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Chapter 1 Introduction to Nutrition for Nurses

Agusala, B. (2022, January 26). 9 diet fads to try (or skip completely) in 2022. UT Southwestern Medical Center.

American Heart Association. (2023). The American Heart Association diet and lifestyle recommendations.

American Medical Association. (2023, June 14). AMA adopts new policy clarifying role of BMI as a measure in medicine [Press release].

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Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (2022, September 30). What dieticians and nutritionists do. Occupational outlook handbook.

Callahan, A., Leonard, H., & Powell, T. (2021). Nutrition: Science and everyday application. Creative Commons.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). About nutrition.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Defining Adult Overweight & Obesity.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Populations and vulnerabilities.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Healthy People. Chien L. Y. (2019). Evidence-based practice and nursing research. The Journal of Nursing Research: JNR27(4), e29.

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Devine, A., & Lawlis, T. (2019). Nutrition and vulnerable groups. Nutrients, 11(5), 1066.

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English, Emily. (n.d.). The dangers of social media. Emily English Nutrition.

Feeding America (2023). Hunger and food insecurity.

Gattu, R., Paik, G., Wang, Y., Ray, P., Lichenstein, R., & Black., M. (2019). The Hunger Vital Sign identifies household food insecurity among children in emergency departments and primary care. Children (Basel, Switzerland)6(10), 107.

Gbareen, M., Barnoy, S. & Theilla, M. (2021). Subjective and objective nutritional assessment: nurses’ role and the effect of cultural differences. BMC Nurs 20 (157).

Global Wellness Institute (n.d.). What is wellness?

Hendler, C. (2022, August 5). 10 tactics to improve patient teaching.


Ignatavicius, D., & Silvestri, L. (2023). Getting ready for the next-generation NCLEX (NGN): How to shift from the nursing process to clinical judgment in nursing.

Jahns, L., Davis-Shaw, W., Lichtenstein, A. H., Murphy, S. P., Conrad, Z., & Nielsen, F. (2018). The history and future of dietary guidance in America. Adv Nutr. 9(2):136-147. https://doi: 10.1093/advances/nmx025. PMID: 29659693; PMCID: PMC5916427.

Johns Hopkins Sheridan Libraries (2023, February 26). Evaluating information. Johns Hopkins University.

Jorgensen, M. (2022, October 12). What is evidence-based nutrition? Trifecta Nutrition. Retrieved 1/4/2023 from

Kabata, P., Winniczuk-Kabata, D., Kabata, P. M., Jaśkiewicz, J., & Połom, K. (2022). Can social media profiles be a reliable source of information on nutrition and dietetics? Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2), 397.

Kahm Clinic. (2022, January 25). The connection between social media, eating disorders, and diet culture.

King, H. (2019, October 8). Hippocrates now: Quoting the father of medicine.

Lam, C. & Patel, P. (2022). Food, drug, and cosmetic act. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing

Mattes, R., Rowe, S., Ohlhorst, S., Brown, A., Hoffman, D., Liska, D., Feskens, E., Dhillon, J., Tucker, K., Epstein, L., Neufeld, L., Kelley, M., Fukagawa, N., Sunde, R., Zeisel, S., Basile, A., Borth, L., & Jackson, E. (2022). Valuing the Diversity of Research Methods to Advance Nutrition Science. Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)13(4), 1324–1393.

Mozaffarian D, Rosenberg I, Uauy R. (2018). History of modern nutrition science-implications for current research, dietary guidelines, and food policy. BMJ.;361:k2392. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2392.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (2019). NGN Talks: Clinical Judgment Measurement Model.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (2023). Clinical judgment measurement model. Next generation NCLEX.

National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (n.d.). Food Accessibility, Insecurity, and Health Outcomes.

North Dakota State University. (2019). Finding the truth 1: Reliable nutrition and health information. Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. Public Law No: 101-535, (1990).

OSU Extension Service. (2023). About food hero.

Stillerman, K. (2019, June 6). “Big Food” Companies spend big money in hopes of shaping the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The Equation.

Thornton, L. (2019). A Brief History and Overview of Holistic Nursing. Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.)18(4), 32–33.

Toney-Butler, T., & Thayer, J. (2023). Nursing process. In StatPearls [Internet] StatPearls Publishing.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Learn how to eat healthy with MyPlate.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2021). MyPlate/MiPlato.

U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services (n.d.). History of the Dietary Guidelines.

U.S. Department of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. (2020). Dietary guidelines for Americans.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (n.d.) The role of the USDA Food and Nutrition Service.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Science. (n.d.).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2010). National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2021, October 26). Health literacy and health equity: Connecting the dots.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (n.d.). Browse evidence-based resources. Healthy People 2030. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (n.d.). Nutrition and healthy eating. Healthy People 2030. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2018). FDA History.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (n.d.) The new nutrition facts label: What’s in it for you?

Van De Walle, G. (2019). What Is the Waist-to-Hip Ratio? Healthline.

Weill Cornell Medicine. (n.d.) The Food and Drug Administration: the continued history of drug advertising.

World Health Organization (n.d). Constitution.

Yinusa G., Scammell, J., Murphy, J., Ford, G., & Baron, S. Multidisciplinary provision of food and nutritional care to hospitalized adult in-patients: a scoping review. (2021). J Multidisciplinary Healthcare.;14:459-491.

Chapter 2 A Holistic View of Macronutrients

Alzahrani, M., AlGhrab, S., Althwabi, M., Sudan, A., Jurays, N., Alalyani, F., Bin Fudhayl, S., Alfahadi, M., Asiri, Y., & Alshahrani, A. (2022). Awareness of Lactose Intolerance Disorder in Saudi Arabia Population. Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care, 11(6), 3118–3124.

American Diabetes Association. (2019) 5. Lifestyle management: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2019. Diabetes Care, 42(Suppl. 1), S46–S60.

American Heart Association. (2018). Mono-unsaturated fats from plants, not animals may reduce risk of death from heart disease and other causes. ScienceDaily, 21 March 2018.

American Heart Association. (2021, November 21). Saturated fat.

American Kidney Fund. (2022, October 26). Stages of kidney disease.

Amico, A., Wootan, M. G., Jacobson, M. F., Leung, C., & Willet, A. W. (2021). The demise of artificial trans fat: A history of a public health achievement. Milbank Quarterly99(3), 746–770.

Amiri, M., Ghiasvand, R., Kaviani, M., Forbes, S. C., & Salehi-Abargouei, A. (2019). Chocolate milk for recovery from exercise: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition73(6), 835–849.

Ampong, I., Watkins, A., Gutierrez-Merino, J., Ikwuobe, J., & Griffiths, H. R. (2020). Dietary protein insufficiency: An important consideration in fatty liver disease? British Journal of Nutrition123(6), 601–609.

Atkinson, F. S., Brand-Miller, J. C., Foster-Powell, K., Buyken, A. E., & Goletzke, J. (2021). International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values 2021: A systematic review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 114(5), 1625–1632.

Bendsen, N. T., Christensen, R., Bartels, E. M., & Astrup, A. (2011). Consumption of industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(7), 773–783.

Beslay, M., Srour, B., Méjean, C., Allès, B., Fiolet, T., Debras, C., Chazelas, E., Deschasaux, M., Wendeu-Foyet, M. G., Hercberg, S., Galan, P., Monteiro, C. A., Deschamps, V., Calixto Andrade, G., Kesse-Guyot, E., Julia, C., & Touvier, M. (2020). Ultra-processed food intake in association with BMI change and risk of overweight and obesity: A prospective analysis of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort. PLoS Medicine, 17(8), e1003256.

Borer, K. T. (2023). Are gastrointestinal signals the principal guides to human appetite and energy balance? Medical Research Archives11(1), 10.18103/mra.v11i1.3548.

Catanzaro, R., Sciuto, M., & Marotta, F. (2021). Lactose intolerance: an update on its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Nutrition Research.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, November 3). Bottled Water.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Boil water advisory.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Making water safe in an emergency.

Charles, S. (2022, February 25). Difference between glycemic index and glycemic load. Verywell Health.

Clark, C., Imran, J., Madni, T., & Wolf, S. E. (2017). Nutrition and metabolism in burn patients. Burns & Trauma, 5(1), 1–12.

Clemente-Suárez VJ, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Martín-Rodríguez A, Ramos-Campo DJ, Redondo-Flórez L, Tornero-Aguilera JF. (2022, September 15). The Burden of Carbohydrates in Health and Disease. Nutrients, 14(18):3809. doi: 10.3390/nu14183809. PMID: 36145184; PMCID: PMC9505863.

Currenti, W., Godos, J., Alanazi, A. M., Grosso, G., Cincione, R. I., Vignera, S. L., Buscemi, S., & Galvano, F. (2022). Dietary fats and cardio-metabolic outcomes in a cohort of Italian adults. Nutrients14(4294), 4294.

Dickerson, R. N. (2016). Nitrogen balance and protein requirements for critically ill older patients. Nutrients8(4), 226.

Dupuis, C., Bret, A., Janer, A., Guido, O., Bouzgarrou, R., Dopeux, L., Hernandez, G., Mascle, O., Calvet, L., Thouy, F., Grapin, K., Couhault, P., Kinda, F., Laurichesse, G., Bonnet, B., Adda, M., Boirie, Y., & Souweine, B. (2022). Association of nitrogen balance trajectories with clinical outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients: A retrospective cohort study. Clinical Nutrition41(12), 2895–2902.

Fiolet, T., Srour, B., Sellem, L., Kesse-Guyot, E., Allès, B., Méjean, C., Deschasaux, M., Fassier, P., Latino-Martel, P., Beslay, M., Hercberg, S., Lavalette, C., Monteiro, C. A., & Touvier, M. (2018). Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: Results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort. The British Medical Journal, 360, k322.

Garden-Robinson, J., & Christenson, J. (2019). Teens and protein: How much do you need? North Dakota State University.

Gebhardt, S.E., & Thomas, R.G. (2022, October). Nutritive Value of Foods. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Home and Garden Bulletin, 72.

Gordon, B., & Klemm, S. (2022, June 23). How much water do you need? The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Guasch-Ferré, M., Zong, G., Willett, W. C., Zock, P. L., Wanders, A. J., Hu, F. B., & Sun, Q. (2019). Associations of monounsaturated fatty acids from plant and animal sources with total and cause-specific mortality in two U.S. prospective cohort studies. Circulation Research, 124(8), 1266–1275.

Guilbeau, J., & Watson, C. S. (2022). Assessment and management of vitamin D deficiency. Women’s Healthcare: A Clinical Journal for NPs10(1), 36–40.

Hauser, M. E., McMacken, M., Lim, A., & Shetty, P. (2022). Nutrition—An evidence-based, practical approach to chronic disease prevention and treatment. Journal of Family Practice71(Suppl. 1), S5–S16.

Iwayama, K., Tanabe, Y., Yajima, K., Tanji, F., Onishi, T., & Takahashi, H. (2023). Preexercise high-fat meal following carbohydrate loading attenuates glycogen utilization during endurance exercise in male recreational runners. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research37(3), 661–668.

Katoch, G. K., Nain, N., Kaur, S., & Rasane, P. (2022). Lactose intolerance, and its dietary management: An update, Journal of the American Nutrition Association, 41:4, 424–434.

Kris-Etherton, P. M., & Krauss, R. M. (2020). Public health guidelines should recommend reducing saturated fat consumption as much as possible: YES. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 112(1), 13–18.

Liu, A. G., Ford, N. A., Hu, F. B., Zelman, K. M., Mozaffarian, D., & Kris-Etherton, P. M. (2016). A healthy approach to dietary fats: Understanding the science and taking action to reduce consumer confusion. Nutrition Journal, 16(1), 53.

Llavero-Valero, M., Escalada-San Martín, J., Martínez-González, M. A., Basterra-Gortari, F. J., de la Fuente-Arrillaga, C., & Bes-Rastrollo, M. (2021). Ultra-processed foods and type-2 diabetes risk in the SUN project: A prospective cohort study. Clinical Nutrition40(5), 2817–2824.

MacDonald, C. J., Madkia, A.-L., Mounier-Vehier, C., Severi, G., & Boutron-Ruault, M.-C. (2022). Associations between saturated fat intake and other dietary macronutrients and incident hypertension in a prospective study of French women. European Journal of Nutrition, 62(3), 1207–1215.

McDermott, B. P., Anderson, S. A., Armstrong, L. E., Casa, D. J., Cheuvront, S. N., Cooper, L., Kenney, W. L., O’Connor, F. G., & Roberts, W. O. (2017). National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Fluid replacement for the physically active. Journal of Athletic Training52(9), 877–895.

Metropulos, M. (2023, June 23). What to know about soy. Medical News Today.

Munoz, N., & Posthauer, M. E. (2022). Nutrition strategies for pressure injury management: Implementing the 2019 International Clinical Practice Guideline. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 37(3), 567–582.

Munoz-Urtubia, N., Vega-Munoz, A., Estrada-Munoz, C., Salazar-Sepulveda, G., Contreras-Barraza, N., & Castillo, D. (2023). Healthy Behavior and Sports Drinks: A Systematic Review. NUTRIENTS15(13), 2915.

National Kidney Foundation of Hawaii. (n.d.). Understanding the Renal Diet: Protein.

Precker, M. (2022, January 27). Sound the fiber alarm! Most of us need more of it in our diet. American Heart Association News.

Quagliani D, Felt-Gunderson P. Closing America's Fiber Intake Gap: Communication Strategies From a Food and Fiber Summit. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2016 Jul 7;11(1):80-85. doi: 10.1177/1559827615588079. PMID: 30202317; PMCID: PMC6124841.

Rajan, E. (2023, April 12). Can you recommend a diet after gallbladder removal? Mayo Clinic.

Seal, C. J., Courtin, C. M., Venema, K., & de Vries, J. (2021). Health benefits of whole grain: Effects on dietary carbohydrate quality, the gut microbiome, and consequences of processing. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety20(3), 2742–2768.

Shoaibinobarian, N., Danehchin, L., Mozafarinia, M., Hekmatdoost, A., Eghtesad, S., Masoudi, S., Mohammadi, Z., Mard, A., Paridar, Y., Abolnezhadian, F., Malihi, R., Rahimi, Z., Cheraghian, B., Mir-Nasseri, M. M., Shayesteh, A. A., & Poustchi, H. (2023). The association between DASH diet adherence and cardiovascular risk factors. International Journal of Preventive Medicine14, 24.

Teicholz, N. (2023) A short history of saturated fat: The making and unmaking of a scientific consensus. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 30(1), 65–71.

Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(3) 543–568.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2022). Food Sources of Dietary Fiber.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2022, November 7). How much (dietary) fiber should I eat? Ask USDA.

U.S. Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service. (2019). FoodData Central.

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th Edition.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2023). Private drinking water wells.

Watson, S. (2023). Do air fryers have health benefits? WebMD.

Wood, B., Williams, O., Baker, P., & Sacks, G. (2023, April 19). Behind the “creative destruction” of human diets: An analysis of the structure and market dynamics of the ultra-processed food manufacturing industry and implications for public health. Journal of Agrarian Change. 23(4), 1–33.

Yi-Bing Zhu, Yan Yao, Yuan Xu, & Hui-Bin Huang. (2022). Nitrogen balance and outcomes in critically ill patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9.

Chapter 3 A Holistic View of Micronutrients

Abiri, B., & Vafa, M. (2021). Vitamin C and cancer: The role of vitamin C in disease progression and quality of life in cancer patients. Nutrition & Cancer, 73(8), 1282–1292.

Ami, N., Bernstein, M., Boucher, F., Rieder, M., & Parker, L. (2016). Folate and neural tube defects: The role of supplements and food fortification. Paediatrics & Child Health (1205-7088), 21(3), 1–7.

Cowan, A., Tooze, J., Gahche, J, Bhadra, A, Carroll, R., & Bailey, R. (2020). Trends in overall and micronutrient-containing dietary supplement use in adults and children, NHANES 2007-2018. The Journal of Nutrition. doi:

Crist, B. L., Alekel, D. L., Ritland, L. M., Hanson, L. N., Genschel, U., & Reddy, M. B. (2009). Association of oxidative stress, iron, and centralized fat mass in healthy postmenopausal women. Journal of Women’s Health (15409996), 18(6), 795–801.

Cuskelly, G. J., Mooney, K. M., & Young, I. S. (2007). Folate and vitamin B12: friendly or enemy nutrients for the elderly. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 66(4 pp.548–558), 548–558.

Dimitrov, V., Barbier, C., Ismailova, A., Wang, Y., Dmowski, K., Salehi-Tabar, R., Memari, B., Groulx-Boivin, E., & White, J. H. (2021). Vitamin D-regulated gene expression profiles: Species-specificity and cell-specific effects on metabolism and immunity. Endocrinology 162(2), bqaa218.

Farag, M. A., Abib, B., Qin, Z., Ze, X., & Ali, S. E. (2023). Dietary macrominerals: Updated review of their role and orchestration in human nutrition throughout the life cycle with sex differences. Current Research in Food Science, 6, 100450.

Fletcher, J. (2019). What are the six essential nutrients? Medical News Today.

Hand, I., Noble, L., & Abrams, S. A. (2022). Vitamin K and the newborn infant. Pediatrics, 149(3), 1–6.

Hanna, M., Jaqua, E., Nguyen, V., & Clay, J. (2022). B vitamins: functions and uses in medicine. Permanente Journal, 26(2), 89–97.

Harguth, A. (2022). Why take vitamin and mineral supplements? Mayo Clinic Health System.

Ingenbleek, Y., & Kimura, H. (2013). Nutritional essentiality of sulfur in health and disease. Nutrition Reviews, 71(7), 413–432.

Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000. Available from: doi: 10.17226/9810

Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Use of Dietary Reference Intakes in Nutrition Labeling. Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (U.S.); 2003. 3, Overview of Food Fortification in the United States and Canada. Available from:

Leung, A. M., Braverman, L. E., & Pearce, E. N. (2012). History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation. Nutrients, 4(11), 1740–1746.

Lykkesfeldt, J., & Tveden-Nyborg, P. (2019). The pharmacokinetics of vitamin C. Nutrients, 11(10).

Mishra, S., Stierman, B., Gahche, J. J., & Potischman, N. (2021, February 01). Dietary supplement use among adults: United States, 2017–2018. NCHS Data Brief, no. 399. National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.); Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Statistics.

Murphy, S. P., Yates, A. A., Atkinson, S. A., Barr, S. I., & Dwyer, J. (2016). History of nutrition: The long road leading to the dietary reference intakes for the United States and Canada. Advances in Nutrition 7(1), 157–168.

National Institutes of Health. (2021a). Pantothenic Acid.

National Institutes of Health. (2021b). Vitamin C.

National Institutes of Health. (2021c). Vitamin E.

National Institutes of Health (2021d). Vitamin K.

National Institutes of Health. (2022a). Biotin.

National Institutes of Health. (2022b). Choline.

National Institutes of Health. (2022c). Folate.

National Institutes of Health. (2022d). Niacin.

National Institutes of Health. (2022e). Riboflavin.

National Institutes of Health. (2022f). Vitamin A and Carotenoids.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2023).

National Institutes of Health. (2023a). Multivitamin/mineral supplements.

National Institutes of Health. (2023b). Thiamin.

National Institutes of Health. (2023c). Vitamin B12.

National Institutes of Health. (2023d). Vitamin B6.

National Institutes of Health. (2023e). Vitamin D.

National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2018). Vitamins and minerals.

National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. (1994). Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 Public Law 103-417 103rd Congress.

Newman, J. C., McBurney, M. I., Hunt, K. J., Malek, A. M., & Marriott, B. P. (2020). Modeling possible outcomes of updated Daily Values on nutrient intakes of the United States adult population. Nutrients, 12(1), 210.

Ofoedu, C.E., Iwouno, J.O., Ofoedu, E.O., Ogueke, C.C., Igwe, V.S. Agunwah, I.M., Ofoedum, A.F., Chacha, J.F., Muobike, O.P., Agunbiade, A.O., Njoku, N.E., Nwakaudu, A.A., Odimegwu,N.E., Ndukauba, O.E., Ogbonna, C.U., Naibaho, J., Korus, M. & Okpala, C.O.R.. (2021). Revisiting food-sourced vitamins for consumer diet and health needs: a perspective review, from vitamin classification, metabolic functions, absorption, utilization, to balancing nutritional requirements. PeerJ, 9, e11940.

Reddy, P. & Jialal, I. (2022). Biochemistry, fat soluble vitamins. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.

Rosenbloom, M. (2023, September 11). Vitamin Toxicity Clinical Presentation. Medscape.

Seres, D. (2023). What supplements do you need? Probably none. Columbia University Irving School of Medicine.

Sjoqvist, F., & Bottiger, Y. (2010). Historical perspectives: drug interactions–it all began with cheese. Journal of Internal Medicine, 268(6), 512–515.

Soliman, N. M. S. E. D., Kotby, A. A., Shabaan, M. A., & Eid, E. M. (2022). Serum chloride and serum sodium derangements in children on prolonged furosemide therapy and their effect on diuretic response. Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, 70(1).

Taylor, C. M., & Emmett, P. M. (2019). Picky eating in children: causes and consequences. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 78(2), 161–169.

United Nations. (2019). The State of the World’s Children 2019: Children, Food and Nutrition–Growing Well in a Changing World. United Nations.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Evolution of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Process and Products: 1980 to Present. (n.d.).

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th Edition. December 2020.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2022a). Daily Value on the New Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2022b). Information for Consumers on Using Dietary Supplements.

van Gool, J. D., Hirche, H., Lax, H., & Schaepdrijver, L. D. (2020). Fallacies of clinical studies on folic acid hazards in subjects with a low vitamin B12 status. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 50(2), 177–187.

Weyh, C., Krüger, K., Peeling, P., & Castell, L. (2022). The role of minerals in the optimal functioning of the immune system. Nutrients, 14(3).

Chapter 4 The Digestive Process

Afzaal, M., Saeed, F., Shah, Y., Hussain., M., Rabail, R., Socol, C., Hassoun, A., Pateiro, M., Lorenzo, J., Rusu, A., & Aadil, R. (2022). Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease: Unveiling the Relationship. Frontiers in Microbiology.

American Stroke Association. (n.d.). Stroke Symptoms.

Austin Gastroenterology. (2019). Upper Vs. Lower GI Tract: What They Are? Retrieved from

Bartel, M. (2022). Effects of Ageing on the Digestive System.

Baton Rouge General (Mayo Clinic Care Network). (2023). Fad Diets and Colon Cancer. Are They Worth the Risk? Retrieved from

Benakis, C. & Liesz, A. (2022). The Gut-Brain Axis in Ischemic Stroke: Its Relevance in Pathology and as a Therapeutic Target. Neurological Research and Practice, 4(57). DOI:

Bhupathiraju, S., & Hu, F. (2023). Nutrient-Drug Interactions. Merck Manual.

Boston Children’s Hospital. (2022). Anorectal Malformation.

Chen, R., Yu, Y., Li, W., Liu, Y., Chen, F., Zhou, Q., Xia, Z., & Ma, D. (2020). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Associated with Unfavorable Prognosis of COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Study. Frontiers in Medicine. DOI:

Cleveland Clinic. (2022a). Digestive System.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022b). Gastrointestinal Diseases.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022c). Gastrointestinal Manifestations of COVID-19.

Cochran, W. (2022a). Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis. Merck Manual.

Cochran, W. (2022b). Intussusception. Merck Manual.

Cochran, W. (2022c). Meconium Ileus. Merck Manual.

Cochran, W. (2022d). Meconium Plug Syndrome (Small Left Colon Syndrome). Merck Manual.

Cochran, W. (2022e). Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Merck Manual.

Cochran, W. (2022f). Neonatal Cholestasis. Merck Manual.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center (n.d.). Congenital Malformations of the Digestive Tract.

Ding, J., Jin, Z., Yang, X., Lou, J., Shan, W., Hu, Y., Du, Q., Liao, Q., Xie, R., & Xu, J. (2020). Role of Gut Microbiota Via the Gut-Liver-Brain Axis in Digestive Diseases. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 26(40), 6141-6162. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i40.6141. Retrieved from

eBioMedicine. (2022). The Dynamics of the Immune System and Gut in the Pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis. The Lancet, 83(104273). DOI:

French, K. (2022). Dozens of Gut Bacteria Associated with Multiple Sclerosis.

Gantan, E., & Wiedrich, L. (2022). Neonatal Evaluation. StatPearls.

GI Associates and Endoscopy Center. (2022a). From the Brain to the Gut (Microbiome).

GI Associates and Endoscopy Center. (2022b). Understanding the Structures of the Digestive System.

Guerra, A., & Waseem, M. (2022). Epiglottitis. StatPearls.

Gunnars, K. (2020). 22 High Fiber Foods You Should Eat.

Johns Hopkins Medicine (2022). Malrotation. Retrieved from

Klein, H. (2022). Study Identifies Gut Microbiota Linked to HE Pathophysiology.

Lee, J., Tsolis, R., & Baumler, A. (2022). The Microbiome and Gut Homeostasis. Science, 377(6601), eabp9960.

Ludwig, K., Bartolo, D., Salerno, A., Ingravello, G., Cazzato, G., Giacometti, C., & Dall’lgna, P. (2022) Congenital Anomalies of the Tubular Gastrointestinal Tract. Pathologica, 114(1), 40-54. DOI: 10.32074/1591-951X-553

Mayo Clinic. (2022). Epiglottitis.

Mealie, C., Ali, R., & Manthey, D. (2022). Abdominal Exam. StatPearls.

Moffitt Cancer Center (2023). What Foods Reduce the Risk of Colon Cancer? Retrieved from

Munger, R., Kuppuswamy, R., Murthy, J., Balakirshnan, K., Thangaval, G., Sambandam, S., Kurpad, A., Molly, A., Ueland, P., & Mossey, P. (2021). Maternal Vitamin B12 Status and Risk of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Birth Defects in Tamil Nadu State, India. Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal, 58(5), 567-576. DOI: 10.1177/1055665621998394.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2022). Your Digestive System and How it Works.

NHS (2023). Fat: The Facts.

Nigam, Y., & Knight, J. (2017). Anatomy and Physiology of Ageing 3: The Digestive System. Nursing Times, 113(4), 54-57.

Ogobuiro, I., Gonzales, J., & Tuma, F. (2022). Pathophysiology, Gastrointestinal. StatPearls.

Patricia, J. & Dahmoon, A. (2022). Physiology, Digestion. StatPearls. Retrieved from

Readman, M. (2022). How Long the Digestion Process Takes from Beginning to End.

Roscoe, L. (2022). Abdominal Assessment: Palpation.

Shaw, P., Loree, J., Gibbons, R., & McCoy, T. (2023). Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (Nursing). StatPearls. Retrieved from

Sidharthan, C. (2022). Gut Microbiome Plays a Role in Alzheimer’s.

Stanford Medicine Children’s Health. (2023a). 5 Ways to Boost Your Child’s Gut Health. Retrieved from

Stanford Medicine Children’s Health. (2023b). Congenital Anomalies of the Biliary Tract. Retrieved from

Sivakumar, S., & Prabhu, A. (2023). Physiology, Gag Reflex. StatPearls. Retrieved from

Tilg, H., Adolph, T., & Trauner, M. (2022). Gut-Liver Axis: Pathophysiological Concepts and Clinical Implications. Cell Metabolism, 34(11), 1700-1718. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2022.09.017.

University of Rochester Medical Center. (2022). The Digestive System: An Overview.

Villa, A. (2022). Oral Examination. Medscape. Retrieved from

Wallen, Z., Demirkan, A., Twa, G., Cohen, G., Dean, M., Standaert, D., Sampson, T., & Payami, H. (2022). Metagenomics of Parkinson’s Disease Implicates the Gut Microbiome in Multiple Disease Mechanisms. Nature Communications, 13(6958). Retrieved from

Wasser, C., Merceieca, E., Kong, G., Hannon, A., McKeown, S., Glikmann-Johnston, Y., & Stout, J. (2020). Gut dysbiosis in Huntington’s disease: associations among gut microbiota, cognitive performance and clinical outcomes. Brain Communications, 2(2), fcaa110. DOI: Retrieved from

Weersma, R., Zhernakova, A., & Fu, J. (2020). Interaction Between Drugs and the Gut Microbiome. Gut, 69, 1510-1519. DOI:

Ye, Q., Wang, B., Zhang, T., Xu, J., & Shang, S. (2020). The Mechanism and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with COVID 19. American Journal of Physiology Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 319(2). DOI: Retrieved from

Chapter 5 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Neurological Wellness

Berkins, S., Schiöth, H. B., & Rukh, G. (2021). Depression and vegetarians: Association between dietary vitamin B6, B12 and folate intake and global and subcortical brain volumes. Nutrients13(6), 1790.

Bhat, Z., Morton, J., Mason, S., Bekhit, A., & Bhat, H. (2019). Obesity and neurological disorders: Dietary perspective of a global menace. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 59(8), 1294–1310.

Borshchev, Y., Uspensky, P., & Galagudza, M. (2019). Pathogenetic pathways of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in metabolic syndrome, Life Sciences, 237.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, June 3). Assessing your weight.

Choi, S., Hong, D., Young Choi, B., & Won Suh, S. (2020). Zinc in the brain, friend or foe? International Journal of Molecular Science, 21(23), 8941.

Chugani, H. (2021). Hypermetabolism on pediatric PET scans of brain glucose metabolism: What does it signify? Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 62(9), 1301–1306.

D’Angelo, S. (2020). Current evidence on the effect of dietary polyphenols intake on brain health. Current Nutrition and Food Science, 16(8), 1170–1182.

Dighriri I. M., Alsubaie, A. M., Hakami, F. M., Hamithi, D. M., Alshekh, M. M., Khobrani, F. A., Dalak, F. E., Hakami, A. A., Alsueaadi, E. H., Alsaawi, L. S., Alshammari, S. F., Alqahtani, A. S., Alawi, I. A., Aljuaid, A. A., & Tawhari, M. Q. (2022). Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on brain functions: A systematic review. Cureus 14(10), e30091.

Dowis, K., & Banga, S. (2021). The potential health benefits of the ketogenic diet: A narrative review. Nutrients13(5), 1654.

Farag, M. A., Hamouda, S., Gomaa, S., Agboluaje, A., Hariri, M., & Yousof, S. (2021). Dietary micronutrients from zygote to senility: Updated review of minerals’ role and orchestration in human nutrition throughout life cycle with sex differences. Nutrients13(11), 3740.

Farruggia, M. C., & Small, D. M. (2019). Effects of adiposity and metabolic dysfunction on cognition: A review. Physiology & Behavior208, 112578.\

Fekete, M., Szarvas, Z., Fazekas-Pongor, V., Feher, A., Csipo, T., Forrai, J., . . . Varga, J. T. (2023). Nutrition strategies promoting healthy aging: From improvement of cardiovascular and brain health to prevention of age-associated diseases. Nutrients, 15(1), 47.

Glenn, J., Madero, E., & Bott, N. (2019). Dietary protein and amino acid intake: Links to the maintenance of cognitive health. Nutrients11(6), 1315.

Grant, B. F., Chou, S. P., Saha, T. D., Pickering, R. P., Kerridge, B. T., Ruan, W. J., Huang, B., Jung, J., Zhang, H., Fan, A., & Hasin, D. S. (2017). Prevalence of 12-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder in the United States, 2001–2002 to 2012–2013: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. JAMA Psychiatry,74(9):911–923.

Guasch-Ferré, M., Liu, G., Li, Y., Sampson, L., Manson, J. E., Salas-Salvadó, J., Martínez-González, M. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Sun, Q., & Hu, F. B . (2020). Olive oil consumption and cardiovascular risk in U.S. adults. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 75(15), 1729–1739.

Gudden, J., Vasquez, A., & Bloemendaal, M. (2021). Effects of intermittent fasting on brain and cognitive function, Nutrients, 13(9), 3166.

Harlyjoy, B. C., Sukmawan, R., Muliawan, H. S., Soerarso, R., Radi, B., & Widyantoro, B. (2019). Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor level as a modifying factor for trans fat intake and hypertension. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN55, 38–43.

Held, C., Hadziosmanovic, N., Aylward, P., Hagstrom, E., Hochman, J., Stewart, R., White, H., & Wallentin, L. (2022). Body mass index and association with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease—A STABILITY substudy. Journal of the American Heart Association, 11(3), e023667.

Joundi, R. A., Saposnik, G., Martino, R., Fang, J., & Kapral, M. K. (2019). Timing of direct enteral tube placement and outcomes after acute stroke. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases28(12), 104401.

Mateos-Aparicio, P. & Rodríguez-Moreno, A. (2019, Februrary 27). “The Impact of Studying Brain Plasticity.” Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 13: 66.

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. (2023, May 29). Calculate your body mass index.

National Institutes of Health. (2023a). Copper. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2023b). Iodine. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2023c). Magnesium. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2023d). Niacin. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2023e). Selenium. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2023f). Thiamin. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2023g). Vitamin B6. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2023h). Vitamin B12. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services,

National Institutes of Health. (2023i). Vitamin E. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2023j). Zinc. Office of Dietary Supplements, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Ji, X., Compher, C., Irving, S., Kim, J., Dinges, D., & Liu, J. (2021). Serum micronutrient status, sleep quality and neurobehavioural function among early adolescents. Public Health Nutrition, 24(17), 5815–5825.

Jin, U., Park, S. J., & Park, S. M. (2019). Cholesterol metabolism in the brain and its association with Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurobiology28(5), 554–567.

Khattak, R., Khattak, M., Ittermann, T., & Völzke, H. (2017). Factors affecting sustainable iodine deficiency elimination in Pakistan: A global perspective. Journal of Epidemiology27(6), 249–257.

Kirkland, E., Sarlo, G., & Holton, K. (2018). The role of magnesium in neurological disorders. Nutrients, 10(6), 730.

Kossoff, E. (2023, May 5). Ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Foundation.

Lee, H. (2022). The importance of nutrition in neurological disorders and nutrition assessment methods. Brain & Neuro Rehabilitation15(1).

Lee, Y., & Siddiqui, W. J. (2023). Cholesterol levels. StatPearls.

Leigh, S., & Morris, M. (2020). Diet, inflammation and the gut microbiome: Mechanisms for obesity-associated cognitive impairment. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Molecular Basis of Disease, 1866(6), 165767.

Li, D., Zhang, J., & Liu, Q. (2022). Brain cell type-specific cholesterol metabolism and implications for learning and memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 45(5), 401–414.

Liu, C., Xie, J., Xiao, X., Li, T., Li, H., Bai, X., Li, Z., & Wang, W. (2021). Clinical predictors of prognosis in patients with traumatic brain injury combined with extracranial trauma. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 18(7), 1639–1647.

Luo, J., Si, H., Jia, Z., & Liu, D. (2021). Dietary anti-aging polyphenols and potential mechanisms. Antioxidants, 10(2), 283.

Manson, J., Cook, N., Lee, I., Christen, W., Bassuk, S., Mora, S. Gibson, H., Albert, C., Gordon, D., Copeland, T. D’Agostino, D., Friedenberg, G., Ridge, C., Bubes, V., Giovannucci, E. L., Willett, W. C., Buring, J. E., & VITAL Research Group. (2019). Marine n-3 fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 380, 23–32.

Morris, M., Wang, Y., Barnes, L., Bennett, D., Dawson-Hughes, B., & Booth, S. (2018). Nutrients and bioactives in green leafy vegetables and cognitive decline: Prospective study. Neurology90(3), e214–e222.

Norris, T. L. (2019). Porth’s Essentials of Pathophysiology (5th ed.). LWW.

Pase, M., Himali, J., Beiser, A., Aparicio, H., Satizabal, C. Vasan, R., Sesadri, S., & Jacaues, P. (2018). Sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverages and the risks of incident stroke and dementia: A prospective cohort study. Stroke, 48(5), 1139–1146.

Power, L., Mullally, D., Gibney, E., Clarke, M., Visser, M., Volkert, D., Bardon L., de van der Schueren M., Corish, C., & MaNuEL Consortium. (2018). A review of the validity of malnutrition screening tools used in older adults in community and healthcare settings—A MaNuEL study. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 24, 1–13.

Reddy, V., Palika, R., Ismail, A., Pullakhandam, R., & Reddy, G. (2018). Nutrigenomics: Opportunities & challenges for public health nutrition. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 148(632).

Roberts, S., Franceschini, M., Silver, R., Taylor, S., Braima, A., Co, R., Sonco, A., … Muentener, P. (2020). Effects of food supplementation on cognitive function, cerebral blood flow, and nutritional status in young children at risk of undernutrition: randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 370, m2397. 

Roser, P., Bajaj, S. S., & Stanford, F. C. (2022). International lack of equity in modern obesity therapy: The critical need for change in health policy. International Journal of Obesity46, 1571–1572.

Russ, T., Killin, L., Hannah, J., Batty, G., Deary, I., & Starr, J. (2020). Aluminium and fluoride in drinking water in relation to later dementia risk. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 216(1), 29–34.

Smith, S. H. (2017). Using albumin and prealbumin to assess nutritional status. Nursing, 47(4), 65–66.

Smith, A. D., & Refsum, H. (2021). Homocysteine—From disease biomarker to disease prevention. Journal of Internal Medicine, 290(4), 826–854.

Sun, S., Wen, Y., & Li, Y. (2022). Serum albumin, cognitive function, motor impairment, and survival prognosis in Parkinson disease. Medicine101(37), e30324.

Swanson, D., Block, R., & Mousa, S. A. (2012). Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: Health benefits throughout life. Advances in Nutrition3(1), 1–7.

Tobias, A., Ballard, B. D., & Mohiuddin, S. S. (2022). Physiology, water balance. StatPearls.

Ulíbarri, J., González-Madroño, A., de Villar N., González, P., González B., Mancha, A., Rodríguez, F., & Fernández, G. (2005). CONUT: A tool for controlling nutritional status. First validation in a hospital population. Nutricioón Hospitalaria, 20(1), 38–45.

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2020, December). Dietary guidelines for Americans 2020–2025 (9th ed.).

Von Schacky, C. (2020). Omega-3 fatty acids in pregnancy—The case for a target omega-3 index. Nutrients12(4), 898.

Wambogo, E., Ansai, N., Want, C., Tery, A., Fryar, C., Ahluwalia, N., & Ogden, C. (2022). Awareness of the MyPlate Plan: United States, 2017–March 2020, National Health Statistics Reports, 178.

Wang, R., He, M., Kang, Y., & Jianguo, X. (2020). Controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score is a predictive marker for patients with traumatic brain injury. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery,195, 105909.

Ward, R., Zucca, F., Duyn, J., Crichton, R., & Zecca, L. (2014). The role of iron in brain ageing and neurodegenerative disorders. The Lancet Neurology13(10), 1045–1060.

Więckowska-Gacek, A., Mietelska-Porowska, A., Wydrych, M., & Wojda, U. (2021). Western diet as a trigger of Alzheimer’s disease: From metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Ageing Research Reviews, 70, 101397.

Wierenga, C., Brischoff-Grethe, A., Rasmusson, G., Bailer, U., Berner, L., Liu, T., & Kaye, W. (2017). Aberrant cerebral blood flow in response to hunger and satiety in women remitted from anorexia nervosa. Frontiers in Nutrition, 4, 32.

Yasir, M., & Mechanic, O. (2023). Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. StatPearls.

Yuan, K., Zhu, S., Wang, H., Chen, J., Zhang, X., Xu, P., Xie, Y., Zhu, X., Zhu, W., Sun, W., Xu, G., & Liu, X. (2021). Association between malnutrition and long-term mortality in older adults with ischemic stroke. Clinical Nutrition, 40, 2535–2542.

Chapter 6 Special Nutritional Considerations for Neurological Health

Al Rubaye, H., Adamson, C. C., & Jadavji, N. M. (2021). The role of maternal diet on offspring gut microbiota development: A review. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 99(1), 284–293.

Alrumayh, A., Alfuhaid, F., Sayed, A. J., Tareen, S. U. K., Alrumayh, I., & Habibullah, M. A. (2021). Maternal Periodontal Disease: A Possible Risk Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in the Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences, 13(Suppl 2), S1723–S1727.

Alzheimer’s Disease International (2023, June 19). New study predicts the number of people living with Alzheimer’s disease to triple by 2050.

Arora, S. (2022). Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Function of Children. ACTA Scientific Nutritional Health, 6(4), 75–79.

Bethlehem, R.A.I., Seidlitz, J., White, S.R. (2022). Brain charts for the human lifespan. Nature, 604, 525–533.

Carazo, A., Macáková, K., Matoušová, K., Krcmová, L. K., Protti, M., & Mladenka, P. (2021). Vitamin A Update: Forms, Sources, Kinetics, Detection, Function, Deficiency, Therapeutic Use and Toxicity. Nutrients, 13(5), 1703.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020, November 3). Water Fluoridation Guidelines & Recommendations.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2022, February 1). Micronutrient Facts.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023a, September 22). Do mothers need more calories while breastfeeding?

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023b, September 22). Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States.

Chauhan K, Shahrokhi M, Huecker MR. Vitamin D. StatPearls.

Chea, N., Tegene, Y., Astatkie, A., & Spigt, M. (2023). Prevalence of undernutrition among pregnant women and its differences across relevant subgroups in rural Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 42(1), 17.

Choi, S., Hong, D. K., Choi, B. Y., & Suh, S. W. (2020). Zinc in the Brain: Friend or Foe? International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(23), 8941.

Cortés-Albornoz, M. C., García-Guáqueta, D. P., Velez-van-Meerbeke, A., & Talero-Gutiérrez, C. (2021). Maternal Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: A Scoping Review. Nutrients, 13(10), 3530.

Czarnecka, K., Pilarz, A., Rogut, A., Maj, P., Szymanska, J., Olejnik, L., & Szymanski, P. (2021). Aspartame—True or False? Narrative Review of Safety Analysis of General Use in Products. Nutrients, 13(6), 1957.

de Havenon A, Delic A, Stulberg E, et al. Association of Preeclampsia with Incident Stroke in Later Life Among Women in the Framingham Heart Study (2021). JAMA Network Open, 4(4), e215077. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.5077

Dhaliwal, J.S., Rosani, A.R., & Saadabadi, A. (2023). Diazepam. StatPearls.

Dunbar M., & Kirton, A. (2018). Perinatal stroke: mechanisms, management, and outcomes of early cerebrovascular brain injury. Lancet Child Adolesc Health, 9, 666–676. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30173-1.

Duttaroy, A., Basak, S. (2020). Maternal dietary fatty acids and their roles in human placental development. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 155: 102080,

Dynka, D., Kowalcze, K., & Paziewska, A. (2022). The Role of Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Neurological Diseases. Nutrients, 14(23), 5003.

Elgendy, I., Bukhari, S., Barakat,A., Pepine, C., Lindley, K., Miller E. (2021). Maternal Stroke A Call for Action. Circulation, 143(7). 727–738.

Epilepsy Foundation. (2023). Seizure Medication List.

Fei, H. X., Qian, C. F., Wu, X. M., Wei, Y. H., Huang, J. Y., & Wei, L. H. (2022). Role of micronutrients in Alzheimer's disease: Review of available evidence. World Journal of Clinical Cases, 10(22), 7631–7641.

Filipi, M., & Jack, S. (2020). Interferons in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability Update. International Journal of MS Care, 22(4), 165–172.

Francis, H., & Stevenson, R. (2018). Potential for diet to prevent and remediate cognitive deficits in neurological disorders. Journal of Nutrition Reviews, 3(76), 204–217.

Fryar C., Carroll M., Afful J. (2020). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 1960–1962 through 2017–2018. NCHS Health E-Stats, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated February 8, 2021.

Georgieff, M. (2020). Iron deficiency in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 223(4), 516–524.

Gezmen-Karadag, M., Çelik, E., Kadayifçi, F., Yesildemir, Ö., Öztürk, Y. E., & Agagündüz, D. (2018). Role of food-drug interactions in neurological and psychological diseases. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 78(3), 187–197.

Gleason, J., Sundaram, R., Mitro, S. Hinkle, S., Gilman, S., Zhang, C., Newman, R. … Grantz, K. (2022). Association of Maternal Caffeine Consumption During Pregnancy With Child Growth, JAMA Network Open, 5(10): e2239609. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.39609

Griebsch, L. V., Theiss, E. L., Janitschke, D., Erhardt, V. K. J., Erhardt, T., Haas, E. C., Kuppler, K. N., Radermacher, J., Walzer, O., Lauer, A. A., Matschke, V., Hartmann, T., Grimm, M. O. W., & Grimm, H. S. (2023). Aspartame and Its Metabolites Cause Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial and Lipid Alterations in SH-SY5Y Cells. Nutrients, 15(6), 1467.

Filipi, M., & Jack, S. (2020). Interferons in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability Update. International Journal of MS Care, 22(4), 165–172.

Hoyert, DL (2023). Maternal mortality rates in the United States, 2021. NCHS Health E-Stats.DOI: 10.1056/EVIDoa2300058Jiang, Z., Yin, X., Wang, M., Chen, T., Wang, Y., Gao, Z., & Wang, Z. (2022). Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Aging and Disease, 13(4), 1146–1165.

Kija, E., Gidal, B., Shapson-Coe, A., Cader, S., van der Watt, G., Delport, S., Wilmshurst, J. (2019). Vitamin D abnormalities and bone turn over analysis in children with epilepsy in the Western Cape of South Africa. Seizure, 69, 186–192.

Larqué E., Morales E., Leis R., Blanco-Carnero J. (2018). Maternal and Foetal Health Implications of Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy. Ann. Nutr. Metab., 72:179–192. doi: 10.1159/000487370.

Leonhard S, Mandarakas M, Gondim F. (2019). Diagnosis and management of Guillain-Barré syndrome in ten steps. National Review Neurology, 15, 671–683. https:// doi: 10.1038/s41582-019-0250-9

Li, M., Francis E., Hinkle S., Ajjarapu A., Zhang C. (2019). Preconception and Prenatal Nutrition and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 11, 1628. doi: 10.3390/nu11071628.

Li, Q., Liang, J., Fu, N., Han, Y., Qin, J. (2021). A Ketogenic Diet and the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Frontiers in Pediatrics, 9.

Miller, J., LaFountain, R., Barnhart, E., Sapper, T. et al. (2020). A Ketogenic Diet combined with exercise alters mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle while improving metabolic health, American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 319(6), E995-E1007.

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Moscatelli, F., De Maria, A., Marinaccio, L. A., Monda, V., Messina, A., Monacis, D., Toto, G., et al. (2023). Assessment of Lifestyle, Eating Habits and the Effect of Nutritional Education among Undergraduate Students in Southern Italy. Nutrients, 15(13), 2894. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Murphy, M. M., Higgins, K. A., Bi, X., & Barraj, L. M. (2021). Adequacy and Sources of Protein Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States, NHANES 2003–2012. Nutrients, 13(3), 795.

National Institutes of Health. (2021). Magnesium.

National Institutes of Health. (2022a). Biotin.

National Institutes of Health. (2022b). Chromium.

Nawaz, A., Khattak, N.N., Khan, M., Nangyal, H., Sabri, S., Shakir, M. (2020). Deficiency of vitamin B12 and its relation with neurological disorders: a critical review. Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology, 81, 10.

Newman, C., Rabbitt, L., Ero, A., & Dunne, F. P. (2023). Focus on Metformin: Its Role and Safety in Pregnancy and Beyond. Drugs, 83(11), 985–999.

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Chapter 7 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Endocrine Wellness

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Chapter 8 Special Nutritional Considerations for Endocrine Health

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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2017). Thyroid disease and pregnancy. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2022a). Iodine. Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2022b). Selenium. Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institutes of Health. (2022c). Vitamin D. Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Nazeri, P., Shariat, M., & Azizi, F. (2021). Effects of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on pregnant women and their offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials over the past 3 decades. European Society of Endocrinology, 184(1), 91–106.

Osowiecka, K., & Myskowska-Ryciak, J. (2023). The influence of nutritional intervention in the treatment of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis—A systematic review. Nutrients, 15(4), 1041.

Pancheva, R., Zhelyazkova, D., Ahmed, F., Gillon-Keren, M., Usheva, N., Bocheva, Y., Boyadzhieva, M., Valchev, G., Yotov, Y., & Iotova, V. (2021). Dietary intake and adherence to the recommendations for healthy eating in patients with type 1 diabetes: A narrative review. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, 782670.

Patil, N., Rehman, A., & Jialal, I. (2023). Hypothyroidism. StatPearls.

Quintanilla Rodrigquez, B. S., & Mahdy, H. (2022). Gestational diabetes. StatPearls.

Rad, S. & Deluxe, L. (2023). Postpartum thyroiditis. StatPearls.

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Chapter 9 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Hematologic Wellness

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Yu, J. C., Shliakhtsitsava, K., Wang, Y., Paul, M. R., Farnaes, L., Wong, V. W., Kim, J., & Thornburg, C. D. (2019). Hematologic manifestations of nutritional deficiencies: Early recognition is essential to prevent serious complications. Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology.

Zhong, Y., Patel, N., Ferris, M. E., & Rak, E. (2020). Health literacy, nutrition knowledge, and health care transition readiness in youth with chronic kidney disease or hypertension: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Child Health Care, 24(2), 246–259.

Chapter 10 Special Nutritional Considerations for Hematologic Health

Achebe, M., & Gafter-Gvili, A. (2017). How I treat anemia in pregnancy: iron, cobalamin, and folate. Blood, 129(8), 940–949.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2022). Newborns need vitamin K shortly after birth to prevent bleeding disease.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2021). Anemia in pregnancy.

American Society of Hematology. (2009, January 29). The problem with sickled cells.

Ambrosy, A. P., Gurwitz, J. H., Tabada, G. H., Artz, A. S., Schrier, S. L., Rao, S. V., Barnhart, H. X., Reynolds, K., Smith, D. H., Peterson, P. N., Sung, S. H., Cohen, H. J., Go, A. S., & Investigators, R. H. (2019). Incident anaemia in older adults with heart failure: rate, aetiology, and association with outcomes. European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, 5(4), 361–369.

Ankar, A. & Kumar, A. (2022, October 22). Vitamin B12 Deficiency. StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf.

Araki, S., & Shirahata, A. (2020). Vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infancy. Nutrients, 12(3), 780.

Ballestín, S. S., Campos, M. I. G., Ballestín, J. B., & Bartolomé, M. J. L. (2021). Is supplementation with micronutrients still necessary during pregnancy? A review. Nutrients, 13(9), 3134.

Benson, A. E., Shatzel, J. J., Ryan, K. S., Hedges, M. A., Martens, K. L., Aslan, J. E., & Lo, J. O. (2022). The incidence, complications, and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy. European Journal of Haematology, 109(6), 633–642.

Berg, E. K. (2019). Performance nutrition for the adolescent athlete: A realistic approach. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 29(5), 345–352.

Burton, J., Yates, L., Whyte, L., Fitzsimons, E. J., & Stott, D. J. (2020). New horizons in iron deficiency anaemia in older adults. Age and Ageing, 49(3), 309–318.

Busti, F., Marchi, G., Ugolini, S., Castagna, A., & Girelli, D. (2018). Anemia and iron deficiency in cancer patients: Role of iron replacement therapy. Pharmaceuticals, 11(4), 94.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). What is vitamin K deficiency bleeding?

Chardalias, L., Papaconstantinou, I., Gklavas, A., Politou, M., & Theodosopoulos, T. (2023). Iron deficiency anemia in colorectal cancer patients: Is preoperative intravenous iron infusion indicated? A narrative review of the literature. Cancer Diagnosis & Prognosis, 3(2), 163–168.

Cochrane, K. M., Hutcheon, J. A., & Karakochuk, C. D. (2022). Iron-deficiency prevalence and supplementation practices among pregnant women: A secondary data analysis from a clinical trial in Vancouver, Canada. Journal of Nutrition, 152(10), 2238–2244.

Desbrow, B. (2021). Youth athlete development and nutrition. Sports Medicine, 51(S1), 3–12.

Drakesmith, H., Pasricha, S., Cabantchik, I., Hershko, C., Weiss, G., Girelli, D., Stoffel, N. U., Muckenthaler, M. U., Nemeth, E., Camaschella, C., Klenerman, P., & Zimmermann, M. B. (2021). Vaccine efficacy and iron deficiency: An intertwined pair? The Lancet Haematology, 8(9), e666–e669.

Eiduson, R., Heeney, M. M., Kao, P., London, W. B., Fleming, M. D., & Shrier, L. A. (2021). Prevalence and predictors of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult outpatients: Implications for screening. Clinical Pediatrics, 000992282110596.

Fulton, A. (2022, August 31). What’s normal when it comes to menstrual bleeding? Healthy Women.

Giannini, S., Giusti, A., Minisola, S., Napoli, N., Passeri, G., Rossini, M., & Sinigaglia, L. (2022). The immunologic profile of vitamin d and its role in different immune-mediated diseases: An expert opinion. Nutrients, 14(3), 473.

Gilreath, J. A., & Rodgers, G. M. (2020). How I treat cancer-associated anemia. Blood, 136(7), 801–813.

Goldberg, E. K., Neogi, S., Lal, A., Higa, A., & Fung, E. B. (2018). Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia and associated with iron overload. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 6(10), 674–681.

Hand, I., Noble, L., & Abrams, S. A. (2022). Vitamin K and the newborn infant. Pediatrics, 149(3).

Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health. (2023, March 7). Iron. The Nutrition Source.

Hod, E. A., Brittenham, G. M., Bitan, Z. C., Feit, Y. M. Z., Gaelen, J. I., La Carpia, F., Sandoval, L. A., Zhou, A., Soffing, M., Mintz, A., Schwartz, J. E., Eng, C., Scotto, M., Caccappolo, E., Habeck, C. G., Stern, Y., McMahon, D. J., Kessler, D., Shaz, B. H., . . . Spitalnik, S. L. (2022). A randomized trial of blood donor iron repletion on red cell quality for transfusion and donor cognition and well-being. Blood, 140(25), 2730–2739.

Ismail, S., Eljazzar, S., & Ganji, V. (2023). Intended and unintended benefits of folic acid fortification—A narrative review. Foods, 12(8), 1612.

Jefferds, M. E., Mei, Z., Addo, Y., Hamner, H. C., Perrine, C. G., Flores-Ayala, R., Pfeiffer, C. M., & Sharma, A. J. (2022). Iron deficiency in the United States: Limitations in guidelines, data, and monitoring of disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 112(S8), S826–S835.

Kaur, D., Rasane, P., Singh, J. P., Kaur, S., Kumar, V., Mahato, D. K., Dey, A., Dhawan, K., & Kumar, S. (2019). Nutritional interventions for elderly and considerations for the development of geriatric foods. Current Aging Science, 12(1), 15–27.

Khan, K. M. (2023, June 26). Folic acid deficiency. StatPearls.

Kontele, I., & Vassilakou, T. (2021). Nutritional risks among adolescent athletes with disordered eating. Children (Basel), 8(8), 715.

Lim, M. Y., Guo, W., Presson, A. P., Bray, P. F., & Rodgers, G. M. (2020). High prevalence of overweight/obesity in adult persons with hemophilia in Utah and a review of the literature. Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis, 31(8), 522–529.

Mairbäurl, H., Kilian, S., Seide, S., Muckenthaler, M. U., Gassmann, M., & Benedict, R. K. (2023). The increase in hemoglobin concentration with altitude differs between world regions and is less in children than in adults. HemaSphere, 7(4), e854.

Malek, A. M., Newman, J. C., Hunt, K. J., & Marriott, B. P. (2019). Race/ethnicity, enrichment/fortification, and dietary supplementation in the U.S. population, NHANES 2009–2012. Nutrients, 11(5), 1005.

Mansour, D., Hofmann, A., & Gemzell-Danielsson, K. (2021). A review of clinical guidelines on the management of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Advances in Therapy, 38(1), 201–225.

Mattiello, V., Schmugge, M., Hengartner, H., Von Der Weid, N., & Renella, R. (2020). Diagnosis and management of iron deficiency in children with or without anemia: Consensus recommendations of the SPOG Pediatric Hematology Working Group. European Journal of Pediatrics, 179(4), 527–545.

McCaskill, M. L., Ogunsakin, O. A., Hottor, T., Harville, E. W., & Kruse-Jarres, R. (2018). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and diet mediates vaso-occlusive related hospitalizations in sickle-cell disease patients. Nutrients, 10(10), 1384.

Means, R. T. (2020). Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia: Implications and impact in pregnancy, fetal development, and early childhood parameters. Nutrients, 12(2), 447.

Meek, J. Y., Noble, L., & Section on Breastfeeding. (2022). Policy statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 150(1), e2022057988.

Milman, N. (2021). Managing genetic hemochromatosis: An overview of dietary measures, which may reduce intestinal iron absorption in persons with iron overload. Gastroenterology Research, 14(2), 66–80.

Miniero, R., Talarico, V., Galati, M. C., Giancotti, L., Saracco, P., & Raiola, G. (2019). Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in children. IntechOpen eBooks.

Moustarah, F. (2022, October 22). Dietary iron. StatPearls.

Natalucci, V., Virgili, E., Calcagnoli, F., Valli, G., Agostini, D., Zeppa, S., Barbieri, E., & Emili, R. (2021). Cancer related anemia: An integrated multitarget approach and lifestyle interventions. Nutrients, 13(2), 482.

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National Institutes of Health. (2022, December 22). Vitamin B12. Office of Dietary Supplements.

National Institutes of Health. (2023, June 15). Iron. Office of Dietary Supplements.

Nour, N. M. (2022). Optimize detection and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy. OBG Management, 34(5).

Pai, U., Chandrasekhar, P., Carvalho, R., & Kumar, S. A. (2018). The role of nutrition in immunity in infants and toddlers: An expert panel opinion. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 6(4), 155–159.

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. (2020a). Nutritional requirements throughout the life cycle. Nutrition Guide for Clinicians.

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. (2020b). Sickle cell disease. Nutrition Guide for Clinicians.

Pivina, L., Semenova, Y., Dosa, M. D., Dauletyarova, M., & Bjørklund, G. (2019). Iron deficiency, cognitive functions, and neurobehavioral disorders in children. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 68(1), 1–10.

Porter, J. L., & Prashanth, R. (2023, March 31). Hemochromatosis. StatPearls.

Porto, A., & Abu-Alreesh, S. (2022, August 24). Vitamin D for babies, children & adolescents.

Rodríguez-Mañas, L., Murray, R., Glencorse, C., & Sulo, S. (2023). Good nutrition across the lifespan is foundational for healthy aging and sustainable development. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9.

Rotstein, A., Kodesh, A., Goldberg, Y., Reichenberg, A., & Levine, S. Z. (2022). Serum folate deficiency and the risks of dementia and all-cause mortality: A national study of old age. Evidence-based Mental Health, 25(2), 63–68.

Safiri, S., Kolahi, A., Noori, M., Nejadghaderi, S. A., Karamzad, N., Bragazzi, N. L., Sullman, M. J., Abdollahi, M., Collins, G. S., Kaufman, J. S., & Grieger, J. A. (2021). Burden of anemia and its underlying causes in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 14(1).

Sharma, A. J., Addo, O. Y., Mei, Z., & Suchdev, P. S. (2019). Reexamination of hemoglobin adjustments to define anemia: altitude and smoking. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1450(1), 190–203.

Sharma, A. J., Ford, N. D., Bulkley, J. E., Jenkins, L., Vesco, K. K., & Williams, A. (2021). Use of the electronic health record to assess prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy. Journal of Nutrition, 151(11), 3588–3595. (2023, April). Can my diet help manage my pain crises?

Smith, C. H., Teng, F., Branch, E., Chu, S. W., & Joseph, K. (2019). Maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with anemia in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 134(6), 1234–1244.

Socha, D., DeSouza, S. I., Flagg, A., Sekeres, M. A., & Rogers, H. J. (2020). Severe megaloblastic anemia: Vitamin deficiency and other causes. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 87(3), 153–164.

Srichairatanakool, S., Koonyosying, P., & Fucharoen, S. (2020). Diet-related thalassemia associated with iron overload. IntechOpen eBooks.

Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I. (2018). Anemia at older age: etiologies, clinical implications, and management. Blood, 131(5), 505–514.

Stauder, R., Augschoell, J., Hamaker, M. E., & Koinig, K. A. (2020). Malnutrition in older patients with hematological malignancies at initial diagnosis—Association with impairments in health status, systemic inflammation and adverse outcome. HemaSphere, 4(1), e332.

Umeakunne, K., & Hibbert, J. M. (2019, April 2). Nutrition in sickle cell disease: Recent insights. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements, 11, 9–17.

Vreugdenhil, M., Akkermans, M. D., Van Der Merwe, L. F., Van Elburg, R. M., Van Goudoever, J. B., & Brus, F. (2021). Prevalence of zinc deficiency in healthy 1–3-year-old children from three western European countries. Nutrients, 13(11), 3713.

World Health Organization. (n.d.-a). Anaemia in women and children.

World Health Organization. (n.d.-b). Antenatal iron supplementation.

Yan, H., Chen, Y., Zhu, H., Huang, W., Cai, X., Li, D., Ya-Juan, L., Si-Zhao, N., Zhou, H., Luo, F., Zhang, W., & Li, X. (2022). The relationship among intestinal bacteria, vitamin K and response of vitamin K antagonist: A review of evidence and potential mechanism. Frontiers in Medicine, 9.

Chapter 11 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Cardiovascular Wellness

Albakri, A. (2019). Nutritional deficiency cardiomyopathy: A review and pooled analysis of pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical management. Research and Review Insights 3.

Akbar, H., Foth, C., Kahloon, R., & Mountfort, S. (2022). Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. StatPearls [Internet].

American College of Cardiology. (2023). Too little sodium can be harmful to heart failure patients.

American Diabetes Association. (2023). Fats.

American Heart Association. (2023). How much sodium should I eat per day?

American Society of Hematology. (2023). Blood basics.

Balchem. (2021). Feel the rhythm: Minerals for heart health.

Bord, S. (2022). Electrolyte abnormalities. Clerkship Directors in Emergency Medicine.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Heart attack symptoms, risks, and recovery.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022a). Albumin blood test.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022b). Arteries.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022c). Hypokalemia.

Cohagan, B., & Brandis, D. (2022). Torsade de Pointes. StatPearls [Internet].

Dmitrieva, N. I., Liu, D., Wu, C. O., & Boehm, M. (2022). Middle age serum sodium levels in the upper part of normal range and risk of heart failure. European Heart Journal, 43(35), 3335–3348.

Gupta, J., & Shea, M. (2022). Biology of the blood vessels. Merck Manuals.

Harvard Medical School. (2021). BMI calculator.

Harvard Health Publishing. (2020). Eat more fiber-rich foods to foster heart health.

Harvard University. (2023). Preventing heart disease.

Hinzey, E., & Chien, S. (2023). What’s the Mediterranean diet?

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (2023). Hardening of the arteries.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2023a). Lipid panel.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2023b). Anatomy and function of the heart’s electrical system.

Kenny, B., & Brown, K. (2022). ECG T wave. StatPearls [Internet].

Lee, Y., Lin, C., Fang, W., Lee, C., Ho, C., Wang, C., Tsai, D., & Lin, C. (2022). Artificial intelligence-enabled electrocardiography detects hypoalbuminemia and identifies the mechanism of hepatorenal and cardiovascular events. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 9.

Malik, M., & Goyal, A. (2022). Cardiac exam. StatPearls [Internet].

Martyniak, A., & Tomasik, P. J. (2022). A new perspective on the renin-angiotensin system. Diagnostics (Basel), 13(1), 16.

Mayo Clinic. (2023a). Long QT syndrome.

Mayo Clinic. (2023b). Supraventricular tachycardia.

Mayo Clinic. (2023c). High blood pressure (hypertension).

Medline Plus. (2022). Heart failure: Fluids and diuretics.

Moll, J. (2022). Saturated vs. unsaturated fats. Verywell Health.

Morales-Brown, L. (2020). What is the best afib diet? Medical News Today.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2021). DASH eating plan.

National Institute on Aging. (2022). High blood pressure in older adults.

National Institutes of Health. (2022). Good hydration may reduce long-term risks for heart failure.

Pediatric Heart Specialists. (2023). Normal heart anatomy and blood flow.

Penn Medicine Lancaster General Health. (2023). High-potassium foods.

Sherrell, Z. (2021). What to know about the cardiovascular system. Medical News Today.

Srakocic, S. (2023). Understanding smoking’s effect on your blood vessels. Healthline.

Teymouri, N., Mesbah, S., Navabian, S., Shekouh, D., Najafabadi, M., Norouzkhani, N., Poudineh, M., Qadirifard, M., Mehrtabar, S., & Deravi, N. (2022). ECG frequency changes in potassium disorders: A narrative review. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, 12(3), 112–124.

University of California San Francisco. (2023). Guidelines for a low sodium diet.

University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. (2023). Physiology review.

University of Washington. (2023). Go green with high fiber foods.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2020). What is MyPlate?

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023). Calcium: Shopping list.

University of Rochester Medical Center. (2023). Magnesium rich foods.

Visible Body. (2023). Functions of the blood: 8 facts about blood.

Chapter 12 Special Nutritional Considerations for Cardiovascular Health

Advent Health. (2021, February). A healthy start for your baby’s heart.

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2019, March). Eating disorder in teens.

American Heart Association. (2017). What is cardiovascular disease?

American Heart Association. (2018). Dietary recommendations for healthy children.

American Heart Association. (2020). Prevention and treatment of high cholesterol.

American Heart Association. (2021). The American Heart Association diet and lifestyle recommendations. Heart Association-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations

American Heart Association. (2023) Feeding tips for your baby with CHD.

American Pregnancy Association. (2023). Gestational hypertension: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).

Amirani, E., Milajerdi, A., Reiner, Ž., Mirzaei, H., Mansournia, M. A., & Asemi, Z. (2020). Effects of whey protein on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Lipids in Health and Disease19(1), 209.

Anderson, M., Vogels, E., Perrin, A, & Rainie, L. (2022). Connection, creativity and drama: Teen life on social media in 2022. Pew Research Center.

Anderson-Villaluz, D., & Quam, J. (2022). Nutrition during pregnancy to support a healthy mom and baby.

Back, I., de Barros, N., & Caramelli, B. (2022). Lifestyle, inadequate environments in childhood and their effects on adult cardiovascular health. Joirnal de Pediatria, 98(S1), S19–S26.

Bensley, J., Moore, L., De Matteo, R., Harding, R., & Black, M. (2018). Impact of preterm birth on the developing myocardium of the neonate. Pediatric Research, 83(4), 880–888.

Biddinger, K., Emdin, C., Haas, M., Wang, M., Hindy, G., Ellinor, P., Kathiresan, S., Khera, A., & Aragam, K. (2022). Association of habitual alcohol intake with risk of cardiovascular disease. JAMA Network Open, 5(3), e223849.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). High blood pressure symptoms and causes.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022) Weight Gain During Pregnancy.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). Facts about hypertension.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). Food and drinks to avoid or limit.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). Heart disease facts.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023d). Know your risk for heart disease.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023e). Recommendations and benefits: Breastfeeding.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023f). About heart disease.

Cleveland Clinic. (2020a). How to pick heart-healthy Mexican food.

Cleveland Clinic. (2020b). Craving Chinese food? How to pick Asian food that’s heart healthy.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022a). How to follow a heart-healthy diet.

Cleveland Clinic (2022b). Lipids.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022c). How to teach kids healthy eating habits.

Cleveland Clinic. (2023). How race and ethnicity impact heart disease.

Cunningham, M., & LaMarca, B. (2018). Risk of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease, and stroke in postpartum women and their fetuses after a hypertensive pregnancy. Am. J. Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 315(3). R521-R528. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00218.2017

Dahm, C., Chomistek, A., Jakobsen, M., Mukamal, K., Eliassen, A., Sesso, H., Overvad, K., Willett, W., Rimm, E., & Chiuve, S. (2016). Adolescent diet quality and cardiovascular disease risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease in middle-aged women. J Am Heart Assoc., 20;5(12):e003583. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.003583

FDA. (2022a). Using the nutrition facts label: For older adults.

FDA. (2022b). Sodium in your diet.

FDA. (2023). Infant formula.

Garg, V. (2020, February 25). Maternal diabetes and fetal heart development: What mothers need to know. Nationwide Children’s.

Gersh, B. (2022). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy: Cardiovascular and hemodynamic changes. UpToDate. Retrieved October 1, 2023, from

Greenblatt, J. (2023). The essential role of amino acids in combating anorexia. Psychiatry Redefined.

Howland, J. (2018). Mayo Clinic minute: Heart-healthier choices at fast food restaurants.

Ifitkhar, S. & Biswas, M. (2023). Cardiac disease in pregnancy. StatPearls.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2023) Alcohol and heart health: Separating fact from fiction. Retrieved from

Kepley, J., Bates, K., & Mohiuddin, S. (2023). Physiology, Maternal Changes. Retrieved from

Knott, L. (2020). Potassium-sparing diuretics. Retrieved from

Lee, S., Oh, J., Park, J., Choi, S., & Wee, J. (2018). Differences in youngest-old, middle-old, and oldest-old patients who visit the emergency department. Clin Exp Emerg Med, 5(4):249–255. doi: 10.15441/ceem.17.261.

Lennie, T., Andreae, C., Rayens, M., Song, E., Dunbar, S., Pressler, S., Heo, S., Kim, J., & Moser, D. (2018). Micronutrient deficiency independently predicts time to events in patients with heart failure. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7,

Lu, Y., Chen, R., Cai, J., Huang, Z, & Yuan, H. (2018). The management of hypertension in women planning for pregnancy. Oxford Journals British Medical Bulletin. 128(1): 75–84. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldy035

Martin, R. (2023). Health benefits of French food. Blog post Cuisine of the Month: French. Retrieved from:

Mayo Clinic. (2021). DASH diet: Healthy eating to lower your blood pressure. Retrieved from:

Mayo Clinic. (2022a). Teens and social media use: What’s the impact? Retrieved from:

Mayo Clinic. (2022b). Warfarin diet: What foods should I avoid? Retrieved from

Mayo Clinic. (2022c). Transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Mayo Clinic. (2023a). Diuretics: A cause of low potassium? Retrieved from

Mayo Clinic. (2023b). Top 5 lifestyle changes to improve your cholesterol. Retrieved from

Mayo Clinic. (2023c). Premature birth.

Mayo Clinic. (2023d). High cholesterol.

Mayo Clinic. (2023e). Cholesterol: Top foods to improve your numbers. Retrieved from

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National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2022). What is atherosclerosis? Retrieved from:

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2023). High blood triglycerides.

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National Library of Medicine. (2022). Cholesterol levels.

National Lipid Association. (2020). Heart-healthy eating southern style.

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Raeside, R., Partridge, S., Singleton, A., & Redfern, J. (2019). Cardiovascular disease prevention in adolescents: eHealth, Co-Creation, and Advocacy. Med Sci (Basel), 7(2):34. doi: 10.3390/medsci7020034.

Rodgers, J., Jones, J., Bolleddu, S., Vanthenapalli, S., Rodgers, L., Shah, K., Karia, K., & Panguluri, S. (2019). Cardiovascular risks associated with gender and aging. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease6(2), 19.

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Russell, M. (2022). JAHA Spotlight on pregnancy and its impact on maternal and offspring cardiovascular health. Journal of American Heart Association, 11(2).

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Sterns, R. (2022). Diuretic-induced hyponatremia. UpToDate. Retrieved from

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Chapter 13 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Pulmonary Wellness

Ahmadi, A., Eftekhari, M. H., Mazloom, Z., Masoompour, M., Fararooei, M., Eskandari, M. H., Mehrabi, S., Bedeltavana, A., Famouri, M., Zare, M., Nasimi, N., & Sohrabi, Z. (2020). Fortified whey beverage for improving muscle mass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Respiratory Research, 21, 1–11.

American Lung Association. (2023). Nutrition and COPD.

Andrianasolo, R. M., Kesse-Guyot, E., Adjibade, M., Hercberg, S., Galan, P., & Varraso, R. (2018). Associations between dietary scores with asthma symptoms and asthma control in adults. European Respiratory Journal, 52(1). https: DOI: 10.1183/13993003.02572-2017

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Chapter 17 Applying Clinical Judgment to Promote Nutrition for Gastrointestinal Wellness

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Chapter 18 Special Nutritional Considerations for Gastrointestinal Health

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