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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  4. 3 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 3.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 3.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 3.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. 3.6 The Periodic Table
    8. 3.7 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  5. 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 4.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 4.3 Chemical Nomenclature
    5. 4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    6. 4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance
    7. 4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  6. 5 Advanced Theories of Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 5.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  7. 6 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Formula Mass
    3. 6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 6.3 Molarity
    5. 6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  8. 7 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 7.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 7.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  9. 8 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 8.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 8.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 8.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  10. 9 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Energy Basics
    3. 9.2 Calorimetry
    4. 9.3 Enthalpy
    5. 9.4 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Spontaneity
    3. 12.2 Entropy
    4. 12.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 12.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 16.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 16.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 16.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 16.6 Corrosion
    8. 16.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  18. 17 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 17.3 Rate Laws
    5. 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 17.5 Collision Theory
    7. 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 17.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 20.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 20.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 20.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  22. 21 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 21.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 21.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 21.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index

4.1 Ionic Bonding

1.

Does a cation gain protons to form a positive charge or does it lose electrons?

2.

Iron(III) sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3] is composed of Fe3+ and SO42−SO42− ions. Explain why a sample of iron(III) sulfate is uncharged.

3.

Which of the following atoms would be expected to form negative ions in binary ionic compounds and which would be expected to form positive ions: P, I, Mg, Cl, In, Cs, O, Pb, Co?

4.

Which of the following atoms would be expected to form negative ions in binary ionic compounds and which would be expected to form positive ions: Br, Ca, Na, N, F, Al, Sn, S, Cd?

5.

Predict the charge on the monatomic ions formed from the following atoms in binary ionic compounds:

(a) P

(b) Mg

(c) Al

(d) O

(e) Cl

(f) Cs

6.

Predict the charge on the monatomic ions formed from the following atoms in binary ionic compounds:

(a) I

(b) Sr

(c) K

(d) N

(e) S

(f) In

7.

Write the electron configuration for each of the following ions:

(a) As3–

(b) I

(c) Be2+

(d) Cd2+

(e) O2–

(f) Ga3+

(g) Li+

(h) N3–

(i) Sn2+

(j) Co2+

(k) Fe2+

(l) As3+

8.

Write the electron configuration for the monatomic ions formed from the following elements (which form the greatest concentration of monatomic ions in seawater):

(a) Cl

(b) Na

(c) Mg

(d) Ca

(e) K

(f) Br

(g) Sr

(h) F

9.

Write out the full electron configuration for each of the following atoms and for the monatomic ion found in binary ionic compounds containing the element:

(a) Al

(b) Br

(c) Sr

(d) Li

(e) As

(f) S

10.

From the labels of several commercial products, prepare a list of six ionic compounds in the products. For each compound, write the formula. (You may need to look up some formulas in a suitable reference.)

4.2 Covalent Bonding

11.

Why is it incorrect to speak of a molecule of solid NaCl?

12.

What information can you use to predict whether a bond between two atoms is covalent or ionic?

13.

Predict which of the following compounds are ionic and which are covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table:

(a) Cl2CO

(b) MnO

(c) NCl3

(d) CoBr2

(e) K2S

(f) CO

(g) CaF2

(h) HI

(i) CaO

(j) IBr

(k) CO2

14.

Explain the difference between a nonpolar covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.

15.

From its position in the periodic table, determine which atom in each pair is more electronegative:

(a) Br or Cl

(b) N or O

(c) S or O

(d) P or S

(e) Si or N

(f) Ba or P

(g) N or K

16.

From its position in the periodic table, determine which atom in each pair is more electronegative:

(a) N or P

(b) N or Ge

(c) S or F

(d) Cl or S

(e) H or C

(f) Se or P

(g) C or Si

17.

From their positions in the periodic table, arrange the atoms in each of the following series in order of increasing electronegativity:

(a) C, F, H, N, O

(b) Br, Cl, F, H, I

(c) F, H, O, P, S

(d) Al, H, Na, O, P

(e) Ba, H, N, O, As

18.

From their positions in the periodic table, arrange the atoms in each of the following series in order of increasing electronegativity:

(a) As, H, N, P, Sb

(b) Cl, H, P, S, Si

(c) Br, Cl, Ge, H, Sr

(d) Ca, H, K, N, Si

(e) Cl, Cs, Ge, H, Sr

19.

Which atoms can bond to sulfur so as to produce a positive partial charge on the sulfur atom?

20.

Which is the most polar bond?

(a) C–C

(b) C–H

(c) N–H

(d) O–H

(e) Se–H

21.

Identify the more polar bond in each of the following pairs of bonds:

(a) HF or HCl

(b) NO or CO

(c) SH or OH

(d) PCl or SCl

(e) CH or NH

(f) SO or PO

(g) CN or NN

22.

Which of the following molecules or ions contain polar bonds?

(a) O3

(b) S8

(c) O22−O22−

(d) NO3NO3

(e) CO2

(f) H2S

(g) BH4BH4

4.3 Chemical Nomenclature

23.

Name the following compounds:

(a) CsCl

(b) BaO

(c) K2S

(d) BeCl2

(e) HBr

(f) AlF3

24.

Name the following compounds:

(a) NaF

(b) Rb2O

(c) BCl3

(d) H2Se

(e) P4O6

(f) ICl3

25.

Write the formulas of the following compounds:

(a) rubidium bromide

(b) magnesium selenide

(c) sodium oxide

(d) calcium chloride

(e) hydrogen fluoride

(f) gallium phosphide

(g) aluminum bromide

(h) ammonium sulfate

26.

Write the formulas of the following compounds:

(a) lithium carbonate

(b) sodium perchlorate

(c) barium hydroxide

(d) ammonium carbonate

(e) sulfuric acid

(f) calcium acetate

(g) magnesium phosphate

(h) sodium sulfite

27.

Write the formulas of the following compounds:

(a) chlorine dioxide

(b) dinitrogen tetraoxide

(c) potassium phosphide

(d) silver(I) sulfide

(e) aluminum fluoride trihydrate

(f) silicon dioxide

28.

Write the formulas of the following compounds:

(a) barium chloride

(b) magnesium nitride

(c) sulfur dioxide

(d) nitrogen trichloride

(e) dinitrogen trioxide

(f) tin(IV) chloride

29.

Each of the following compounds contains a metal that can exhibit more than one ionic charge. Name these compounds:

(a) Cr2O3

(b) FeCl2

(c) CrO3

(d) TiCl4

(e) CoCl2∙6H2O

(f) MoS2

30.

Each of the following compounds contains a metal that can exhibit more than one ionic charge. Name these compounds:

(a) NiCO3

(b) MoO3

(c) Co(NO3)2

(d) V2O5

(e) MnO2

(f) Fe2O3

31.

The following ionic compounds are found in common household products. Write the formulas for each compound:

(a) potassium phosphate

(b) copper(II) sulfate

(c) calcium chloride

(d) titanium(IV) oxide

(e) ammonium nitrate

(f) sodium bisulfate (the common name for sodium hydrogen sulfate)

32.

The following ionic compounds are found in common household products. Name each of the compounds:

(a) Ca(H2PO4)2

(b) FeSO4

(c) CaCO3

(d) MgO

(e) NaNO2

(f) KI

33.

What are the IUPAC names of the following compounds?

(a) manganese dioxide

(b) mercurous chloride (Hg2Cl2)

(c) ferric nitrate [Fe(NO3)3]

(d) titanium tetrachloride

(e) cupric bromide (CuBr2)

4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures

34.

Write the Lewis symbols for each of the following ions:

(a) As3–

(b) I

(c) Be2+

(d) O2–

(e) Ga3+

(f) Li+

(g) N3–

35.

Many monatomic ions are found in seawater, including the ions formed from the following list of elements. Write the Lewis symbols for the monatomic ions formed from the following elements:

(a) Cl

(b) Na

(c) Mg

(d) Ca

(e) K

(f) Br

(g) Sr

(h) F

36.

Write the Lewis symbols of the ions in each of the following ionic compounds and the Lewis symbols of the atom from which they are formed:

(a) MgS

(b) Al2O3

(c) GaCl3

(d) K2O

(e) Li3N

(f) KF

37.

In the Lewis structures listed here, M and X represent various elements in the third period of the periodic table. Write the formula of each compound using the chemical symbols of each element:

(a)

Two Lewis structures are shown side-by-side, each surrounded by brackets. The left structure shows the symbol M with a superscripted two positive sign. The right shows the symbol X surrounded by four lone pairs of electrons with a superscripted two negative sign outside of the brackets.

(b)

Two Lewis structures are shown side-by-side, each surrounded by brackets. The left structure shows the symbol M with a superscripted three positive sign. The right structure shows the symbol X surrounded by four lone pairs of electrons with a superscripted negative sign and a subscripted three both outside of the brackets.

(c)

Two Lewis structures are shown side-by-side, each surrounded by brackets. The left structure shows the symbol M with a superscripted positive sign and a subscripted two outside of the brackets. The right structure shows the symbol X surrounded by four lone pairs of electrons with a superscripted two negative sign outside of the brackets.

(d)

Two Lewis structures are shown side-by-side, each surrounded by brackets. The left structure shows the symbol M with a superscripted three positive sign and a subscripted two outside of the brackets. The right structure shows the symbol X surrounded by four lone pairs of electrons with a superscripted two negative sign and subscripted three both outside of the brackets.
38.

Write the Lewis structure for the diatomic molecule P2, an unstable form of phosphorus found in high-temperature phosphorus vapor.

39.

Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) H2

(b) HBr

(c) PCl3

(d) SF2

(e) H2CCH2

(f) HNNH

(g) H2CNH

(h) NO

(i) N2

(j) CO

(k) CN

40.

Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) O2

(b) H2CO

(c) AsF3

(d) ClNO

(e) SiCl4

(f) H3O+

(g) NH4+NH4+

(h) BF4BF4

(i) HCCH

(j) ClCN

(k) C22+C22+

41.

Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) ClF3

(b) PCl5

(c) BF3

(d) PF6PF6

42.

Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) SeF6

(b) XeF4

(c) SeCl3+SeCl3+

(d) Cl2BBCl2 (contains a B–B bond)

43.

Write Lewis structures for:

(a) PO43−PO43−

(b) ICl4ICl4

(c) SO32−SO32−

(d) HONO

44.

Correct the following statement: “The bonds in solid PbCl2 are ionic; the bond in a HCl molecule is covalent. Thus, all of the valence electrons in PbCl2 are located on the Cl ions, and all of the valence electrons in a HCl molecule are shared between the H and Cl atoms.”

45.

Write Lewis structures for the following molecules or ions:

(a) SbH3

(b) XeF2

(c) Se8 (a cyclic molecule with a ring of eight Se atoms)

46.

Methanol, H3COH, is used as the fuel in some race cars. Ethanol, C2H5OH, is used extensively as motor fuel in Brazil. Both methanol and ethanol produce CO2 and H2O when they burn. Write the chemical equations for these combustion reactions using Lewis structures instead of chemical formulas.

47.

Many planets in our solar system contain organic chemicals including methane (CH4) and traces of ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6), propyne (H3CCCH), and diacetylene (HCCCCH). Write the Lewis structures for each of these molecules.

48.

Carbon tetrachloride was formerly used in fire extinguishers for electrical fires. It is no longer used for this purpose because of the formation of the toxic gas phosgene, Cl2CO. Write the Lewis structures for carbon tetrachloride and phosgene.

49.

Identify the atoms that correspond to each of the following electron configurations. Then, write the Lewis symbol for the common ion formed from each atom:

(a) 1s22s22p5

(b) 1s22s22p63s2

(c) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10

(d) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p4

(e) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1

50.

The arrangement of atoms in several biologically important molecules is given here. Complete the Lewis structures of these molecules by adding multiple bonds and lone pairs. Do not add any more atoms.

(a) the amino acid serine:

A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom and two other carbon atoms. One of these carbon atoms is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom. The other carbon atom is single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is bonded to a hydrogen atom.

(b) urea:

A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and another nitrogen atom. That nitrogen atom is then single bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

(c) pyruvic acid:

A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and another carbon atom. The second carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and a third carbon atom. This carbon is then single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

(d) uracil:

A Lewis hexagonal ring structure is shown. From the top of the ring (moving clockwise), three carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, a carbon atom, and a nitrogen atom are single bonded to each another. The top carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom. The second and third carbons and the nitrogen atom are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The next carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom, and the last nitrogen atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

(e) carbonic acid:

A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three oxygen atoms. Two of those oxygen atoms are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom.
51.

A compound with a molar mass of about 28 g/mol contains 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Write the Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound.

52.

A compound with a molar mass of about 42 g/mol contains 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Write the Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound.

53.

Two arrangements of atoms are possible for a compound with a molar mass of about 45 g/mol that contains 52.2% C, 13.1% H, and 34.7% O by mass. Write the Lewis structures for the two molecules.

54.

How are single, double, and triple bonds similar? How do they differ?

4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance

55.

Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.

(a) selenium dioxide, OSeO

(b) nitrate ion, NO3NO3

(c) nitric acid, HNO3 (N is bonded to an OH group and two O atoms)

(d) benzene, C6H6:

A Lewis structure shows a hexagonal ring composed of six carbon atoms. They form single bonds to each another and single bonds to one hydrogen atom each.

(e) the formate ion:

A Lewis structure shows a carbon atom single bonded to two oxygen atoms and a hydrogen atom. The structure is surrounded by brackets and there is a superscripted negative sign.
56.

Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.

(a) sulfur dioxide, SO2

(b) carbonate ion, CO32−CO32−

(c) hydrogen carbonate ion, HCO3HCO3 (C is bonded to an OH group and two O atoms)

(d) pyridine:

A Lewis structure depicts a hexagonal ring composed of five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. Each carbon atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

(e) the allyl ion:

A Lewis structure shows a carbon atom single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a second carbon atom. The second carbon atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom and a third carbon atom. The third carbon atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms. The whole structure is surrounded by brackets, and there is a superscripted negative sign.
57.

Write the resonance forms of ozone, O3, the component of the upper atmosphere that protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation.

58.

Sodium nitrite, which has been used to preserve bacon and other meats, is an ionic compound. Write the resonance forms of the nitrite ion, NO2.NO2.

59.

In terms of the bonds present, explain why acetic acid, CH3CO2H, contains two distinct types of carbon-oxygen bonds, whereas the acetate ion, formed by loss of a hydrogen ion from acetic acid, only contains one type of carbon-oxygen bond. The skeleton structures of these species are shown:

Two Lewis structures are shown with a double headed arrow in between. The left structure shows a carbon atom single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and a second carbon atom. The second carbon is single bonded to two oxygen atoms. One of the oxygen atoms is single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The right structure, surrounded by brackets and with a superscripted negative sign, depicts a carbon atom single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and a second carbon atom. The second carbon atom is single bonded to two oxygen atoms.
60.

Write the Lewis structures for the following, and include resonance structures where appropriate. Indicate which has the strongest carbon-oxygen bond.

(a) CO2

(b) CO

61.

Toothpastes containing sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate) and hydrogen peroxide are widely used. Write Lewis structures for the hydrogen carbonate ion and hydrogen peroxide molecule, with resonance forms where appropriate.

62.

Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:

(a) HCl

(b) CF4

(c) PCl3

(d) PF5

63.

Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:

(a) H3O+

(b) SO42−SO42−

(c) NH3

(d) O22−O22−

(e) H2O2

64.

Calculate the formal charge of chlorine in the molecules Cl2, BeCl2, and ClF5.

65.

Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:

(a) F2CO

(b) NO

(c) BF4BF4

(d) SnCl3SnCl3

(e) H2CCH2

(f) ClF3

(g) SeF6

(h) PO43−PO43−

66.

Draw all possible resonance structures for each of these compounds. Determine the formal charge on each atom in each of the resonance structures:

(a) O3

(b) SO2

(c) NO2NO2

(d) NO3NO3

67.

Based on formal charge considerations, which of the following would likely be the correct arrangement of atoms in nitrosyl chloride: ClNO or ClON?

68.

Based on formal charge considerations, which of the following would likely be the correct arrangement of atoms in hypochlorous acid: HOCl or OClH?

69.

Based on formal charge considerations, which of the following would likely be the correct arrangement of atoms in sulfur dioxide: OSO or SOO?

70.

Draw the structure of hydroxylamine, H3NO, and assign formal charges; look up the structure. Is the actual structure consistent with the formal charges?

71.

Iodine forms a series of fluorides (listed here). Write Lewis structures for each of the four compounds and determine the formal charge of the iodine atom in each molecule:

(a) IF

(b) IF3

(c) IF5

(d) IF7

72.

Write the Lewis structure and chemical formula of the compound with a molar mass of about 70 g/mol that contains 19.7% nitrogen and 80.3% fluorine by mass, and determine the formal charge of the atoms in this compound.

73.

Which of the following structures would we expect for nitrous acid? Determine the formal charges:

Two Lewis structures are shown, with the word “or” in between. The left structure shows a nitrogen atom single bonded to an oxygen atom with three lone pairs of electrons. It is also single bonded to a hydrogen atom and double bonded to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The right structure shows a hydrogen atom single bonded to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The oxygen atom is single bonded to a nitrogen atom which is double bonded to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons.
74.

Sulfuric acid is the industrial chemical produced in greatest quantity worldwide. About 90 billion pounds are produced each year in the United States alone. Write the Lewis structure for sulfuric acid, H2SO4, which has two oxygen atoms and two OH groups bonded to the sulfur.

4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity

75.

Explain why the HOH molecule is bent, whereas the HBeH molecule is linear.

76.

What feature of a Lewis structure can be used to tell if a molecule’s (or ion’s) electron-pair geometry and molecular structure will be identical?

77.

Explain the difference between electron-pair geometry and molecular structure.

78.

Why is the H–N–H angle in NH3 smaller than the H–C–H bond angle in CH4? Why is the H–N–H angle in NH4+NH4+ identical to the H–C–H bond angle in CH4?

79.

Explain how a molecule that contains polar bonds can be nonpolar.

80.

As a general rule, MXn molecules (where M represents a central atom and X represents terminal atoms; n = 2 – 5) are polar if there is one or more lone pairs of electrons on M. NH3 (M = N, X = H, n = 3) is an example. There are two molecular structures with lone pairs that are exceptions to this rule. What are they?

81.

Predict the electron pair geometry and the molecular structure of each of the following molecules or ions:

(a) SF6

(b) PCl5

(c) BeH2

(d) CH3+CH3+

82.

Identify the electron pair geometry and the molecular structure of each of the following molecules or ions:

(a) IF6+IF6+

(b) CF4

(c) BF3

(d) SiF5SiF5

(e) BeCl2

83.

What are the electron-pair geometry and the molecular structure of each of the following molecules or ions?

(a) ClF5

(b) ClO2ClO2

(c) TeCl42−TeCl42−

(d) PCl3

(e) SeF4

(f) PH2PH2

84.

Predict the electron pair geometry and the molecular structure of each of the following ions:

(a) H3O+

(b) PCl4PCl4

(c) SnCl3SnCl3

(d) BrCl4BrCl4

(e) ICl3

(f) XeF4

(g) SF2

85.

Identify the electron pair geometry and the molecular structure of each of the following molecules:

(a) ClNO (N is the central atom)

(b) CS2

(c) Cl2CO (C is the central atom)

(d) Cl2SO (S is the central atom)

(e) SO2F2 (S is the central atom)

(f) XeO2F2 (Xe is the central atom)

(g) ClOF2+ClOF2+ (Cl is the central atom)

86.

Predict the electron pair geometry and the molecular structure of each of the following:

(a) IOF5 (I is the central atom)

(b) POCl3 (P is the central atom)

(c) Cl2SeO (Se is the central atom)

(d) ClSO+ (S is the central atom)

(e) F2SO (S is the central atom)

(f) NO2NO2

(g) SiO44−SiO44−

87.

Which of the following molecules and ions contain polar bonds? Which of these molecules and ions have dipole moments?

(a) ClF5

(b) ClO2ClO2

(c) TeCl42−TeCl42−

(d) PCl3

(e) SeF4

(f) PH2PH2

(g) XeF2

88.

Which of these molecules and ions contain polar bonds? Which of these molecules and ions have dipole moments?

(a) H3O+

(b) PCl4PCl4

(c) SnCl3SnCl3

(d) BrCl4BrCl4

(e) ICl3

(f) XeF4

(g) SF2

89.

Which of the following molecules have dipole moments?

(a) CS2

(b) SeS2

(c) CCl2F2

(d) PCl3 (P is the central atom)

(e) ClNO (N is the central atom)

90.

Identify the molecules with a dipole moment:

(a) SF4

(b) CF4

(c) Cl2CCBr2

(d) CH3Cl

(e) H2CO

91.

The molecule XF3 has a dipole moment. Is X boron or phosphorus?

92.

The molecule XCl2 has a dipole moment. Is X beryllium or sulfur?

93.

Is the Cl2BBCl2 molecule polar or nonpolar?

94.

There are three possible structures for PCl2F3 with phosphorus as the central atom. Draw them and discuss how measurements of dipole moments could help distinguish among them.

95.

Describe the molecular structure around the indicated atom or atoms:

(a) the sulfur atom in sulfuric acid, H2SO4 [(HO)2SO2]

(b) the chlorine atom in chloric acid, HClO3 [HOClO2]

(c) the oxygen atom in hydrogen peroxide, HOOH

(d) the nitrogen atom in nitric acid, HNO3 [HONO2]

(e) the oxygen atom in the OH group in nitric acid, HNO3 [HONO2]

(f) the central oxygen atom in the ozone molecule, O3

(g) each of the carbon atoms in propyne, CH3CCH

(h) the carbon atom in Freon, CCl2F2

(i) each of the carbon atoms in allene, H2CCCH2

96.

Draw the Lewis structures and predict the shape of each compound or ion:

(a) CO2

(b) NO2NO2

(c) SO3

(d) SO32−SO32−

97.

A molecule with the formula AB2, in which A and B represent different atoms, could have one of three different shapes. Sketch and name the three different shapes that this molecule might have. Give an example of a molecule or ion for each shape.

98.

A molecule with the formula AB3, in which A and B represent different atoms, could have one of three different shapes. Sketch and name the three different shapes that this molecule might have. Give an example of a molecule or ion that has each shape.

99.

Draw the Lewis electron dot structures for these molecules, including resonance structures where appropriate:

(a) CS32−CS32−

(b) CS2

(c) CS

(d) predict the molecular shapes for CS32−CS32− and CS2 and explain how you arrived at your predictions

100.

What is the molecular structure of the stable form of FNO2? (N is the central atom.)

101.

A compound with a molar mass of about 42 g/mol contains 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen. What is its molecular structure?

102.

Use the simulation to perform the following exercises for a two-atom molecule:

(a) Adjust the electronegativity value so the bond dipole is pointing toward B. Then determine what the electronegativity values must be to switch the dipole so that it points toward A.

(b) With a partial positive charge on A, turn on the electric field and describe what happens.

(c) With a small partial negative charge on A, turn on the electric field and describe what happens.

(d) Reset all, and then with a large partial negative charge on A, turn on the electric field and describe what happens.

103.

Use the simulation to perform the following exercises for a real molecule. You may need to rotate the molecules in three dimensions to see certain dipoles.

(a) Sketch the bond dipoles and molecular dipole (if any) for O3. Explain your observations.

(b) Look at the bond dipoles for NH3. Use these dipoles to predict whether N or H is more electronegative.

(c) Predict whether there should be a molecular dipole for NH3 and, if so, in which direction it will point. Check the molecular dipole box to test your hypothesis.

104.

Use the Molecule Shape simulator to build a molecule. Starting with the central atom, click on the double bond to add one double bond. Then add one single bond and one lone pair. Rotate the molecule to observe the complete geometry. Name the electron group geometry and molecular structure and predict the bond angle. Then click the check boxes at the bottom and right of the simulator to check your answers.

105.

Use the Molecule Shape simulator to explore real molecules. On the Real Molecules tab, select H2O. Switch between the “real” and “model” modes. Explain the difference observed.

106.

Use the Molecule Shape simulator to explore real molecules. On the Real Molecules tab, select “model” mode and S2O. What is the model bond angle? Explain whether the “real” bond angle should be larger or smaller than the ideal model angle.

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