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Unfolding Case Study

1.
b. Decreased muscle mass is associated with the aging process.
2.
a. Older adults are at high risk for dehydration which can affect the body’s ability to absorb nutrients.
3.
b. Complex carbohydrates, such as those found in fresh fruit, vegetables, and high-fiber cereal grains, are recommended for the management of cognitive decline.
4.
d. Supplementing the diet with micronutrients has been shown to improve cognition in some studies of clients with Alzheimer’s disease, but the best health benefits have been verified with a varied multinutrient-rich diet rather than with supplements alone.

Review Questions

1.
d. Chicken and lentils are two sources of protein; 71 g of protein a day is often recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy to promote fetal neurological development.
2.
c. The ketogenic diet is low in carbohydrates, and carbohydrates are associated with increased symptoms among clients with MS. A ketogenic diet may improve their concentration, attention, and memory.
3.
a. Clients taking phenytoin are at risk for vitamin D and biotin deficiencies.
4.
b. Nutritional deficiencies, especially of the omega-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, and B12, are more common among vegetarians and vegans.
5.
a. Drooling and coughing are symptoms of dysphagia, and the client will require a dysphagia screening.
6.
d. Polyphenols obtained from fresh fruits and vegetables have been shown to improve neurological function and slow cognitive decline in clients with degenerative conditions including Alzheimer’s disease.
7.
b. Ketogenic diets can reduce seizures that have not previously responded to drug therapy.
8.
c. Lactating mothers should not restrict carbohydrate intake. They need to eat fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates including whole-grain foods, such as cereals, breads, pastas, and oatmeal.
9.
a. Flavonoids inhibit growth of pathogens in the gut microbiome and have a strong antioxidant effect.
10.
d. Follow a balanced diet to decrease the risk for weight gain. Taking antidepressants is associated with weight gain.
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