Introductory Statistics

# 2.1Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs

Introductory Statistics2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs

One simple graph, the stem-and-leaf graph or stemplot, comes from the field of exploratory data analysis. It is a good choice when the data sets are small. To create the plot, divide each observation of data into a stem and a leaf. The leaf consists of a final significant digit. For example, 23 has stem two and leaf three. The number 432 has stem 43 and leaf two. Likewise, the number 5,432 has stem 543 and leaf two. The decimal 9.3 has stem nine and leaf three. Write the stems in a vertical line from smallest to largest. Draw a vertical line to the right of the stems. Then write the leaves in increasing order next to their corresponding stem.

## Example 2.1

For Susan Dean's spring pre-calculus class, scores for the first exam were as follows (smallest to largest):
33; 42; 49; 49; 53; 55; 55; 61; 63; 67; 68; 68; 69; 69; 72; 73; 74; 78; 80; 83; 88; 88; 88; 90; 92; 94; 94; 94; 94; 96; 100

Stem Leaf
33
42 9 9
53 5 5
61 3 7 8 8 9 9
72 3 4 8
80 3 8 8 8
90 2 4 4 4 4 6
100
Table 2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graph

The stemplot shows that most scores fell in the 60s, 70s, 80s, and 90s. Eight out of the 31 scores or approximately 26% $( 8 31 ) ( 8 31 )$ were in the 90s or 100, a fairly high number of As.

## Try It 2.1

For the Park City basketball team, scores for the last 30 games were as follows (smallest to largest):
32; 32; 33; 34; 38; 40; 42; 42; 43; 44; 46; 47; 47; 48; 48; 48; 49; 50; 50; 51; 52; 52; 52; 53; 54; 56; 57; 57; 60; 61
Construct a stem plot for the data.

The stemplot is a quick way to graph data and gives an exact picture of the data. You want to look for an overall pattern and any outliers. An outlier is an observation of data that does not fit the rest of the data. It is sometimes called an extreme value. When you graph an outlier, it will appear not to fit the pattern of the graph. Some outliers are due to mistakes (for example, writing down 50 instead of 500) while others may indicate that something unusual is happening. It takes some background information to explain outliers, so we will cover them in more detail later.

## Example 2.2

The data are the distances (in kilometers) from a home to local supermarkets. Create a stemplot using the data:
1.1; 1.5; 2.3; 2.5; 2.7; 3.2; 3.3; 3.3; 3.5; 3.8; 4.0; 4.2; 4.5; 4.5; 4.7; 4.8; 5.5; 5.6; 6.5; 6.7; 12.3

### Problem

Do the data seem to have any concentration of values?

## NOTE

The leaves are to the right of the decimal.

## Try It 2.2

The following data show the distances (in miles) from the homes of off-campus statistics students to the college. Create a stem plot using the data and identify any outliers:

0.5; 0.7; 1.1; 1.2; 1.2; 1.3; 1.3; 1.5; 1.5; 1.7; 1.7; 1.8; 1.9; 2.0; 2.2; 2.5; 2.6; 2.8; 2.8; 2.8; 3.5; 3.8; 4.4; 4.8; 4.9; 5.2; 5.5; 5.7; 5.8; 8.0

## Example 2.3

### Problem

A side-by-side stem-and-leaf plot allows a comparison of the two data sets in two columns. In a side-by-side stem-and-leaf plot, two sets of leaves share the same stem. The leaves are to the left and the right of the stems. Table 2.4 and Table 2.5 show the ages of presidents at their inauguration and at their death. Construct a side-by-side stem-and-leaf plot using this data.

PresidentAgePresidentAgePresidentAge
Washington57Lincoln52Hoover54
Jefferson57Grant46Truman60
Monroe58Garfield49Kennedy43
Jackson61Cleveland47Nixon56
Van Buren54B. Harrison55Ford61
W. H. Harrison68Cleveland55Carter52
Tyler51McKinley54Reagan69
Polk49T. Roosevelt42G.H.W. Bush64
Taylor64Taft51Clinton47
Fillmore50Wilson56G. W. Bush54
Pierce48Harding55Obama47
Buchanan65Coolidge51
Table 2.4 Presidential Ages at Inauguration
PresidentAgePresidentAgePresidentAge
Washington67Lincoln56Hoover90
Jefferson83Grant63Truman88
Monroe73Garfield49Kennedy46
Jackson78Cleveland71Nixon81
Van Buren79B. Harrison67Ford93
W. H. Harrison68Cleveland71Reagan93
Tyler71McKinley58
Polk53T. Roosevelt60
Taylor65Taft72
Fillmore74Wilson67
Pierce64Harding57
Buchanan77Coolidge60
Table 2.5 Presidential Age at Death

## Try It 2.3

The table shows the number of wins and losses the Atlanta Hawks have had in 42 seasons. Create a side-by-side stem-and-leaf plot of these wins and losses.

Losses Wins Year Losses Wins Year
34 48 1968–1969 41 41 1989–1990
34 48 1969–1970 39 43 1990–1991
46 36 1970–1971 44 38 1991–1992
46 36 1971–1972 39 43 1992–1993
36 46 1972–1973 25 57 1993–1994
47 35 1973–1974 40 42 1994–1995
51 31 1974–1975 36 46 1995–1996
53 29 1975–1976 26 56 1996–1997
51 31 1976–1977 32 50 1997–1998
41 41 1977–1978 19 31 1998–1999
36 46 1978–1979 54 28 1999–2000
32 50 1979–1980 57 25 2000–2001
51 31 1980–1981 49 33 2001–2002
40 42 1981–1982 47 35 2002–2003
39 43 1982–1983 54 28 2003–2004
42 40 1983–1984 69 13 2004–2005
48 34 1984–1985 56 26 2005–2006
32 50 1985–1986 52 30 2006–2007
25 57 1986–1987 45 37 2007–2008
32 50 1987–1988 35 47 2008–2009
30 52 1988–1989 29 53 2009–2010
Table 2.6

Another type of graph that is useful for specific data values is a line graph. In the particular line graph shown in Example 2.4, the x-axis (horizontal axis) consists of data values and the y-axis (vertical axis) consists of frequency points. The frequency points are connected using line segments.

## Example 2.4

In a survey, 40 mothers were asked how many times per week a teenager must be reminded to do his or her chores. The results are shown in Table 2.7 and in Figure 2.2.

Number of times teenager is reminded Frequency
02
15
28
314
47
54
Table 2.7
Figure 2.2

## Try It 2.4

In a survey, 40 people were asked how many times per year they had their car in the shop for repairs. The results are shown in Table 2.8. Construct a line graph.

Number of times in shopFrequency
07
110
214
39
Table 2.8

Bar graphs consist of bars that are separated from each other. The bars can be rectangles or they can be rectangular boxes (used in three-dimensional plots), and they can be vertical or horizontal. The bar graph shown in Example 2.5 has age groups represented on the x-axis and proportions on the y-axis.

## Example 2.5

### Problem

By the end of 2011, Facebook had over 146 million users in the United States. Table 2.9 shows three age groups, the number of users in each age group, and the proportion (%) of users in each age group. Construct a bar graph using this data.

13–25 65,082,280 45%
26–44 53,300,200 36%
45–64 27,885,100 19%
Table 2.9

## Try It 2.5

The population in Park City is made up of children, working-age adults, and retirees. Table 2.10 shows the three age groups, the number of people in the town from each age group, and the proportion (%) of people in each age group. Construct a bar graph showing the proportions.

Age groupsNumber of peopleProportion of population
Children 67,059 19%
Retirees 131,662 38%
Table 2.10

## Example 2.6

### Problem

The columns in Table 2.11 contain: the race or ethnicity of students in U.S. Public Schools for the class of 2011, percentages for the Advanced Placement examine population for that class, and percentages for the overall student population. Create a bar graph with the student race or ethnicity (qualitative data) on the x-axis, and the Advanced Placement examinee population percentages on the y-axis.

Race/Ethnicity AP Examinee Population Overall Student Population
1 = Asian, Asian American or Pacific Islander 10.3% 5.7%
2 = Black or African American 9.0% 14.7%
3 = Hispanic or Latino 17.0% 17.6%
4 = American Indian or Alaska Native 0.6% 1.1%
5 = White 57.1% 59.2%
6 = Not reported/other 6.0% 1.7%
Table 2.11

## Try It 2.6

Park city is broken down into six voting districts. The table shows the percent of the total registered voter population that lives in each district as well as the percent total of the entire population that lives in each district. Construct a bar graph that shows the registered voter population by district.

DistrictRegistered voter populationOverall city population
115.5%19.4%
212.2%15.6%
39.8%9.0%
417.4%18.5%
522.8%20.7%
622.3%16.8%
Table 2.12
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