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Unfolding Case Study

1.
d. Diets high in processed foods, red meats, and refined sugars have all been shown to lead to cognitive decline.
2.
b. Cerebral blood flow should be evaluated with a PET scan to determine whether poor blood flow could be contributing to changes in cognitive status.
3.
a. Consuming 1.1–1.6 g of omega-3 fatty acids daily has been shown to optimize brain function in clients over 51 years of age.
4.
c. Omega-3 fatty acids are found largely in colorful fruits and vegetables, as well as in fortified cereals and beverages. Fruits, such as grapes, apples, pears, cherries, and berries; dark chocolate; legumes; red wine; tea; and coffee are also good sources.
5.
c. The client’s going to their dietitian appointment shows adherence to the prescribed plan. Signs of nonadherence include alcohol use; increased BMI; increased total cholesterol; increased blood pressure; low intake of fruits, vegetables, and fiber; and high intake of processed sugars.
6.
c. Tau proteins can become tangled and accumulate in the brain and cause dysfunction.
7.
b. Because of rising food costs, it may be helpful to use an air fryer to avoid deep-frying foods while maintaining the client’s current food preferences, such as fried foods, and increasing adherence to the meal plan.
8.
b. Cerebral blood flow should be evaluated with a PET scan to determine whether poor blood flow could be contributing to Jamal’s changes in cognitive status.

Review Questions

1.
b. Supplements given via nasogastric tube can provide enteral nutrition for clients with dysphagia who are at risk for aspiration.
2.
c. The client is hyponatremic due to the head injury and is conserving fluids. In addition to fluid restriction, medications may be administered to correct SIADH.
3.
a. The progression of Alzheimer’s disease may be slowed by the consistent intake of polyphenols, and colored berries are a rich source of polyphenols.
4.
a. All other choices may result in inflammation and can cause further damage to the myelin sheath of nerve cells.
5.
b. The ketogenic diet is low in carbohydrates, and a low-carbohydrate diet has been shown to reduce the incidence of seizures.
6.
b. Dehydration is common among older adults because of a diminished sense of thirst; vigorous exercise can cause rapid dehydration, and hydration is the priority to assess.
7.
d. Although supplements may be beneficial in some cases, most nutrients are best absorbed when they are consumed as regular food. Even though many Americans do not eat a healthy diet, it is best to evaluate current dietary patterns and offer changes before recommending dietary supplements.
8.
c. Evidence supports a cognitive benefit of intermittent fasting in Parkinson’s disease as well as epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease.
9.
c. The National Institutes of Health recommends 1.1–1.6 g of omega-3 fatty acids daily for a 52-year-old adult.
10.
c. Tau proteins provide structural support to the microtubules in the neuron but can become tangled due to phosphorylation.
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