The association between DASH diet adherence and cardiovascular risk factors. International Journal of Preventive Medicine14, 24. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.ijpvm_336_21

Teicholz, N. (2023) A short history of saturated fat: The making and unmaking of a scientific consensus. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 30(1), 65–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/med.0000000000000791

Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(3) 543–568. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000000852

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2022). Food Sources of Dietary Fiber. https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/resources/2020-2025-dietary-guidelines-online-materials/food-sources-select-nutrients/food-0

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2022, November 7). How much (dietary) fiber should I eat? Ask USDA. https://ask.usda.gov/s/article/How-much-dietary-fiber-should-I-eat

U.S. Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service. (2019). FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th Edition. https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/sites/default/files/2020-12/Dietary_Guidelines_for_Americans_2020-2025.pdf

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2023). Private drinking water wells. https://www.epa.gov/privatewells

Watson, S. (2023). Do air fryers have health benefits? WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/air-fryers

Wood, B., Williams, O., Baker, P., & Sacks, G. (2023, April 19). Behind the “creative destruction” of human diets: An analysis of the structure and market dynamics of the ultra-processed food manufacturing industry and implications for public health. Journal of Agrarian Change. 23(4), 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/joac.12545

Yi-Bing Zhu, Yan Yao, Yuan Xu, & Hui-Bin Huang. (2022). Nitrogen balance and outcomes in critically ill patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.961207

Chapter 3 A Holistic View of Micronutrients

Abiri, B., & Vafa, M. (2021). Vitamin C and cancer: The role of vitamin C in disease progression and quality of life in cancer patients. Nutrition & Cancer, 73(8), 1282–1292. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1795692

Ami, N., Bernstein, M., Boucher, F., Rieder, M., & Parker, L. (2016). Folate and neural tube defects: The role of supplements and food fortification. Paediatrics & Child Health (1205-7088), 21(3), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/21.3.145

Cowan, A., Tooze, J., Gahche, J, Bhadra, A, Carroll, R., & Bailey, R. (2020). Trends in overall and micronutrient-containing dietary supplement use in adults and children, NHANES 2007-2018. The Journal of Nutrition. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093.jn/nxac168

Crist, B. L., Alekel, D. L., Ritland, L. M., Hanson, L. N., Genschel, U., & Reddy, M. B. (2009). Association of oxidative stress, iron, and centralized fat mass in healthy postmenopausal women. Journal of Women’s Health (15409996), 18(6), 795–801. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2008.0988

Cuskelly, G. J., Mooney, K. M., & Young, I. S. (2007). Folate and vitamin B12: friendly or enemy nutrients for the elderly. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 66(4 pp.548–558), 548–558. https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqaa218

Dimitrov, V., Barbier, C., Ismailova, A., Wang, Y., Dmowski, K., Salehi-Tabar, R., Memari, B., Groulx-Boivin, E., & White, J. H. (2021). Vitamin D-regulated gene expression profiles: Species-specificity and cell-specific effects on metabolism and immunity. Endocrinology 162(2), bqaa218. https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqaa218

Farag, M. A., Abib, B., Qin, Z., Ze, X., & Ali, S. E. (2023). Dietary macrominerals: Updated review of their role and orchestration in human nutrition throughout the life cycle with sex differences. Current Research in Food Science, 6, 100450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crfs.2023.100450

Fletcher, J. (2019). What are the six essential nutrients? Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326132

Hand, I., Noble, L., & Abrams, S. A. (2022). Vitamin K and the newborn infant. Pediatrics, 149(3), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2021-056036

Hanna, M., Jaqua, E., Nguyen, V., & Clay, J. (2022). B vitamins: functions and uses in medicine. Permanente Journal, 26(2), 89–97. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/21.204

Harguth, A. (2022). Why take vitamin and mineral supplements? Mayo Clinic Health System. https://www.mayoclinichealthsystem.org/hometown-health/speaking-of-health/why-take-vitamin-and-mineral-supplement.

Ingenbleek, Y., & Kimura, H. (2013). Nutritional essentiality of sulfur in health and disease. Nutrition Reviews, 71(7), 413–432. https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12050

Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK225483/ doi: 10.17226/9810

Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Use of Dietary Reference Intakes in Nutrition Labeling. Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (U.S.); 2003. 3, Overview of Food Fortification in the United States and Canada. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK208880/

Leung, A. M., Braverman, L. E., & Pearce, E. N. (2012). History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation. Nutrients, 4(11), 1740–1746. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu4111740

Lykkesfeldt, J., & Tveden-Nyborg, P. (2019). The pharmacokinetics of vitamin C. Nutrients, 11(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102412

Mishra, S., Stierman, B., Gahche, J. J., & Potischman, N. (2021, February 01). Dietary supplement use among adults: United States, 2017–2018. NCHS Data Brief, no. 399. National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.); Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Statistics. https://doi.org/10.15620/cdc:101131.

Murphy, S. P., Yates, A. A., Atkinson, S. A., Barr, S. I., & Dwyer, J. (2016). History of nutrition: The long road leading to the dietary reference intakes for the United States and Canada. Advances in Nutrition 7(1), 157–168. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.010322

National Institutes of Health. (2021a). Pantothenic Acid. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/PantothenicAcid-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2021b). Vitamin C. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2021c). Vitamin E. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health (2021d). Vitamin K. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminK-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2022a). Biotin. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Biotin-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2022b). Choline. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Choline-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2022c). Folate. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2022d). Niacin. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Niacin-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2022e). Riboflavin. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Riboflavin-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2022f). Vitamin A and Carotenoids. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminA-HealthProfessional/

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2023). https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/data.html

National Institutes of Health. (2023a). Multivitamin/mineral supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/MVMS-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2023b). Thiamin. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Thiamin-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2023c). Vitamin B12. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2023d). Vitamin B6. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2023e). Vitamin D. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2018). Vitamins and minerals. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/vitamins-and-minerals

National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. (1994). Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 Public Law 103-417 103rd Congress. https://ods.od.nih.gov/About/DSHEA_Wording.aspx

Newman, J. C., McBurney, M. I., Hunt, K. J., Malek, A. M., & Marriott, B. P. (2020). Modeling possible outcomes of updated Daily Values on nutrient intakes of the United States adult population. Nutrients, 12(1), 210. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010210

Ofoedu, C.E., Iwouno, J.O., Ofoedu, E.O., Ogueke, C.C., Igwe, V.S. Agunwah, I.M., Ofoedum, A.F., Chacha, J.F., Muobike, O.P., Agunbiade, A.O., Njoku, N.E., Nwakaudu, A.A., Odimegwu,N.E., Ndukauba, O.E., Ogbonna, C.U., Naibaho, J., Korus, M. & Okpala, C.O.R.. (2021). Revisiting food-sourced vitamins for consumer diet and health needs: a perspective review, from vitamin classification, metabolic functions, absorption, utilization, to balancing nutritional requirements. PeerJ, 9, e11940. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11940

Reddy, P. & Jialal, I. (2022). Biochemistry, fat soluble vitamins. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534869

Rosenbloom, M. (2023, September 11). Vitamin Toxicity Clinical Presentation. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/819426-clinical?form=fpf

Seres, D. (2023). What supplements do you need? Probably none. Columbia University Irving School of Medicine. https://www.cuimc.columbia.edu/news/what-supplements-do-you-need-probably-none

Sjoqvist, F., & Bottiger, Y. (2010). Historical perspectives: drug interactions–it all began with cheese. Journal of Internal Medicine, 268(6), 512–515. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02300.x

Soliman, N. M. S. E. D., Kotby, A. A., Shabaan, M. A., & Eid, E. M. (2022). Serum chloride and serum sodium derangements in children on prolonged furosemide therapy and their effect on diuretic response. Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, 70(1). https://doi-org.ezproxy.gvsu.edu/10.1186/s43054-022-00116-z

Taylor, C. M., & Emmett, P. M. (2019). Picky eating in children: causes and consequences. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 78(2), 161–169. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002586

United Nations. (2019). The State of the World’s Children 2019: Children, Food and Nutrition–Growing Well in a Changing World. United Nations. https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_State_of_the_World_s_Children_2019/CG38DwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Evolution of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Process and Products: 1980 to Present. (n.d.). https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/media/799

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th Edition. December 2020. https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2022a). Daily Value on the New Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. https://www.fda.gov/food/new-nutrition-facts-label/daily-value-new-nutrition-and-supplement-facts-labels

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2022b). Information for Consumers on Using Dietary Supplements. https://www.fda.gov/food/dietary-supplements/information-consumers-using-dietary-supplements

van Gool, J. D., Hirche, H., Lax, H., & Schaepdrijver, L. D. (2020). Fallacies of clinical studies on folic acid hazards in subjects with a low vitamin B12 status. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 50(2), 177–187. https://doi-org.ezproxy.gvsu.edu/10.1080/10408444.2020.1727842

Weyh, C., Krüger, K., Peeling, P., & Castell, L. (2022). The role of minerals in the optimal functioning of the immune system. Nutrients, 14(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030644

Chapter 4 The Digestive Process

Afzaal, M., Saeed, F., Shah, Y., Hussain., M., Rabail, R., Socol, C., Hassoun, A., Pateiro, M., Lorenzo, J., Rusu, A., & Aadil, R. (2022). Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease: Unveiling the Relationship. Frontiers in Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.999001

American Stroke Association. (n.d.). Stroke Symptoms. https://www.stroke.org/en/about-stroke/stroke-symptoms

Austin Gastroenterology. (2019). Upper Vs. Lower GI Tract: What They Are? Retrieved from https://www.austingastro.com/2019/03/01/upper-vs-lower-gi-tract-what-are-they/

Bartel, M. (2022). Effects of Ageing on the Digestive System. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/digestive-disorders/biology-of-the-digestive-system/effects-of-aging-on-the-digestive-system

Baton Rouge General (Mayo Clinic Care Network). (2023). Fad Diets and Colon Cancer. Are They Worth the Risk? Retrieved from https://www.brgeneral.org/news-blog/2023/march/fad-diets-and-colon-cancer-are-they-worth-the-ri/

Benakis, C. & Liesz, A. (2022). The Gut-Brain Axis in Ischemic Stroke: Its Relevance in Pathology and as a Therapeutic Target. Neurological Research and Practice, 4(57). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s42466-022-00222-8. https://neurolrespract.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42466-022-00222-8

Bhupathiraju, S., & Hu, F. (2023). Nutrient-Drug Interactions. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/nutritional-disorders/nutrition-general-considerations/nutrient-drug-interactions

Boston Children’s Hospital. (2022). Anorectal Malformation. https://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions/anorectal-malformation

Chen, R., Yu, Y., Li, W., Liu, Y., Chen, F., Zhou, Q., Xia, Z., & Ma, D. (2020). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Associated with Unfavorable Prognosis of COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Study. Frontiers in Medicine. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.608259. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2020.608259/full

Cleveland Clinic. (2022a). Digestive System. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/body/7041-digestive-system

Cleveland Clinic. (2022b). Gastrointestinal Diseases. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/7040-gastrointestinal-diseases

Cleveland Clinic. (2022c). Gastrointestinal Manifestations of COVID-19. https://consultqd.clevelandclinic.org/gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-covid-19/

Cochran, W. (2022a). Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/gastrointestinal-disorders-in-neonates-and-infants/hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis

Cochran, W. (2022b). Intussusception. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/gastrointestinal-disorders-in-neonates-and-infants/intussusception

Cochran, W. (2022c). Meconium Ileus. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/gastrointestinal-disorders-in-neonates-and-infants/meconium-ileus

Cochran, W. (2022d). Meconium Plug Syndrome (Small Left Colon Syndrome). Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/gastrointestinal-disorders-in-neonates-and-infants/meconium-plug-syndrome

Cochran, W. (2022e). Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/gastrointestinal-disorders-in-neonates-and-infants/necrotizing-enterocolitis

Cochran, W. (2022f). Neonatal Cholestasis. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/gastrointestinal-disorders-in-neonates-and-infants/neonatal-cholestasis

Columbia University Irving Medical Center (n.d.). Congenital Malformations of the Digestive Tract. https://columbiasurgery.org/conditions-and-treatments/congenital-malformations-of-the-digestive-tract

Ding, J., Jin, Z., Yang, X., Lou, J., Shan, W., Hu, Y., Du, Q., Liao, Q., Xie, R., & Xu, J. (2020). Role of Gut Microbiota Via the Gut-Liver-Brain Axis in Digestive Diseases. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 26(40), 6141-6162. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i40.6141. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596643/

eBioMedicine. (2022). The Dynamics of the Immune System and Gut in the Pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis. The Lancet, 83(104273). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104273. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/ebiom/article/PIIS2352-3964(22)00455-8/fulltext

French, K. (2022). Dozens of Gut Bacteria Associated with Multiple Sclerosis. https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2022/09/423676/dozens-gut-bacteria-associated-multiple-sclerosis

Gantan, E., & Wiedrich, L. (2022). Neonatal Evaluation. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558943/

GI Associates and Endoscopy Center. (2022a). From the Brain to the Gut (Microbiome). https://gi.md/resources/articles/from-the-brain-to-the-gut-microbiome

GI Associates and Endoscopy Center. (2022b). Understanding the Structures of the Digestive System. https://gi.md/resources/articles/understanding-the-structures-of-the-digestive-system

Guerra, A., & Waseem, M. (2022). Epiglottitis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430960/

Gunnars, K. (2020). 22 High Fiber Foods You Should Eat. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/22-high-fiber-foods

Johns Hopkins Medicine (2022). Malrotation. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/malrotation

Klein, H. (2022). Study Identifies Gut Microbiota Linked to HE Pathophysiology. https://www.ajmc.com/view/study-identifies-gut-microbiota-linked-to-he-pathophysiology

Lee, J., Tsolis, R., & Baumler, A. (2022). The Microbiome and Gut Homeostasis. Science, 377(6601), eabp9960. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abp9960

Ludwig, K., Bartolo, D., Salerno, A., Ingravello, G., Cazzato, G., Giacometti, C., & Dall’lgna, P. (2022) Congenital Anomalies of the Tubular Gastrointestinal Tract. Pathologica, 114(1), 40-54. DOI: 10.32074/1591-951X-553

Mayo Clinic. (2022). Epiglottitis. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/epiglottitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20372227

Mealie, C., Ali, R., & Manthey, D. (2022). Abdominal Exam. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459220/

Moffitt Cancer Center (2023). What Foods Reduce the Risk of Colon Cancer? Retrieved from https://moffitt.org/cancers/colon-cancer/faqs/what-foods-reduce-the-risk-of-colon-cancer/

Munger, R., Kuppuswamy, R., Murthy, J., Balakirshnan, K., Thangaval, G., Sambandam, S., Kurpad, A., Molly, A., Ueland, P., & Mossey, P. (2021). Maternal Vitamin B12 Status and Risk of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Birth Defects in Tamil Nadu State, India. Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal, 58(5), 567-576. DOI: 10.1177/1055665621998394. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33686867/

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2022). Your Digestive System and How it Works. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/digestive-system-how-it-works

NHS (2023). Fat: The Facts. https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/food-types/different-fats-nutrition/

Nigam, Y., & Knight, J. (2017). Anatomy and Physiology of Ageing 3: The Digestive System. Nursing Times, 113(4), 54-57. https://cdn.ps.emap.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2017/03/170329-Anatomy-and-physiology-of-ageing-3-the-digestive-system.pdf

Ogobuiro, I., Gonzales, J., & Tuma, F. (2022). Pathophysiology, Gastrointestinal. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537103/

Patricia, J. & Dahmoon, A. (2022). Physiology, Digestion. StatPearls. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544242/

Readman, M. (2022). How Long the Digestion Process Takes from Beginning to End. https://www.mindbodygreen.com/articles/how-long-does-it-take-to-digest-food

Roscoe, L. (2022). Abdominal Assessment: Palpation. https://correctionalnurse.net/abdominal-assessment-palpation/

Shaw, P., Loree, J., Gibbons, R., & McCoy, T. (2023). Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (Nursing). StatPearls. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568681/

Sidharthan, C. (2022). Gut Microbiome Plays a Role in Alzheimer’s. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20221117/Gut-microbiome-plays-a-role-in-Alzheimers.aspx

Stanford Medicine Children’s Health. (2023a). 5 Ways to Boost Your Child’s Gut Health. Retrieved from https://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default?id=5-ways-to-boost-your-childs-gut-health-197-29161

Stanford Medicine Children’s Health. (2023b). Congenital Anomalies of the Biliary Tract. Retrieved from https://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/service/advanced-endoscopy/conditions/congenital-anomalies-biliary-tract

Sivakumar, S., & Prabhu, A. (2023). Physiology, Gag Reflex. StatPearls. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554502/

Tilg, H., Adolph, T., & Trauner, M. (2022). Gut-Liver Axis: Pathophysiological Concepts and Clinical Implications. Cell Metabolism, 34(11), 1700-1718. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2022.09.017. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36208625/

University of Rochester Medical Center. (2022). The Digestive System: An Overview. https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=85&contentid=P00380

Villa, A. (2022). Oral Examination. Medscape. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1080850-overview?reg=1#a2

Wallen, Z., Demirkan, A., Twa, G., Cohen, G., Dean, M., Standaert, D., Sampson, T., & Payami, H. (2022). Metagenomics of Parkinson’s Disease Implicates the Gut Microbiome in Multiple Disease Mechanisms. Nature Communications, 13(6958). Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-34667-x

Wasser, C., Merceieca, E., Kong, G., Hannon, A., McKeown, S., Glikmann-Johnston, Y., & Stout, J. (2020). Gut dysbiosis in Huntington’s disease: associations among gut microbiota, cognitive performance and clinical outcomes. Brain Communications, 2(2), fcaa110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcaa110. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/braincomms/article/2/2/fcaa110/5876019

Weersma, R., Zhernakova, A., & Fu, J. (2020). Interaction Between Drugs and the Gut Microbiome. Gut, 69, 1510-1519. DOI: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7928-7371

Ye, Q., Wang, B., Zhang, T., Xu, J., & Shang, S. (2020). The Mechanism and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with COVID 19. American Journal of Physiology Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 319(2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00148.2020. Retrieved from https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpgi.00148.2020

Chapter 5 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Neurological Wellness

Berkins, S., Schiöth, H. B., & Rukh, G. (2021). Depression and vegetarians: Association between dietary vitamin B6, B12 and folate intake and global and subcortical brain volumes. Nutrients13(6), 1790. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061790

Bhat, Z., Morton, J., Mason, S., Bekhit, A., & Bhat, H. (2019). Obesity and neurological disorders: Dietary perspective of a global menace. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 59(8), 1294–1310. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1404442

Borshchev, Y., Uspensky, P., & Galagudza, M. (2019). Pathogenetic pathways of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in metabolic syndrome, Life Sciences, 237. https://doi.org:10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116932

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, June 3). Assessing your weight. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/index.html

Choi, S., Hong, D., Young Choi, B., & Won Suh, S. (2020). Zinc in the brain, friend or foe? International Journal of Molecular Science, 21(23), 8941. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21238941

Chugani, H. (2021). Hypermetabolism on pediatric PET scans of brain glucose metabolism: What does it signify? Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 62(9), 1301–1306. https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.120.256081

D’Angelo, S. (2020). Current evidence on the effect of dietary polyphenols intake on brain health. Current Nutrition and Food Science, 16(8), 1170–1182. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573401316999200714160126

Dighriri I. M., Alsubaie, A. M., Hakami, F. M., Hamithi, D. M., Alshekh, M. M., Khobrani, F. A., Dalak, F. E., Hakami, A. A., Alsueaadi, E. H., Alsaawi, L. S., Alshammari, S. F., Alqahtani, A. S., Alawi, I. A., Aljuaid, A. A., & Tawhari, M. Q. (2022). Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on brain functions: A systematic review. Cureus 14(10), e30091. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.30091

Dowis, K., & Banga, S. (2021). The potential health benefits of the ketogenic diet: A narrative review. Nutrients13(5), 1654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051654

Farag, M. A., Hamouda, S., Gomaa, S., Agboluaje, A., Hariri, M., & Yousof, S. (2021). Dietary micronutrients from zygote to senility: Updated review of minerals’ role and orchestration in human nutrition throughout life cycle with sex differences. Nutrients13(11), 3740. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113740

Farruggia, M. C., & Small, D. M. (2019). Effects of adiposity and metabolic dysfunction on cognition: A review. Physiology & Behavior208, 112578. https://doi-org.ezproxy.gvsu.edu/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112578\

Fekete, M., Szarvas, Z., Fazekas-Pongor, V., Feher, A., Csipo, T., Forrai, J., . . . Varga, J. T. (2023). Nutrition strategies promoting healthy aging: From improvement of cardiovascular and brain health to prevention of age-associated diseases. Nutrients, 15(1), 47. https://doi-org.ezproxy.gvsu.edu/10.3390/nu15010047

Glenn, J., Madero, E., & Bott, N. (2019). Dietary protein and amino acid intake: Links to the maintenance of cognitive health. Nutrients11(6), 1315. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061315

Grant, B. F., Chou, S. P., Saha, T. D., Pickering, R. P., Kerridge, B. T., Ruan, W. J., Huang, B., Jung, J., Zhang, H., Fan, A., & Hasin, D. S. (2017). Prevalence of 12-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder in the United States, 2001–2002 to 2012–2013: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. JAMA Psychiatry,74(9):911–923. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2161

Guasch-Ferré, M., Liu, G., Li, Y., Sampson, L., Manson, J. E., Salas-Salvadó, J., Martínez-González, M. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Sun, Q., & Hu, F. B . (2020). Olive oil consumption and cardiovascular risk in U.S. adults. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 75(15), 1729–1739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.036

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Held, C., Hadziosmanovic, N., Aylward, P., Hagstrom, E., Hochman, J., Stewart, R., White, H., & Wallentin, L. (2022). Body mass index and association with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease—A STABILITY substudy. Journal of the American Heart Association, 11(3), e023667. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.023667

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National Institutes of Health. (2023d). Niacin. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Niacin-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2023e). Selenium. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Selenium-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2023f). Thiamin. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Thiamin-HealthProfessional/

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National Institutes of Health. (2023i). Vitamin E. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2023j). Zinc. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional/

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Liu, C., Xie, J., Xiao, X., Li, T., Li, H., Bai, X., Li, Z., & Wang, W. (2021). Clinical predictors of prognosis in patients with traumatic brain injury combined with extracranial trauma. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 18(7), 1639–1647. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.54913

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Manson, J., Cook, N., Lee, I., Christen, W., Bassuk, S., Mora, S. Gibson, H., Albert, C., Gordon, D., Copeland, T. D’Agostino, D., Friedenberg, G., Ridge, C., Bubes, V., Giovannucci, E. L., Willett, W. C., Buring, J. E., & VITAL Research Group. (2019). Marine n-3 fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 380, 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1811403

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Więckowska-Gacek, A., Mietelska-Porowska, A., Wydrych, M., & Wojda, U. (2021). Western diet as a trigger of Alzheimer’s disease: From metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Ageing Research Reviews, 70, 101397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101397

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Yasir, M., & Mechanic, O. (2023). Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507777

Yuan, K., Zhu, S., Wang, H., Chen, J., Zhang, X., Xu, P., Xie, Y., Zhu, X., Zhu, W., Sun, W., Xu, G., & Liu, X. (2021). Association between malnutrition and long-term mortality in older adults with ischemic stroke. Clinical Nutrition, 40, 2535–2542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.018

Chapter 6 Special Nutritional Considerations for Neurological Health

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Bethlehem, R.A.I., Seidlitz, J., White, S.R. (2022). Brain charts for the human lifespan. Nature, 604, 525–533. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04554-y

Carazo, A., Macáková, K., Matoušová, K., Krcmová, L. K., Protti, M., & Mladenka, P. (2021). Vitamin A Update: Forms, Sources, Kinetics, Detection, Function, Deficiency, Therapeutic Use and Toxicity. Nutrients, 13(5), 1703. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051703

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Choi, S., Hong, D. K., Choi, B. Y., & Suh, S. W. (2020). Zinc in the Brain: Friend or Foe? International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(23), 8941. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21238941

Cortés-Albornoz, M. C., García-Guáqueta, D. P., Velez-van-Meerbeke, A., & Talero-Gutiérrez, C. (2021). Maternal Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: A Scoping Review. Nutrients, 13(10), 3530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13103530

Czarnecka, K., Pilarz, A., Rogut, A., Maj, P., Szymanska, J., Olejnik, L., & Szymanski, P. (2021). Aspartame—True or False? Narrative Review of Safety Analysis of General Use in Products. Nutrients, 13(6), 1957. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061957

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Dhaliwal, J.S., Rosani, A.R., & Saadabadi, A. (2023). Diazepam. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537022

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Duttaroy, A., Basak, S. (2020). Maternal dietary fatty acids and their roles in human placental development. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 155: 102080, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2020.102080

Dynka, D., Kowalcze, K., & Paziewska, A. (2022). The Role of Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Neurological Diseases. Nutrients, 14(23), 5003. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235003

Elgendy, I., Bukhari, S., Barakat,A., Pepine, C., Lindley, K., Miller E. (2021). Maternal Stroke A Call for Action. Circulation, 143(7). 727–738. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.051460

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Fei, H. X., Qian, C. F., Wu, X. M., Wei, Y. H., Huang, J. Y., & Wei, L. H. (2022). Role of micronutrients in Alzheimer's disease: Review of available evidence. World Journal of Clinical Cases, 10(22), 7631–7641. https://doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v10.i22.7631

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Rudloff, S., Bührer, C., Jochum, F., Kauth, T., Kersting, M., Körner, A., Koletzo, B., Mihatsch, W., Prell, C., Reinehr, T., Zimmer, K. (2019). Vegetarian diets in childhood and adolescence. Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics, 6, (4). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40348-019-0091-z

Safahani, M., Aligholi, H. & Asadi-Pooya, A.A. (2020). Management of antiepileptic drug–induced nutrition-related adverse effects. Neurol Sci, 41, 3491–3502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04573-5

Sanchez, C. Barry, C., Sabhlok, A., Russell, K., Majors, A., Kollins, S., Fuemmeler, B. (2018). Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopmental outcomes: A meta-analysis. Obesity Review, 19, 464–484. doi: 10.1111/obr.12643.

Sheehy, S., Aparicio, H., Xu, N., Bertrand, K., Robles, Y., Lioutas, B., Shulman, J., Rosenberg, L., Palmer, J. (2023). Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Risk of Stroke in U.S. Black Women. NEJM Evidence, https://doi.org:10.1056/EVIDoa2300058

Sipione, S., Monyror, J., Galleguillos, D., Steinberg, N., Kadam, V. (2020). Gangliosides in the Brain: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Applications. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6(14). https://doi.org: 10.3389/fnins.2020.572965

Steane, S.E., Cuffe, J.S.M. and Moritz, K.M. (2023), The role of maternal choline, folate and one-carbon metabolism in mediating the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on placental and fetal development. J Physiol, 601: 1061–1075. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP283556

Sun, S., Corbeels, K., Desmet, L., Segers, A., Wang, Q., Van Der Schueren, B., Deporortere, I. (2020). Involvement in the CHSR in the developmental programming and metabolic disturbances induced by maternal undernutrition. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108468

Tabaie, E., Reddy, A., Brahmbhatt, H. (2021). A narrative review on the effects of a ketogenic diet on patients with Alzheimer's disease. AIMS Public Health, 9(1), 185–193. https://doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2022014

Tous, M., Villalobos, M., Iglesias, L., Fernández-Barrés, S., Arija V. (2020). Vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74, 36–53. doi: 10.1038/s41430-018-0373-x.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2019). Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Table E3.1.A4. https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/sites/default/files/2019-05/15-Appendix-E-3.pdf

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2022a, August 9). Find Information about a Drug. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information-consumers-and-patients-drugs/find-information-about-drug

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2020b, November 24). Resources | Drugs. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/resources-drugs

Verhaegen, AA, Van Gaal, LF. Drugs That Affect Body Weight, Body Fat Distribution, and Metabolism. [Updated 2019 Feb 11]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Blackman MR, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc., 2000-. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537590/

Xu, Y., Zhang, N., Xu, S., Xu, H., Chen, S., & Xia, Z. (2019). Effects of phenytoin on serum levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate in patients with epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA-compliant article). Medicine, 98(12), e14844. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014844

Zambrano, M., Miller, E. (2019). Maternal Stroke: An Update. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 21(9), 33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-019-0798-2

Chapter 7 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Endocrine Wellness

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Ardoin, T. W., Hamer, D., Mason, N., Reine, A., Barleycorn, L., Francis, D., & Johnson, A. (2022). Effectiveness of a Patient-Centered Dietary Educational Intervention. The Ochsner journal, 22(2), 113–128. https://doi.org/10.31486/toj.21.0075

Bets, J., Young, K., Wise, J., Johnson, E., Poe, B., Kruse, D., Korol, O., Johnson, J., Womble, M., & DeSaix. (2022). The Endocrine System. In Anatomy and Physiology 2e. OpenStax. https://openstax.org/books/anatomy-and-physiology-2e/pages/17-introduction

Bickley, L. S., Szilagyi, P. G., & Hoffman, R. M. (2021). Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (13th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Braunstein, G. (2022). Hypothyroidism. In Merck Manual Professional Version. Retrieved July 23, 2023, from https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/thyroid-disorders/hypothyroidism

Brown, A., Shi, S., Adas, S., Boyington, J., Cotton, P., Jirles, B., Rajapaske, N., Reedy, J., Regan, K., Xi, D., Zappala, G., Agurs-Collins, T. (2022). A decade of nutrition and health disparities research at NIH, 2010-2019. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 63, E49-E57, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2022.02.012

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Caballero A. E. (2018). The “A to Z” of Managing Type 2 Diabetes in Culturally Diverse Populations. Frontiers in endocrinology, 9, 479. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00479

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022a). Diabetes and cultural foods. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/library/features/diabetes-cultural-eating.html#

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). Diabetes meal planning. Living with Diabetes. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/managing/eat-well/meal-plan-method.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). How to treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Type 1 Diabetes. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/low-blood-sugar-treatment.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). Traditional foods. Native Diabetes Wellness Program. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ndwp/traditional-foods/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). What is health literacy? Health Literacy. https://www.cdc.gov/healthliteracy/learn/index.html

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Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services (2020). Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025. https://dietaryguidelines.gov.

Gherasim, A., Arhire, L., Niţă, O., Popa, A., Graur, M., & Mihalache, L. (2020). The relationship between lifestyle components and dietary patterns. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 79(3), 311–323. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665120006898

Gray, A. & Threlkeld, R. (Updated 2019). Nutritional Recommendations for Individuals with Diabetes. In Feingold, K., Anawalt, B., Blackman, M., et al., editors. Endotext. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279012/

Grossman, A. (2022). Overview of adrenal function. In Merck Manual Professional Version. Retrieved July 23, 2023, from https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/adrenal-disorders/overview-of-adrenal-function

Hoffman, J. & Sullivan, N. (2020). Medical-surgical nursing: Making connections to practice (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

Kesari A. & Noel J.Y. (2022, April 16). Nutritional Assessment. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK580496/

Kiani, A., Dhuli, K., Donato, K., Aquilanti, B., Velluti, V., Matera, G., Iaconelli, A., Connelly, S., Bellinato, F., Gisondi, P., & Bertelli, M. (2022). Main nutritional deficiencies. Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene, 63(2 Suppl 3), E93–E101. https://doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2752

Lewis, J. (2022). Overview of electrolytes. In Merck Manual Professional Version. Retrieved August 28, 2023, from https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-balance/overview-of-electrolytes

Mahboub, N., Rizk, R., Karavetian, M., & de Vries, N. (2021). Nutritional status and eating habits of people who use drugs and/or are undergoing treatment for recovery: a narrative review. Nutrition reviews, 79(6), 627–635. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa095

Martos-Cabrera, M., Gómez-Urquiza, J., Cañadas-González, G., Romero-Bejar, J., Suleiman-Martos, N., Cañadas-De la Fuente, G., & Albendín-García, L. (2021). Nursing-Intense Health Education Intervention for Persons with Type 2 Diabetes: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 9(7), 832. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070832

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2018a). Cushing’s syndrome. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/cushings-syndrome

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2021a). Diabetes insipidus. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/diabetes-insipidus

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2023). Diabetes statistics. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/diabetes-statistics

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2018b). Adrenal insufficiency & Addison’s disease. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/adrenal-insufficiency-addisons-disease/all-content

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2021b). Graves’ disease. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/graves-disease

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2021c). Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/hypothyroidism

National Institutes of Health. (2023). Iodine fact sheet for health professionals. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iodine-HealthProfessional/

National Library of Medicine. (2021). Choosing effective patient education materials. Medical Encyclopedia. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000455.htm

Ni, Y., Liu, S., Li, J., Dong, T., Tao, L., Yuan, L., & Yang, M. (2019). The Effects of Nurse-Led Multidisciplinary Team Management on Glycosylated Hemoglobin, Quality of Life, Hospitalization, and Help-Seeking Behavior of People with Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of diabetes research, 2019, 9325146. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9325146

Orr, C., Keyserling, T., Ammerman, A., & Berkowitz, S. (2019). Diet quality trends among adults with diabetes by socioeconomic status in the U.S.: 1999–2014. BMC Endocr Disord 19, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12902-019-0382-3

Padilla, O. & Abadie, J. (2022). Normal laboratory values. In Merck Manual Professional Version. Retrieved July 23, 2023, from https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/resources/normal-laboratory-values/normal-laboratory-values

Ravelli, M., & Schoeller, D. (2020). Traditional Self-Reported Dietary Instruments Are Prone to Inaccuracies and New Approaches Are Needed. Frontiers in nutrition, 7, 90. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00090

Salas-Huetos A. (2020). More evidence of the association of diet with human testicular function—Fish oil supplements. JAMA Netw Open. 3(1). doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19569

Samodien, E., Johnson, R., Pheiffer, C., Mabasa, L., Erasmus, M., Louw, J., & Chellan, N. (2019). Diet-induced hypothalamic dysfunction and metabolic disease, and the therapeutic potential of polyphenols. Molecular metabolism, 27, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.06.022

Sapra A, Bhandari P. Diabetes. [Updated 2023 May 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551501/

Shi, L., Rath, M., & Niedzwiecki, A. (2021). Dietary Vitamin C and Age-Induced Lipid and Hormonal Metabolic Changes in a Humanized Mouse Model Not Synthesizing Vitamin C and Producing Lipoprotein(a) [Gulo (-/-); Lp(a)+]. Journal of nutrition and metabolism, 2021, 5591697. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5591697

Shrimanker, I. & Bhattarai, S. (2023, July 24). Electrolytes. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541123/

Tan, D. X., Xu, B., Zhou, X., & Reiter, R. J. (2018). Pineal Calcification, Melatonin Production, Aging, Associated Health Consequences and Rejuvenation of the Pineal Gland. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(2), 301. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020301

Xenou, M., & Gourounti, K. (2021). Dietary Patterns and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review. Maedica, 16(3), 516–521. https://doi.org/10.26574/maedica.2020.16.3.516

Young, W. (2022). Overview of endocrine disorders. In Merck Manual Professional Version. Retrieved July 23, 2023, from https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/principles-of-endocrinology/overview-of-endocrine-disorders

Chapter 8 Special Nutritional Considerations for Endocrine Health

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Herrick, E. & Bordoni, B. (2023). Embryology, placenta. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551634/

Hysaj, O., Marques-Gallego, P., Richard, A., Elgizouli, M., Nieters, A., Quack Lotscher, K. C., & Rohrmann, S. (2021). Parathyroid hormone in pregnancy: Vitamin D and other determinants. Nutrients, 13(2), 360. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020360

Jain, M., & Saber, A. Y. (2023). Dwarfism. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563282/

Jennings, L. K., & Mahdy, H. (2022). Hyperemesis gravidarum. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532917/

Jouanne, M., Oddoux, S., Noel, A., Voisin-Chiret, A. S. (2021). Nutrient requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Nutrients, 13(2), 692. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020692

Kepley, J. M., Bates, K., & Mohiuddin, S. S. (2023). Physiology, maternal changes. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539766/

Khan, M., Jose, A., & Sharma, S. (2022). Physiology, parathyroid hormone. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499940/

Kiebzak, W., Żurawski, A., Głuszek, S., Kosztołowicz, M., & Białek, W. A. (2021). Cortisol levels in infants with central coordination disorders during Vojta Therapy. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 8(12), 1113. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8121113

Kobylinska, M., Antosik, K., Decyk, A., & Kurowska, K. (2022). Malnutrition in obesity: Is it possible? Obesity Facts, 15(1), 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1159/000519503

Kota, A. S., & Ejaz, S. (2023). Precocious puberty. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544313/

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Lui, G., Guo, J., Zhang, X., Lu, Y., Miao, J., & Xue, H. (2021). Obesity is a risk factor for central precocious puberty: A case control study. BMC Pediatrics, 21(509). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02936-1

Mathew, P., Kaur, J., & Rawla, P. (2023). Hyperthyroidism. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537053/

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Molfino, A., Imbimbo, G., & Muscaritoli, M. (2021). Endocrinological and nutritional implications of anorexia of aging. Endocrines, 2(4), 439–448. https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines2040039

Munir, S., Quintanilla, B. S., & Waseem, M. (2023). Addison disease. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441994/

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National Institutes of Health. (2022b). Selenium. Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Selenium-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health. (2022c). Vitamin D. Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

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Osowiecka, K., & Myskowska-Ryciak, J. (2023). The influence of nutritional intervention in the treatment of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis—A systematic review. Nutrients, 15(4), 1041. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041041

Pancheva, R., Zhelyazkova, D., Ahmed, F., Gillon-Keren, M., Usheva, N., Bocheva, Y., Boyadzhieva, M., Valchev, G., Yotov, Y., & Iotova, V. (2021). Dietary intake and adherence to the recommendations for healthy eating in patients with type 1 diabetes: A narrative review. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, 782670. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.782670

Patil, N., Rehman, A., & Jialal, I. (2023). Hypothyroidism. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519536/

Quintanilla Rodrigquez, B. S., & Mahdy, H. (2022). Gestational diabetes. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545196/

Rad, S. & Deluxe, L. (2023). Postpartum thyroiditis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557646/

Rasmussen, L., Poulsen, C. W., Kampmann, U., Bech Smedegaard, S., Ovesen, P. G., & Fuglsang, J. (2020). Diet and healthy lifestyle in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrients, 12(10), 3050. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103050

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Shah, N., Wang., M. Freaney, P., Perak, A., Carnethon, M., Kandula, N., Gunderson, E., Bullard, K., Grobman, W., O’Brien,M., & Khan, S. (2021). Trends in gestational diabetes at first live birth by race and ethnicity in the US, 2011-2019. JAMA, 326(7): 660-669. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.7217

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Chapter 9 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Hematologic Wellness

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Chapter 10 Special Nutritional Considerations for Hematologic Health

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World Health Organization. (n.d.-b). Antenatal iron supplementation. https://www.who.int/data/nutrition/nlis/info/antenatal-iron-supplementation

Yan, H., Chen, Y., Zhu, H., Huang, W., Cai, X., Li, D., Ya-Juan, L., Si-Zhao, N., Zhou, H., Luo, F., Zhang, W., & Li, X. (2022). The relationship among intestinal bacteria, vitamin K and response of vitamin K antagonist: A review of evidence and potential mechanism. Frontiers in Medicine, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.829304

Chapter 11 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Cardiovascular Wellness

Albakri, A. (2019). Nutritional deficiency cardiomyopathy: A review and pooled analysis of pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical management. Research and Review Insights 3. https://doi.org/10.15761/RRI.1000149

Akbar, H., Foth, C., Kahloon, R., & Mountfort, S. (2022). Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532281/

American College of Cardiology. (2023). Too little sodium can be harmful to heart failure patients. https://www.acc.org/About-ACC/Press-Releases/2023/02/22/20/42/Too-Little-Sodium-Can-be-Harmful-to-Heart-Failure-Patients

American Diabetes Association. (2023). Fats. https://diabetes.org/healthy-living/recipes-nutrition/eating-well/fats

American Heart Association. (2023). How much sodium should I eat per day? https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/sodium/how-much-sodium-should-i-eat-per-day

American Society of Hematology. (2023). Blood basics. https://www.hematology.org/education/patients/blood-basics

Balchem. (2021). Feel the rhythm: Minerals for heart health. https://balchem.com/human-nutrition-health/blog/heart-health-minerals/

Bord, S. (2022). Electrolyte abnormalities. Clerkship Directors in Emergency Medicine. https://www.saem.org/about-saem/academies-interest-groups-affiliates2/cdem/for-students/online-education/m3-curriculum/group-electrocardiogram-(ecg)-rhythm-recognition/electrolyte-abnormalities

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Heart attack symptoms, risks, and recovery. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/heart_attack.htm

Cleveland Clinic. (2022a). Albumin blood test. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diagnostics/22390-albumin-blood-test.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022b). Arteries. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/body/22896-arteries

Cleveland Clinic. (2022c). Hypokalemia. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17740-low-potassium-levels-in-your-blood-hypokalemia

Cohagan, B., & Brandis, D. (2022). Torsade de Pointes. StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459388/

Dmitrieva, N. I., Liu, D., Wu, C. O., & Boehm, M. (2022). Middle age serum sodium levels in the upper part of normal range and risk of heart failure. European Heart Journal, 43(35), 3335–3348. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac138

Gupta, J., & Shea, M. (2022). Biology of the blood vessels. Merck Manuals. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/heart-and-blood-vessel-disorders/biology-of-the-heart-and-blood-vessels/biology-of-the-blood-vessels

Harvard Medical School. (2021). BMI calculator. https://www.health.harvard.edu/diet-and-weight-loss/bmi-calculator

Harvard Health Publishing. (2020). Eat more fiber-rich foods to foster heart health. https://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/eat-more-fiber-rich-foods-to-foster-heart-health

Harvard University. (2023). Preventing heart disease. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/disease-prevention/cardiovascular-disease/preventing-cvd/

Hinzey, E., & Chien, S. (2023). What’s the Mediterranean diet? https://health.usnews.com/best-diet/mediterranean-diet

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (2023). Hardening of the arteries. https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/diseases-conditions/hardening-of-the-arteries

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2023a). Lipid panel. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/lipid-panel

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2023b). Anatomy and function of the heart’s electrical system. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/anatomy-and-function-of-the-hearts-electrical-system

Kenny, B., & Brown, K. (2022). ECG T wave. StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538264/

Lee, Y., Lin, C., Fang, W., Lee, C., Ho, C., Wang, C., Tsai, D., & Lin, C. (2022). Artificial intelligence-enabled electrocardiography detects hypoalbuminemia and identifies the mechanism of hepatorenal and cardiovascular events. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.895201

Malik, M., & Goyal, A. (2022). Cardiac exam. StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553078/

Martyniak, A., & Tomasik, P. J. (2022). A new perspective on the renin-angiotensin system. Diagnostics (Basel), 13(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13010016

Mayo Clinic. (2023a). Long QT syndrome. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/long-qt-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20352518

Mayo Clinic. (2023b). Supraventricular tachycardia. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/supraventricular-tachycardia/symptoms-causes/syc-20355243

Mayo Clinic. (2023c). High blood pressure (hypertension). https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20373417

Medline Plus. (2022). Heart failure: Fluids and diuretics. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000112.htm

Moll, J. (2022). Saturated vs. unsaturated fats. Verywell Health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/difference-between-saturated-fats-and-unsaturated-fats-697517

Morales-Brown, L. (2020). What is the best afib diet? Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/afib-diet

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2021). DASH eating plan. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/education/dash-eating-plan

National Institute on Aging. (2022). High blood pressure in older adults. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/high-blood-pressure-and-older-adults.

National Institutes of Health. (2022). Good hydration may reduce long-term risks for heart failure. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/good-hydration-may-reduce-long-term-risks-heart-failure

Pediatric Heart Specialists. (2023). Normal heart anatomy and blood flow. https://pediatricheartspecialists.com/heart-education/14-normal/152-normal-heart-anatomy-and-blood-flow

Penn Medicine Lancaster General Health. (2023). High-potassium foods. https://www.lancastergeneralhealth.org/healthwise-library/healthwise-article?lang=en-us&DocumentId=abo9047

Sherrell, Z. (2021). What to know about the cardiovascular system. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/cardiovascular-system

Srakocic, S. (2023). Understanding smoking’s effect on your blood vessels. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/smoking/does-smoking-constrict-your-blood-vessels

Teymouri, N., Mesbah, S., Navabian, S., Shekouh, D., Najafabadi, M., Norouzkhani, N., Poudineh, M., Qadirifard, M., Mehrtabar, S., & Deravi, N. (2022). ECG frequency changes in potassium disorders: A narrative review. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, 12(3), 112–124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9301030/

University of California San Francisco. (2023). Guidelines for a low sodium diet. https://www.ucsfhealth.org/education/guidelines-for-a-low-sodium-diet

University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. (2023). Physiology review. https://apps.media.unc.edu/crashcart/Resources/PhysiologyReview.html

University of Washington. (2023). Go green with high fiber foods. https://thewholeu.uw.edu/2023/03/13/fiber/

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2020). What is MyPlate? https://www.myplate.gov/eat-healthy/what-is-myplate

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023). Calcium: Shopping list. https://health.gov/myhealthfinder/healthy-living/nutrition/calcium-shopping-list

University of Rochester Medical Center. (2023). Magnesium rich foods. https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/childrens-hospital/nutrition/magnesium-foods.aspx

Visible Body. (2023). Functions of the blood: 8 facts about blood. https://www.visiblebody.com/learn/circulatory/circulatory-functions-of-the-blood

Chapter 12 Special Nutritional Considerations for Cardiovascular Health

Advent Health. (2021, February). A healthy start for your baby’s heart. https://www.adventhealth.com/hospital/adventhealth-children/blog/a-healthy-start-your-babys-heart

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2019, March). Eating disorder in teens. https://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/FFF-Guide/Teenagers-With-Eating-Disorders-002.aspx

American Heart Association. (2017). What is cardiovascular disease? https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/consumer-healthcare/what-is-cardiovascular-disease

American Heart Association. (2018). Dietary recommendations for healthy children. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/dietary-recommendations-for-healthy-children

American Heart Association. (2020). Prevention and treatment of high cholesterol. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/cholesterol/prevention-and-treatment-of-high-cholesterol-hyperlipidemia

American Heart Association. (2021). The American Heart Association diet and lifestyle recommendations. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/American Heart Association-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations

American Heart Association. (2023) Feeding tips for your baby with CHD. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/congenital-heart-defects/care-and-treatment-for-congenital-heart-defects/feeding-tips-for-your-baby-with-chd

American Pregnancy Association. (2023). Gestational hypertension: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). https://americanpregnancy.org/healthy-pregnancy/pregnancy-complications/gestational-hypertension/

Amirani, E., Milajerdi, A., Reiner, Ž., Mirzaei, H., Mansournia, M. A., & Asemi, Z. (2020). Effects of whey protein on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Lipids in Health and Disease19(1), 209. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01384-7

Anderson, M., Vogels, E., Perrin, A, & Rainie, L. (2022). Connection, creativity and drama: Teen life on social media in 2022. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2022/11/16/connection-creativity-and-drama-teen-life-on-social-media-in-2022/

Anderson-Villaluz, D., & Quam, J. (2022). Nutrition during pregnancy to support a healthy mom and baby. Health.gov. https://health.gov/news/202202/nutrition-during-pregnancy-support-healthy-mom-and-baby

Back, I., de Barros, N., & Caramelli, B. (2022). Lifestyle, inadequate environments in childhood and their effects on adult cardiovascular health. Joirnal de Pediatria, 98(S1), S19–S26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ped.2021.09.005

Bensley, J., Moore, L., De Matteo, R., Harding, R., & Black, M. (2018). Impact of preterm birth on the developing myocardium of the neonate. Pediatric Research, 83(4), 880–888. https://doi.org/10.1038/pr.2017.324

Biddinger, K., Emdin, C., Haas, M., Wang, M., Hindy, G., Ellinor, P., Kathiresan, S., Khera, A., & Aragam, K. (2022). Association of habitual alcohol intake with risk of cardiovascular disease. JAMA Network Open, 5(3), e223849. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.3849

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). High blood pressure symptoms and causes. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/about.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022) Weight Gain During Pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-weight-gain.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). Facts about hypertension. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). Food and drinks to avoid or limit.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). Heart disease facts. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023d). Know your risk for heart disease. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/risk_factors.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023e). Recommendations and benefits: Breastfeeding.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023f). About heart disease. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/about.htm

Cleveland Clinic. (2020a). How to pick heart-healthy Mexican food. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/say-ole-heart-healthy-mexican-food

Cleveland Clinic. (2020b). Craving Chinese food? How to pick Asian food that’s heart healthy. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/heart-smart-asian-dining-strategies/

Cleveland Clinic. (2022a). How to follow a heart-healthy diet. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/heart-healthy-diet/

Cleveland Clinic (2022b). Lipids. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/body/24425-lipids

Cleveland Clinic. (2022c). How to teach kids healthy eating habits. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/healthy-eating-for-kids/

Cleveland Clinic. (2023). How race and ethnicity impact heart disease. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/23051-ethnicity-and-heart-disease

Cunningham, M., & LaMarca, B. (2018). Risk of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease, and stroke in postpartum women and their fetuses after a hypertensive pregnancy. Am. J. Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 315(3). R521-R528. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00218.2017

Dahm, C., Chomistek, A., Jakobsen, M., Mukamal, K., Eliassen, A., Sesso, H., Overvad, K., Willett, W., Rimm, E., & Chiuve, S. (2016). Adolescent diet quality and cardiovascular disease risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease in middle-aged women. J Am Heart Assoc., 20;5(12):e003583. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.003583

FDA. (2022a). Using the nutrition facts label: For older adults. https://www.fda.gov/food/new-nutrition-facts-label/using-nutrition-facts-label-older-adults

FDA. (2022b). Sodium in your diet. https://www.fda.gov/food/nutrition-education-resources-materials/sodium-your-diet

FDA. (2023). Infant formula. https://www.fda.gov/food/resources-you-food/infant-formula

Garg, V. (2020, February 25). Maternal diabetes and fetal heart development: What mothers need to know. Nationwide Children’s. https://www.nationwidechildrens.org/family-resources-education/700childrens/2020/02/maternal-diabetes-and-fetal-heart-development

Gersh, B. (2022). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy: Cardiovascular and hemodynamic changes. UpToDate. Retrieved October 1, 2023, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/maternal-adaptations-to-pregnancy-cardiovascular-and-hemodynamic-changes

Greenblatt, J. (2023). The essential role of amino acids in combating anorexia. Psychiatry Redefined. https://www.psychiatryredefined.org/the-essential-role-of-amino-acids-in-combating-anorexia/

Howland, J. (2018). Mayo Clinic minute: Heart-healthier choices at fast food restaurants. https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/mayo-clinic-minute-heart-healthier-choices-at-fast-food-restaurants/

Ifitkhar, S. & Biswas, M. (2023). Cardiac disease in pregnancy. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537261/

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2023) Alcohol and heart health: Separating fact from fiction. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/alcohol-and-heart-health-separating-fact-from-fiction

Kepley, J., Bates, K., & Mohiuddin, S. (2023). Physiology, Maternal Changes. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539766/

Knott, L. (2020). Potassium-sparing diuretics. Retrieved from https://patient.info/digestive-health/dietary-potassium/potassium-sparing-diuretics

Lee, S., Oh, J., Park, J., Choi, S., & Wee, J. (2018). Differences in youngest-old, middle-old, and oldest-old patients who visit the emergency department. Clin Exp Emerg Med, 5(4):249–255. doi: 10.15441/ceem.17.261.

Lennie, T., Andreae, C., Rayens, M., Song, E., Dunbar, S., Pressler, S., Heo, S., Kim, J., & Moser, D. (2018). Micronutrient deficiency independently predicts time to events in patients with heart failure. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7, https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/JAHA.117.007251

Lu, Y., Chen, R., Cai, J., Huang, Z, & Yuan, H. (2018). The management of hypertension in women planning for pregnancy. Oxford Journals British Medical Bulletin. 128(1): 75–84. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldy035

Martin, R. (2023). Health benefits of French food. Blog post Cuisine of the Month: French. Retrieved from: https://ubiquinol.org/blog/cuisine-month-french

Mayo Clinic. (2021). DASH diet: Healthy eating to lower your blood pressure. Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/dash-diet/art-20048456

Mayo Clinic. (2022a). Teens and social media use: What’s the impact? Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/teens-and-social-media-use/art-20474437

Mayo Clinic. (2022b). Warfarin diet: What foods should I avoid? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/thrombophlebitis/expert-answers/warfarin/faq-20058443

Mayo Clinic. (2022c). Transient ischemic attack (TIA). https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/transient-ischemic-attack/symptoms-causes/syc-20355679

Mayo Clinic. (2023a). Diuretics: A cause of low potassium? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/expert-answers/blood-pressure/faq-20058432

Mayo Clinic. (2023b). Top 5 lifestyle changes to improve your cholesterol. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-cholesterol/in-depth/reduce-cholesterol/art-20045935

Mayo Clinic. (2023c). Premature birth. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/premature-birth/symptoms-causes/syc-20376730

Mayo Clinic. (2023d). High cholesterol. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-cholesterol/symptoms-causes/syc-20350800

Mayo Clinic. (2023e). Cholesterol: Top foods to improve your numbers. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-cholesterol/in-depth/cholesterol/art-20045192

Medical News Today. (2021). Can fish oils and omega-3 oils benefit our health? Retrieved from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/40253

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2022). What is atherosclerosis? Retrieved from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/atherosclerosis

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2023). High blood triglycerides. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/high-blood-triglycerides

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2022). The basics: Defining how much alcohol is too much. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/health-professionals-communities/core-resource-on-alcohol/basics-defining-how-much-alcohol-too-much

National Library of Medicine. (2022). Cholesterol levels. https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cholesterol-levels/

National Lipid Association. (2020). Heart-healthy eating southern style. https://www.lipid.org/sites/default/files/heart_healthy_eating_-_southern_style.pdf

Nemours Children’s Hospital. (2023, April). Household safety: Preventing choking. Retrieved from https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/safety-choking.html

Patiala Heart Institute. (2023). Importance of diet for a healthy heart. Retrieved from https://patialaheart.com/blog/diet-chart-for-heart-patients/

Raeside, R., Partridge, S., Singleton, A., & Redfern, J. (2019). Cardiovascular disease prevention in adolescents: eHealth, Co-Creation, and Advocacy. Med Sci (Basel), 7(2):34. doi: 10.3390/medsci7020034.

Rodgers, J., Jones, J., Bolleddu, S., Vanthenapalli, S., Rodgers, L., Shah, K., Karia, K., & Panguluri, S. (2019). Cardiovascular risks associated with gender and aging. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease6(2), 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020019

Royal Bromptom and Harefield Hospital. (2021). Nutrition for babies born with CHD. https://www.rbht.nhs.uk/our-services/paediatrics/information-for-parents/childrens-diet/nutrition-for-babies-born-chd

Russell, M. (2022). JAHA Spotlight on pregnancy and its impact on maternal and offspring cardiovascular health. Journal of American Heart Association, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.025167

Sarder, M., Greway, A., DeAngelis, M., Tysko, E., Lehmann, S., Wohlstetter, M., & Patel, R. (2015). Cardiovascular impact of eating disorders in adults: A single center experience and literature review. Heart Views, 16(3). Doi:10.4103/1995-705X.164463

Sterns, R. (2022). Diuretic-induced hyponatremia. UpToDate. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/diuretic-induced-hyponatremia#H9602708

UNICEF. (2023). Maternal nutrition. https://www.unicef.org/nutrition/maternal

United States Department of Agriculture. (2020), Dietary guidelines for Americans. https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/sites/default/files/2020-12/Dietary_Guidelines_for_Americans_2020-2025.pdf

United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). MyPlate. https://www.myplate.gov/myplate-plan

Watson, S. (2022). Infant nutrition: The first 6 months. Grow by WebMD. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/nutrition

WebMD. (2022). Best and worst Italian dishes for your health. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/ss/slideshow-best-worst-italian-dishes

Yang, J., Kang, Y., Cheng, Y., Zeng, L., Yan, H., & Dong, S. (2019). Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and congenital heart defects: A case-control study. International Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 16(16). Doi:10.3390/ijerph16162957

Chapter 13 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Pulmonary Wellness

Ahmadi, A., Eftekhari, M. H., Mazloom, Z., Masoompour, M., Fararooei, M., Eskandari, M. H., Mehrabi, S., Bedeltavana, A., Famouri, M., Zare, M., Nasimi, N., & Sohrabi, Z. (2020). Fortified whey beverage for improving muscle mass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Respiratory Research, 21, 1–11.

American Lung Association. (2023). Nutrition and COPD. https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/living-with-copd/nutrition

Andrianasolo, R. M., Kesse-Guyot, E., Adjibade, M., Hercberg, S., Galan, P., & Varraso, R. (2018). Associations between dietary scores with asthma symptoms and asthma control in adults. European Respiratory Journal, 52(1). https: DOI: 10.1183/13993003.02572-2017

Arsenault, J. E., Moursi, M., Olney, D. K., Becquey, E., & Ganaba, R. (2020). Validation of 24‐h dietary recall for estimating nutrient intakes and adequacy in adolescents in Burkina Faso. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 16(4), e13014.

Arvers, P. (2018). Alcohol consumption and lung damage: Dangerous relationships. Revue des Maladies Respiratoires, 35(10), 1039–1049.

Arigliani, M., Spinelli, A. M., Liguoro, I., & Cogo, P. (2018). Nutrition and lung growth. Nutrients, 10(7), 919. doi: 10.3390/nu10070919

Burris, M., Kihlstrom, L., Arce, K. S., Prendergast, K., Dobbins, J., McGrath, E., Renda, A., Shannon, E., Cordier, T., Song, Y., & Himmelgreen, D. (2021). Food insecurity, loneliness, and social support among older adults. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 16(1), 29–44.

Calcaterra, V., Verduci, E., Ghezzi, M., Cena, H., Pascuzzi, M. C., Regalbuto, C., Lamberti, R., Rossi, V., Manuelli, M., Bosetti, A., & Zuccotti, G. V. (2021). Pediatric obesity-related asthma: The role of nutrition and nutrients in prevention and treatment. Nutrients, 13(11), 3708.

Canadian Lung Association. (n.d.). Breathing. https://www.lung.ca/lung-health/lung-info/breathing

Castro, D., Patil, S., & Keenaghan, M. (2022). Arterial blood gas. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536919/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a, February 22). Tips from former smokers: Overviews of diseases/conditions. 2022, Feb. 22. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/diseases/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b, April 19). Alcohol basics: Frequently asked questions. https://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c, May 20). Cow’s milk and milk alternatives. https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/infantandtoddlernutrition/foods-and-drinks/cows-milk-and-milk-alternatives.html

COPD Foundation. (2021). Nutrition for someone with COPD. https://www.copdfoundation.org/Learn-More/I-am-a-Person-with-COPD/Nutrition-for-Someone-with-COPD.aspx

Deer, R. & Volpi, E. (2018). Protein requirements in critically ill older adults. Nutrients, 10(3), 378. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030378

Dezube, R. (2023, January). Evaluation of the pulmonary patient. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary-disorders/approach-to-the-pulmonary-patient/evaluation-of-the-pulmonary-patient Dixon, A. E., & Peters, U. (2018). The effect of obesity on lung function. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, 12(9), 755–767. https://www.nclex.com/clinical-judgment-measurement-model.page

Esquivel, M. (2018). Nutritional assessment and intervention to prevent and treat malnutrition for fall risk reduction in elderly populations. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 12(2), 107–112. https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827617742847

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Chapter 16 Special Nutritional Considerations for Renal Health

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015, November 21). Prevent urinary tract infections in children. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/genitourinary-tract/Pages/Prevent-Urinary-Tract-Infections-in-Children.aspx

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2021, January 20). Kidney stones in children and teens. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/genitourinary-tract/Pages/Kidney-Stones-in-Children-and-Teens.aspx

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2020). How much water should I drink during pregnancy? https://www.acog.org/womens-health/experts-and-stories/ask-acog/how-much-water-should-i-drink-during-pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2023a). Nutrition during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/nutrition-during-pregnancy

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2023b). Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnant Individuals. ACOG Clinical Consensus, 142(2). https://www.acog.org/-/media/project/acog/acogorg/clinical/files/clinical-consensus/articles/2023/08/urinary-tract-infections-in-pregnant-individuals.pdf

American Heart Association. (n.d.). How much sugar is too much? https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/sugar/how-much-sugar-is-too-much

American Kidney Fund. (2022). Types of kidney diseases. https://www.kidneyfund.org/all-about-kidneys/types-kidney-diseases

Attini, R., Leone, F., Chatrenet, A., Longhitano, E., Casula, V., Tomasi Cont, A., Zaccaria, G., Dalmasso, E., Manzione, A., Masturzo, B., Torreggiani, M., Revelli, A., Cabiddu, G., & Piccoli, G. (2022). Plant-based diets improve maternal–fetal outcomes in CKD pregnancies. Nutrients, 14(19), 4203. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194203

Bennett, W. M., Rahbari-Oskoui, F. F., & Chapman, A. B. (2022, June 7). Patient education: Polycystic kidney disease (beyond the basics). UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/polycystic-kidney-disease-beyond-the-basics

Cafasso, J. (2023, February 14). Anticholinergics. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/anticholinergics

Columbia University Irving Medical Center. (n.d.). Intrauterine growth restriction (fetal growth abnormality). https://www.columbiadoctors.org/treatments-conditions/intrauterine-growth-restriction-fetal-growth-abnormality

Dai, J., & Pearle, M. (2022). Diet and stone disease in 2022. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(16), 4740. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164740

Deshpande, P. (n.d.). Diet for good kidney health in children. PatientsEngage. https://www.patientsengage.com/healthy-living/diet-good-kidney-health-children

Duda, K. (2022, August 1). What is chromium? Verywell Health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/chromium-benefits-4588421

Economic Research Service. (2022, October 20). Documentation. Food Access Research Atlas. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-access-research-atlas/documentation/

Ferraro, P., Bargagli, M., Trinchieri, A., & Gambaro, G. (2020). Risk of kidney stones: Influence of dietary factors, dietary patterns, and vegetarian–vegan diets. Nutrients, 12(3), 779. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030779

Fresenius Kidney Care. (n.d.). Managing fluid intake on dialysis. https://www.freseniuskidneycare.com/recipes-and-nutrition/fluid-management-on-dialysis

Furst, J. (2021, April 15). Mayo study finds that pregnancy increases risk for women to develop first-time symptomatic kidney stones. Mayo Clinic News Network. https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/mayo-clinic-study-finds-that-pregnancy-increases-risk-for-women-to-develop-first-time-symptomatic-kidney-stones/

Gavin, M. (2021, January). Iron. Nemours KidsHealth. https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/iron.html

Gleason, J.L., Sundaram, R., & Mitro, S.D., et al. (2022, October 31). “Association of Maternal Caffeine Consumption During Pregnancy With Child Growth.” JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(10):e2239609. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.39609. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2797983

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Urinary incontinence in children. Health. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/urinary-incontinence/urinary-incontinence-in-children

Karki, N., & Leslie, S. (2023, May 30). Struvite and triple phosphate renal calculi. In StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568783/

Keilman, C., & Shanks, A. (2022, September 12). Oligohydramnios. In StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK562326/

Kubala, J. (2021, October 4). Does cranberry juice help treat UTIs? Myth versus science. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/cranberry-juice-uti

Lee, Y., Lumbers, E., Schumacher, T., Collins, C., Rae, K., Pringle, K., & Gomeroi Gaaynggal Advisory Committee. (2021). Maternal diet influences fetal growth but not fetal kidney volume in an Australian Indigenous pregnancy cohort. Nutrients, 13(2), 569. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fnu13020569

Leslie, S., Sajjad, H., & Nazzal, L. (2023, May 30). Cystinuria. In StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470527/

Levtchencko, E., Servais, A., Hulton, S., Ariceta, G., Emma, F., Game, D., Lange, K., Lapatto, R., Liang, H., Sberro-Soussan, R., Topaloglu, R., Das, A., Webb, N., & Wanner, C. (2022). Expert guidance on the multidisciplinary management of cystinosis in adolescent and adult patients. Clinical Kidney Journal, 15(9), 1675–1684. https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfac099

Liao, Z., Fang, Z., Gou, S., Luo, Y., Liu, Y., He, Z., Li, X., Peng, Y., Fu, Z., Li, D., Chen, H., & Luo, Z. (2022). The role of diet in renal cell carcinoma incidence: An umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies. BMC Medicine, 20(39). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02229-5

Lubeck, B. (2023, April 25). Selenium: Everything you need to know. Verywell Health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/selenium-benefits-side-effects-and-more-7481242

Malek, A., Hunt, K., Turan, T., Mateus, J., Lackland, D., Lucas, A., & Wilson, D. (2022). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with and without pre-pregnancy hypertension are associated with incident maternal kidney disease subsequent to delivery. Hypertension, 79, 844–854. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.18451

Mas Que Ideas Foundation. (2022, April). Kidney cancer diet and nutrition: A guide for patients and their families. https://ikcc.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/KIDNEY-CANCER-DIET-NUTRICION-EN-Web-version.pdf

McCarthy, C. (2021, January 26). New dietary guidelines: Any changes for infants, children, and teens? Harvard Health Publishing. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/new-dietary-guidelines-any-changes-for-infants-children-and-teens-2021012621831

Medical Home Portal. (n.d.). Nutritional needs of the preterm infant. https://www.medicalhomeportal.org/clinical-practice/feeding-and-nutrition/nutritional-needs-of-the-preterm-infant

Mobley, D., Patel, H., & Baum, N. (2020, May 20). Impact of nutrition on urologic and renal diseases. Renal & Urology News. https://www.renalandurologynews.com/home/departments/nutrition/diet-prostatitis-ic-stones-ed-oab-bph-ckd-bladder-cancer/

Modglin, L. (2022, February 22). Mediterranean diet voted best for 2022: What do diabetes experts say? DiaTribeLearn. https://diatribe.org/mediterranean-diet-voted-best-2022-what-do-diabetes-experts-say

National Institutes of Health (2021). Manganese. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Manganese-HealthProfessional/

National Institutes of Health (2022a). Copper. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Copper-HealthProfessional/.

National Institutes of Health. (2022b). Vitamin B12. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/

National Kidney Foundation. (2022). FDA proposes new definition of “healthy”: What this mean for people with kidney disease. https://www.kidney.org/newsletter/fda-proposes-new-definition-healthy-what-means-people-kidney-disease

National Kidney Foundation. (2023). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/gfr

Nelms, C. (2018). Optimizing enteral nutrition for growth in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6(1), 214. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00214

NHS Inform. (2023, February 13). Urinary tract infection in children. https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/kidneys-bladder-and-prostate/urinary-tract-infection-uti-in-children

Norton Children’s. (2020, December 3). Five foods for urinary tract infections in a child. https://nortonchildrens.com/news/5-power-foods-better-urinary-health/

Nusken, E., Voggel, J., Fink, G., Dotsch, J., & Nusken, K. (2020). Impact of early-life diet on long-term renal health. Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics, 7(17). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40348-020-00109-1

Orlando Health. (2023, August 3). Kidney stones: Pregnancy’s secret side effect. https://www.orlandohealth.com/content-hub/kidney-stones-pregnancy-s-secret-side-effect

Patel, J., & Rouster, A. (2022, August 8). Infant nutrition requirements and options. In StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560758/

Peerapan, P., & Thongboonkerd, V. (2023). Kidney stone prevention. Advances in Nutrition, 14(3), 555–569. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.advnut.2023.03.002

Richards, L. (2022, July 17). What to know about natural treatments for kidney cancer. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/beating-kidney-cancer-naturally-is-it-possible-diet-and-other-tips

Sass, C. (2022, December 8). Best foods for vaginal health. Health. https://www.health.com/condition/sexual-health/best-foods-for-vagina

Satellite Healthcare. (2022). Total kidney health: A holistic approach to value-based kidney care. NephTalk. https://www.satellitehealthcare.com/podcasts/a-holistic-approach-to-value-based-kidney-care

Shi, H., Chen, L., Wang, Y., Sun, M., Guo, Y., Ma, S., Wang, X., Jiang, H., Wang, X., Lu, J., Ge, L., Dong, S., Zhuang, Y., Zhao, Y., Wei, Y., Ma, X., & Qiao, J. (2022). Severity of anemia during pregnancy and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. JAMA Network Open, 5(2): e2147046. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.47046

Siligato, R., Gembillo, G., Cernaro, V., Torre, F., Salvo, A., Granese, R., & Santoro, D. (2020). Maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy in nephrotic syndrome due to primary glomerulonephritis. Frontiers in Medicine, 10(7), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.563094

Sissons, B. (2019, November 27). UTI in pregnancy: Everything you need to know. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/327148

Stanford Medicine Children’s Health. (n.d.). Zinc. https://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default?id=zinc-19-Zinc

Stoppler, M. (2020, July 24). Urinary incontinence: Foods and drinks that cause overactive bladder. RxList. https://www.rxlist.com/urinary_incontinence_slideshow/article.htm

Thompson, D., Jr. (2023, May 18). Best diet and nutrition tips for kidney cancer. Everyday Health. https://www.everydayhealth.com/kidney-cancer/kidney-cancer-diet-and-nutrition.aspx

Tommasso, C., Mauro, G., Mattivi, F., Mondaini, N., Mingo, S., Boddi, V., Gacci, P., Detti, B., Gontero, P., Chiodini, S., Mereu, L., Tateo, S., Mazzoli, S., Malossini, G., & Bartoletti, R. (2014). Apple consumption is related to better sexual quality in young women. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 290(1), 93–98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-014-3168-x

UNICEF. (n.d.). Maternal nutrition: Preventing malnutrition in pregnant and breastfeeding women. https://www.unicef.org/nutrition/maternal

Urology Care Foundation (2023). Pregnancy and Kidney Stones. https://www.urologyhealth.org/healthy-living/urologyhealth-extra/magazine-archives/summer-2019/did-you-know-pregnancy-and-kidney-stones.

Urology Specialists. (2015, March 17). Nutrition to avoid urinary tract infections. https://www.urologyspecialistsnc.com/nutrition-avoid-urinary-tract-infections/

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2020). Dietary guidelines for Americans 2020–2025 (9th ed.). https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/sites/default/files/2020-12/Dietary_Guidelines_for_Americans_2020-2025.pdf

UT Southwestern Medical Center. (2023, June 12). Lots of water, small dietary changes can help prevent kidney stones, UTSW expert says. https://www.newswise.com/articles/lots-of-water-small-dietary-changes-can-help-prevent-kidney-stones-utsw-expert-says

Weinberg, J. L. (2023, May 25). A functional medicine kidney stone protocol: Testing, supplements, and treatment options. Rupa Health. https://www.rupahealth.com/post/a-functional-medicine-kidney-stone-protocol-testing-supplements-and-treatment-options

Wiles, K., Chappell, L., Clark, K., Elman, L., Hall, M., Lightstone, L., Mohamed, G., Mukherjee, D., Nelson-Piercy, C., Webster, P., Whybrow, R., & Bramham, K. (2019). Clinical practice guideline on pregnancy and renal disease. BMC Nephrology, 20(401). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1560-2

Wiles, K., Webster, P., Seed, P., Bennett-Richards, K., Bramham, K., Brunskill, N., Carr, S., Hall, M., Khan, R., Nelson-Piercy, C., Webster, L., Chappell, C., & Lightstone, L. (2020). The impact of chronic kidney disease stages 3–5 on pregnancy outcomes. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 36(11), 2008–2017. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa247

Willacy, H. (2022). Physiological changes in pregnancy. https://patient.info/doctor/physiological-changes-in-pregnancy

Williamson, L. (2022, February 25). High blood pressure may raise future kidney disease risk for pregnant women. American Heart Association. https://www.heart.org/en/news/2022/02/25/high-blood-pressure-may-raise-future-kidney-disease-risk-for-pregnant-women

Wing, D., & Johnston, R. (2017). Obstetrics and gynecology: Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy. Cancer Therapy Advisor. https://www.cancertherapyadvisor.com/home/decision-support-in-medicine/obstetrics-and-gynecology/acute-pyelonephritis-in-pregnancy/

Chapter 17 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Gastrointestinal Wellness

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. (2020a, January 23). Foods to fight iron deficiency. https://www.eatright.org/health/essential-nutrients/minerals/iron-deficiency

Afzaal, M., Saeed, F., Shah, Y., Hussain., M., Rabail, R., Socol, C., Hassoun, A., Pateiro, M., Lorenzo, J., Rusu, A., & Aadil, R. (2022). Human gut microbiota in health and disease: Unveiling the relationship. Frontiers in Microbiology, 13, 999001. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.999001

American Dental Association. (2023, July 7). Nutrition and oral health. https://www.ada.org/resources/research/science-and-research-institute/oral-health-topics/nutrition-and-oral-health

Azzouz, L. A., & Sharma, S. (2023, July 31). Physiology, large intestine (PMID 29939634). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507857/

Castera, M., & Borhade, M. (2022, September 5). Fluid management (PMID 30335338). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532305/

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Diaz de Ortiz, L., & Mendez, M. (2023, March 24). Palatal and gingival cysts in newborns (PMID 29630229). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493177/

Ems, T., Lucia, K., & Huecker, M. (2023, April 17). Biochemistry, iron absorption (PMID 28846259). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448204/

Feroze, K., & Kaufman, E. (2023, April 17). Xerophthalmia (PMID 28613746). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431094/

Fish, E., & Burns, B. (2022, October 14). Physiology, small bowel (PMID 30335296). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532263/

Gantan, E., & Wiedrich, L. (2023, August 14). Neonatal evaluation (PMID 32644369). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558943/

Gold, J., & Schoenhaus, J. (2023, August 13). Foot and ankle doctor Boynton Beach explains how salt and lack of exercise affects lower leg health. Foot, Ankle & Leg Vein Center. https://www.bocaratonfootcare.com/foot-ankle-doctor-boynton-explains-salt-and-lack-exercise-affects-lower-leg-health/

Gunnars, K. (2023, May 3). 22 high fiber foods you should eat. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/22-high-fiber-foods

Hakes, H. (2021, April 5). Vitamin deficiencies: Noting the oral health clues present in the mouth. https://www.todaysrdh.com/vitamin-deficiencies-noting-the-oral-health-clues-present-in-the-mouth/

Howley, E. K. (2020, July 13). 9 foods high in vitamin B12. U.S. News & World Report. https://health.usnews.com/wellness/food/articles/foods-high-in-vitamin-b12

Hsu, M., Safadi, A., & Lui, F. (2023, July 17). Physiology, stomach (PMID 30571046). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535425/

Johnson, J. (2021, February 18). What to know about low blood pressure with a high pulse. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/low-blood-pressure-high-pulse

Johnson, L. E. (2022, November). Riboflavin deficiency (vitamin B2 deficiency). MSD Manual. https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/nutritional-disorders/vitamin-deficiency,-dependency,-and-toxicity/riboflavin-deficiency

Kesari, A., & Noel, J. (2023, April 10). Nutritional assessment (PMID 35593821). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK580496/

Lee, J., Tsolis, R., & Baumler, A. (2022). The microbiome and gut homeostasis. Science, 377(6601), eabp9960. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abp9960

Mealie, C., Ali, R., & Manthey, D. (2022, October 10). Abdominal exam (PMID 29083767). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459220/

Mount Sinai Icahn School of Medicine. (n.d.). Dry mouth. https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/symptoms/dry-mouth

Ogobuiro, I., Gonzales, J., Shumway, K. R., & Tuma, F. (2023, April 8). Physiology, gastrointestinal (PMID 30725788). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537103/

Plewa, M., & Chatterjee, K. (2022, August 7). Aphthous stomatitis (PMID 28613713). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431059/

Rosenthal, B. (2020, October). Recognizing the impact of nutrition in healing wounds. Podiatry Today. https://www.hmpgloballearningnetwork.com/site/podiatry/recognizing-impact-nutrition-healing-wounds

Sanchez Lopez de Nava, A., & Raja, A. (2022, September 12). Physiology, metabolism (PMID 31536296). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546690/

Sawar, M. F., Sawar, M. H., & Sawar, M. (2021). Deficiency of B-complex and its relation with body disorders. In J. G. LeBlanc (Ed.). B-complex vitamins. IntechOpen. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/78374

Schneider, A., & Gibbs, H. (2022, December 7). Disparities in housing, health care, child care, and economic security affect babies for life. Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/article/disparities-in-housing-health-care-child-care-and-economic-security-affect-babies-for-life/

Stewart, A. (n.d.). Deficiency symptoms and signs. Stewart Nutrition. https://www.stewartnutrition.co.uk/nutritional_assesment/deficiency_symptoms_and_signs.html

UPMC. (n.d.). Defining obesity. https://www.upmc.com/locations/hospitals/hamot/services/bariatric/defining-obesity

Weersma, R., Zhernakova, A., & Fu, J. (2020). Interaction between drugs and the gut microbiome. Gut, 69, 1510–1519. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7928-7371

Chapter 18 Special Nutritional Considerations for Gastrointestinal Health

Abrams, S. A. (2022, May 17). How to safely prepare baby formula with water. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/formula-feeding/Pages/how-to-safely-prepare-formula-with-water.aspx

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Portions and serving sizes. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/healthy-living/nutrition/Pages/Portions-and-Serving-Sizes.aspx

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2023). Nutrition during pregnancy. https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/nutrition-during-pregnancy

Balestrieri, P., Ribolsi, M., Guarino, M., Emerenziani, S., Altomare, A., & Cicala, M. (2020). Nutritional aspects in inflammatory bowel diseases. Nutrients, 12(2), 372. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fnu12020372

Bedosky, L. (2022). Resistant Starch 101: Potential Benefits, Foods that Contain it, and More. https://www.everydayhealth.com/diet-nutrition/resistant-starch-101/

Ben-Joseph, E. P. (2023). When should kids switch to nonfat milk? https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/start-skim-milk.html

Bhatia, A., Shatanof, R., and Bordoni, B. (2023). Embryology, Gastrointestinal. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537172/

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García-Montero, C., Fraile-Martinez, O., Rodriguez-Martín, S., Saz, J. V., Rodriguez, R. A., Moreno, J. M. P., Labarta, J. R., García-Honduvilla, N., Alvarez-Mon, M., Bravo, C., De Leon-Luis, J. A., & Ortega, M. A. (2023). The use of prebiotics from pregnancy and its complications: Health for mother and offspring—A narrative review. Foods, 12(6), 1148. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods12061148

Getz, M. (2022, June 10). How does your baby eat and poop in the womb? Babycenter. https://www.babycenter.com/pregnancy/your-baby/fetal-development-your-baby-s-digestive-system_40005566

Jin, J., Gao, L., Zou, X., Zhang, Y., Zheng, Z., Zhang, X,. Li, J., Tian, Z., Wang, X., Gu, J., Zhang, C., Wu, T., Wang, Z., & Zhang, Q. (2022). Gut dysbiosis promotes preeclampsia by regulating macrophages and trophoblasts. Circulation Research, 131(6), 492–506. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.320771

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). 5 foods to improve your digestion. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/5-foods-to-improve-your-digestion

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Mahadevan, U., Robinson, C., Bernasko, N., Boland, B., Chambers, C., Dubinsky, M., Friedman, S., Kane, S., Manthey, J., Sauberan, J., Stone, J., & Jain, R. (2019). Inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy clinical care pathway: A report from the American Gastroenterological Association IBD Parenthood Project Working Group. Gastroenterology, 156(5), 1508–1524. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.12.022

Martinez, J., Kahana, D., Ghuman, S., Wilson, H., Wilson, J., Kim, S., Lagishetty, V., Jacobs, J., Sinha-Hikim, A., & Friedman, T. (2021). Unhealthy lifestyle and gut dysbiosis: A better understanding of the effects of poor diet and nicotine on the intestinal microbiome. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12, 667066. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.667066

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Drugs and supplements. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements

Mayo Clinic (2023). Metronidazole (Oral Route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/metronidazole-oral-route/precautions/drg-20064745

Naeini, B., Rajabi, P., & Dehghani, S. (2021). Azathioprine-induced pellagra in a child with autoimmune hepatitis: A case report and literature review. Clinical Case Reports, 9(10), e04975. https://doi.org/10.1002%2Fccr3.4975

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Nesta. (2019, August 27). Key components of a healthy diet for children and teens. https://www.nestacertified.com/key-components-of-a-healthy-diet-for-children-and-teens/

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Chapter 19 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Wellness

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Chapter 20 Special Nutritional Considerations for Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Health

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