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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sampling and Data
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
    3. 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
    4. 1.3 Frequency, Frequency Tables, and Levels of Measurement
    5. 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
    6. 1.5 Data Collection Experiment
    7. 1.6 Sampling Experiment
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. Bringing It Together: Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  3. 2 Descriptive Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
    3. 2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
    4. 2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data
    5. 2.4 Box Plots
    6. 2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data
    7. 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
    8. 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
    9. 2.8 Descriptive Statistics
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  4. 3 Probability Topics
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Terminology
    3. 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
    4. 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
    5. 3.4 Contingency Tables
    6. 3.5 Tree and Venn Diagrams
    7. 3.6 Probability Topics
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Bringing It Together: Practice
    13. Homework
    14. Bringing It Together: Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  5. 4 Discrete Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
    3. 4.2 Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
    4. 4.3 Binomial Distribution
    5. 4.4 Geometric Distribution
    6. 4.5 Hypergeometric Distribution
    7. 4.6 Poisson Distribution
    8. 4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
    9. 4.8 Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  6. 5 Continuous Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Continuous Probability Functions
    3. 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
    4. 5.3 The Exponential Distribution
    5. 5.4 Continuous Distribution
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  7. 6 The Normal Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
    3. 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
    4. 6.3 Normal Distribution (Lap Times)
    5. 6.4 Normal Distribution (Pinkie Length)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  8. 7 The Central Limit Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means (Averages)
    3. 7.2 The Central Limit Theorem for Sums
    4. 7.3 Using the Central Limit Theorem
    5. 7.4 Central Limit Theorem (Pocket Change)
    6. 7.5 Central Limit Theorem (Cookie Recipes)
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. References
    13. Solutions
  9. 8 Confidence Intervals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 A Single Population Mean using the Normal Distribution
    3. 8.2 A Single Population Mean using the Student t Distribution
    4. 8.3 A Population Proportion
    5. 8.4 Confidence Interval (Home Costs)
    6. 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth)
    7. 8.6 Confidence Interval (Women's Heights)
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  10. 9 Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
    3. 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
    4. 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
    5. 9.4 Rare Events, the Sample, Decision and Conclusion
    6. 9.5 Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples
    7. 9.6 Hypothesis Testing of a Single Mean and Single Proportion
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  11. 10 Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations
    3. 10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
    4. 10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
    5. 10.4 Matched or Paired Samples
    6. 10.5 Hypothesis Testing for Two Means and Two Proportions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. Bringing It Together: Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  12. 11 The Chi-Square Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
    3. 11.2 Goodness-of-Fit Test
    4. 11.3 Test of Independence
    5. 11.4 Test for Homogeneity
    6. 11.5 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
    7. 11.6 Test of a Single Variance
    8. 11.7 Lab 1: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit
    9. 11.8 Lab 2: Chi-Square Test of Independence
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  13. 12 Linear Regression and Correlation
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Linear Equations
    3. 12.2 Scatter Plots
    4. 12.3 The Regression Equation
    5. 12.4 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient
    6. 12.5 Prediction
    7. 12.6 Outliers
    8. 12.7 Regression (Distance from School)
    9. 12.8 Regression (Textbook Cost)
    10. 12.9 Regression (Fuel Efficiency)
    11. Key Terms
    12. Chapter Review
    13. Formula Review
    14. Practice
    15. Homework
    16. Bringing It Together: Homework
    17. References
    18. Solutions
  14. 13 F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 One-Way ANOVA
    3. 13.2 The F Distribution and the F-Ratio
    4. 13.3 Facts About the F Distribution
    5. 13.4 Test of Two Variances
    6. 13.5 Lab: One-Way ANOVA
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. References
    13. Solutions
  15. A | Review Exercises (Ch 3-13)
  16. B | Practice Tests (1-4) and Final Exams
  17. C | Data Sets
  18. D | Group and Partner Projects
  19. E | Solution Sheets
  20. F | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
  21. G | Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators
  22. H | Tables
  23. Index

2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs

For each of the following data sets, create a stem plot and identify any outliers.

1.

The miles per gallon rating for 30 cars are shown below (lowest to highest).
19, 19, 19, 20, 21, 21, 25, 25, 25, 26, 26, 28, 29, 31, 31, 32, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 37, 38, 38, 38, 38, 41, 43, 43

2.

The height in feet of 25 trees is shown below (lowest to highest).
25, 27, 33, 34, 34, 34, 35, 37, 37, 38, 39, 39, 39, 40, 41, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 50, 53, 53, 54, 54

3.

The data are the prices of different laptops at an electronics store. Round each value to the nearest ten.
249, 249, 260, 265, 265, 280, 299, 299, 309, 319, 325, 326, 350, 350, 350, 365, 369, 389, 409, 459, 489, 559, 569, 570, 610

4.

The data are daily high temperatures in a town for one month.
61, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 67, 67, 68, 69, 70, 70, 70, 71, 71, 72, 74, 74, 74, 75, 75, 75, 76, 76, 77, 78, 78, 79, 79, 95


For the next three exercises, use the data to construct a line graph.

5.

In a survey, 40 people were asked how many times they visited a store before making a major purchase. The results are shown in Table 2.37.

Number of times in storeFrequency
14
210
316
46
54
Table 2.37
6.

In a survey, several people were asked how many years it has been since they purchased a mattress. The results are shown in Table 2.38.

Years since last purchase Frequency
0 2
1 8
2 13
3 22
4 16
5 9
Table 2.38
7.

Several children were asked how many TV shows they watch each day. The results of the survey are shown in Table 2.39.

Number of TV Shows Frequency
0 12
1 18
2 36
3 7
4 2
Table 2.39
8.

The students in Ms. Ramirez’s math class have birthdays in each of the four seasons. Table 2.40 shows the four seasons, the number of students who have birthdays in each season, and the percentage (%) of students in each group. Construct a bar graph showing the number of students.

Seasons Number of students Proportion of population
Spring 8 24%
Summer 9 26%
Autumn 11 32%
Winter 6 18%
Table 2.40
9.

Using the data from Mrs. Ramirez’s math class supplied in Exercise 2.8, construct a bar graph showing the percentages.

10.

David County has six high schools. Each school sent students to participate in a county-wide science competition. Table 2.41 shows the percentage breakdown of competitors from each school, and the percentage of the entire student population of the county that goes to each school. Construct a bar graph that shows the population percentage of competitors from each school.

High SchoolScience competition populationOverall student population
Alabaster28.9%8.6%
Concordia7.6%23.2%
Genoa12.1%15.0%
Mocksville18.5%14.3%
Tynneson24.2%10.1%
West End8.7%28.8%
Table 2.41
11.

Use the data from the David County science competition supplied in Exercise 2.10. Construct a bar graph that shows the county-wide population percentage of students at each school.

2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs

12.

Sixty-five randomly selected car salespersons were asked the number of cars they generally sell in one week. Fourteen people answered that they generally sell three cars; nineteen generally sell four cars; twelve generally sell five cars; nine generally sell six cars; eleven generally sell seven cars. Complete the table.

Data Value (# cars) Frequency Relative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency
Table 2.42
13.

What does the frequency column in Table 2.42 sum to? Why?

14.

What does the relative frequency column in Table 2.42 sum to? Why?

15.

What is the difference between relative frequency and frequency for each data value in Table 2.42?

16.

What is the difference between cumulative relative frequency and relative frequency for each data value?

17.

To construct the histogram for the data in Table 2.42, determine appropriate minimum and maximum x and y values and the scaling. Sketch the histogram. Label the horizontal and vertical axes with words. Include numerical scaling.

An empty graph template for use with this question.
Figure 2.31
18.

Construct a frequency polygon for the following:

  1. Pulse Rates for Women Frequency
    60–6912
    70–7914
    80–8911
    90–991
    100–1091
    110–1190
    120–1291
    Table 2.43
  2. Actual Speed in a 30 MPH Zone Frequency
    42–4525
    46–4914
    50–537
    54–573
    58–611
    Table 2.44
  3. Tar (mg) in Nonfiltered Cigarettes Frequency
    10–131
    14–170
    18–2115
    22–257
    26–292
    Table 2.45
19.

Construct a frequency polygon from the frequency distribution for the 50 highest ranked countries for depth of hunger.

Depth of Hunger Frequency
230–25921
260–28913
290–3195
320–3497
350–3791
380–4091
410–4391
Table 2.46
20.

Use the two frequency tables to compare the life expectancy of men and women from 20 randomly selected countries. Include an overlayed frequency polygon and discuss the shapes of the distributions, the center, the spread, and any outliers. What can we conclude about the life expectancy of women compared to men?

Life Expectancy at Birth – Women Frequency
49–553
56–623
63–691
70–763
77–838
84–902
Table 2.47
Life Expectancy at Birth – Men Frequency
49–553
56–623
63–691
70–761
77–837
84–905
Table 2.48
21.

Construct a times series graph for (a) the number of male births, (b) the number of female births, and (c) the total number of births.

Sex/Year 1855185618571858 185918601861
Female 45,54549,58250,25750,32451,91551,22052,403
Male 47,80452,23953,15853,694 54,62854,40954,606
Total 93,349101,821103,415 104,018106,543105,629 107,009
Table 2.49
Sex/Year 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869
Female 51,812 53,115 54,959 54,850 55,307 55,527 56,292 55,033
Male 55,257 56,226 57,374 58,220 58,360 58,517 59,222 58,321
Total 107,069 109,341 112,333 113,070 113,667 114,044 115,514 113,354
Table 2.50
Sex/Year187018711872187318741875
Female 56,431 56,099 57,472 58,233 60,109 60,146
Male 58,959 60,029 61,293 61,467 63,602 63,432
Total 115,390 116,128 118,765 119,700 123,711 123,578
Table 2.51
22.

The following data sets list full time police per 100,000 citizens along with homicides per 100,000 citizens for the city of Detroit, Michigan during the period from 1961 to 1973.

Year1961196219631964196519661967
Police260.35269.8272.04272.96272.51261.34268.89
Homicides8.68.98.52 8.8913.0714.5721.36
Table 2.52
Year196819691970 197119721973
Police295.99319.87341.43356.59376.69390.19
Homicides28.0331.4937.3946.2647.2452.33
Table 2.53
  1. Construct a double time series graph using a common x-axis for both sets of data.
  2. Which variable increased the fastest? Explain.
  3. Did Detroit’s increase in police officers have an impact on the murder rate? Explain.

2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data

23.

Listed are 29 ages for Academy Award winning best actors in order from smallest to largest.

18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 33; 36; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77

  1. Find the 40th percentile.
  2. Find the 78th percentile.
24.

Listed are 32 ages for Academy Award winning best actors in order from smallest to largest.

18; 18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 31; 33; 36; 37; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77

  1. Find the percentile of 37.
  2. Find the percentile of 72.
25.

Jesse was ranked 37th in his graduating class of 180 students. At what percentile is Jesse’s ranking?

26.
  1. For runners in a race, a low time means a faster run. The winners in a race have the shortest running times. Is it more desirable to have a finish time with a high or a low percentile when running a race?
  2. The 20th percentile of run times in a particular race is 5.2 minutes. Write a sentence interpreting the 20th percentile in the context of the situation.
  3. A bicyclist in the 90th percentile of a bicycle race completed the race in 1 hour and 12 minutes. Is he among the fastest or slowest cyclists in the race? Write a sentence interpreting the 90th percentile in the context of the situation.
27.
  1. For runners in a race, a higher speed means a faster run. Is it more desirable to have a speed with a high or a low percentile when running a race?
  2. The 40th percentile of speeds in a particular race is 7.5 miles per hour. Write a sentence interpreting the 40th percentile in the context of the situation.
28.

On an exam, would it be more desirable to earn a grade with a high or low percentile? Explain.

29.

Mina is waiting in line at the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). Her wait time of 32 minutes is the 85th percentile of wait times. Is that good or bad? Write a sentence interpreting the 85th percentile in the context of this situation.

30.

In a survey collecting data about the salaries earned by recent college graduates, Li found that her salary was in the 78th percentile. Should Li be pleased or upset by this result? Explain.

31.

In a study collecting data about the repair costs of damage to automobiles in a certain type of crash tests, a certain model of car had $1,700 in damage and was in the 90th percentile. Should the manufacturer and the consumer be pleased or upset by this result? Explain and write a sentence that interprets the 90th percentile in the context of this problem.

32.

The University of California has two criteria used to set admission standards for freshman to be admitted to a college in the UC system:

  1. Students' GPAs and scores on standardized tests (SATs and ACTs) are entered into a formula that calculates an "admissions index" score. The admissions index score is used to set eligibility standards intended to meet the goal of admitting the top 12% of high school students in the state. In this context, what percentile does the top 12% represent?
  2. Students whose GPAs are at or above the 96th percentile of all students at their high school are eligible (called eligible in the local context), even if they are not in the top 12% of all students in the state. What percentage of students from each high school are "eligible in the local context"?
33.

Suppose that you are buying a house. You and your realtor have determined that the most expensive house you can afford is the 34th percentile. The 34th percentile of housing prices is $240,000 in the town you want to move to. In this town, can you afford 34% of the houses or 66% of the houses?

Use the following information to answer the next six exercises. Sixty-five randomly selected car salespersons were asked the number of cars they generally sell in one week. Fourteen people answered that they generally sell three cars; nineteen generally sell four cars; twelve generally sell five cars; nine generally sell six cars; eleven generally sell seven cars.

34.

First quartile = _______

35.

Second quartile = median = 50th percentile = _______

36.

Third quartile = _______

37.

Interquartile range (IQR) = _____ – _____ = _____

38.

10th percentile = _______

39.

70th percentile = _______

2.4 Box Plots

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. Sixty-five randomly selected car salespersons were asked the number of cars they generally sell in one week. Fourteen people answered that they generally sell three cars; nineteen generally sell four cars; twelve generally sell five cars; nine generally sell six cars; eleven generally sell seven cars.

40.

Construct a box plot below. Use a ruler to measure and scale accurately.

41.

Looking at your box plot, does it appear that the data are concentrated together, spread out evenly, or concentrated in some areas, but not in others? How can you tell?

2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data

42.

Find the mean for the following frequency tables.

  1. Grade Frequency
    49.5–59.52
    59.5–69.53
    69.5–79.58
    79.5–89.512
    89.5–99.55
    Table 2.54
  2. Daily Low Temperature Frequency
    49.5–59.553
    59.5–69.532
    69.5–79.515
    79.5–89.51
    89.5–99.50
    Table 2.55
  3. Points per Game Frequency
    49.5–59.514
    59.5–69.532
    69.5–79.515
    79.5–89.523
    89.5–99.52
    Table 2.56

Use the following information to answer the next three exercises: The following data show the lengths of boats moored in a marina. The data are ordered from smallest to largest: 16; 17; 19; 20; 20; 21; 23; 24; 25; 25; 25; 26; 26; 27; 27; 27; 28; 29; 30; 32; 33; 33; 34; 35; 37; 39; 40

43.

Calculate the mean.

44.

Identify the median.

45.

Identify the mode.


Use the following information to answer the next three exercises: Sixty-five randomly selected car salespersons were asked the number of cars they generally sell in one week. Fourteen people answered that they generally sell three cars; nineteen generally sell four cars; twelve generally sell five cars; nine generally sell six cars; eleven generally sell seven cars. Calculate the following:

46.

sample mean = x¯ x = _______

47.

median = _______

48.

mode = _______

2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode

Use the following information to answer the next three exercises: State whether the data are symmetrical, skewed to the left, or skewed to the right.

49.

1; 1; 1; 2; 2; 2; 2; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 4; 4; 4; 5; 5

50.

16; 17; 19; 22; 22; 22; 22; 22; 23

51.

87; 87; 87; 87; 87; 88; 89; 89; 90; 91

52.

When the data are skewed left, what is the typical relationship between the mean and median?

53.

When the data are symmetrical, what is the typical relationship between the mean and median?

54.

What word describes a distribution that has two modes?

55.

Describe the shape of this distribution.

This is a historgram which consists of 5 adjacent bars with the x-axis split into intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights peak at the first bar and taper lower to the right.
Figure 2.32
56.

Describe the relationship between the mode and the median of this distribution.

This is a histogram which consists of 5 adjacent bars with the x-axis split into intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights peak at the first bar and taper lower to the right. The bar ehighs from left to right are: 8, 4, 2, 2, 1.
Figure 2.33
57.

Describe the relationship between the mean and the median of this distribution.

This is a histogram which  consists of 5 adjacent bars with the x-axis split into intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights peak at the first bar and taper lower to the right. The bar heights from left to right are: 8, 4, 2, 2, 1.
Figure 2.34
58.

Describe the shape of this distribution.

This is a histogram which consists of 5 adjacent bars with the x-axis split into intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights peak in the middle and taper down to the right and left.
Figure 2.35
59.

Describe the relationship between the mode and the median of this distribution.

This is a histogram which consists of 5 adjacent bars with the x-axis split intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights peak in the middle and taper down to the right and left.
Figure 2.36
60.

Are the mean and the median the exact same in this distribution? Why or why not?

This is a histogram which consists of 5 adjacent bars with the x-axis split into intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights from left to right are: 2, 4, 8, 5, 2.
Figure 2.37
61.

Describe the shape of this distribution.

This is a histogram which consists of 5 adjacent bars over an x-axis split into intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights from left to right are: 1, 1, 2, 4, 7.
Figure 2.38
62.

Describe the relationship between the mode and the median of this distribution.

This is a histogram which consists of 5 adjacent bars over an x-axis split into intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights from left to right are: 1, 1, 2, 4, 7.
Figure 2.39
63.

Describe the relationship between the mean and the median of this distribution.

This is a histogram which consists of 5 adjacent bars over an x-axis split into intervals of 1 from 3 to 7. The bar heights from left to right are: 1, 1, 2, 4, 7.
Figure 2.40
64.

The mean and median for the data are the same.

3; 4; 5; 5; 6; 6; 6; 6; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7

Is the data perfectly symmetrical? Why or why not?

65.

Which is the greatest, the mean, the mode, or the median of the data set?

11; 11; 12; 12; 12; 12; 13; 15; 17; 22; 22; 22

66.

Which is the least, the mean, the mode, and the median of the data set?

56; 56; 56; 58; 59; 60; 62; 64; 64; 65; 67

67.

Of the three measures, which tends to reflect skewing the most, the mean, the mode, or the median? Why?

68.

In a perfectly symmetrical distribution, when would the mode be different from the mean and median?

2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises: The following data are the distances between 20 retail stores and a large distribution center. The distances are in miles.
29; 37; 38; 40; 58; 67; 68; 69; 76; 86; 87; 95; 96; 96; 99; 106; 112; 127; 145; 150

69.

Use a graphing calculator or computer to find the standard deviation and round to the nearest tenth.

70.

Find the value that is one standard deviation below the mean.

71.

Two baseball players, Fredo and Karl, on different teams wanted to find out who had the higher batting average when compared to his team. Which baseball player had the higher batting average when compared to his team?

Baseball Player Batting Average Team Batting Average Team Standard Deviation
Fredo 0.158 0.166 0.012
Karl 0.177 0.189 0.015
Table 2.57
72.

Use Table 2.57 to find the value that is three standard deviations:

  • above the mean
  • below the mean


Find the standard deviation for the following frequency tables using the formula. Check the calculations with the TI 83/84.

73.

Find the standard deviation for the following frequency tables using the formula. Check the calculations with the TI 83/84.

  1. GradeFrequency
    49.5–59.52
    59.5–69.53
    69.5–79.58
    79.5–89.512
    89.5–99.55
    Table 2.58
  2. Daily Low Temperature Frequency
    49.5–59.5 53
    59.5–69.5 32
    69.5–79.5 15
    79.5–89.5 1
    89.5–99.5 0
    Table 2.59
  3. Points per Game Frequency
    49.5–59.5 14
    59.5–69.5 32
    69.5–79.5 15
    79.5–89.5 23
    89.5–99.5 2
    Table 2.60
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