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Biology

Index

BiologyIndex

A
A horizon 31.2 The Soil
aboveground biomass 44.2 Biogeography
abyssal zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Acanthostega 29.3 Amphibians
acclimatization 33.3 Homeostasis
acid 2.2 Water
Actinopterygii 29.2 Fishes
action potential 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
active site 6.5 Enzymes
Active transport 5.3 Active Transport
adaptive evolution 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Adaptive immunity 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
Addison’s disease 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
adenosine triphosphate 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
adenylyl cyclase 37.2 How Hormones Work
adhesion 2.2 Water
adrenal cortex 37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenal glands 37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenal medulla 37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
adventitious roots 30.3 Roots
aerobic respiration 7.2 Glycolysis
affinities 42.3 Antibodies
algal bloom 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
alimentary canal 34.1 Digestive Systems
aliphatic hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
allantois 29.4 Reptiles
allele frequency 19.1 Population Evolution
Allopatric speciation 18.2 Formation of New Species
allosteric inhibition 6.5 Enzymes
alpha cells 37.5 Endocrine Glands
alteration 33.3 Homeostasis
alternation of generations 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
alveolar ventilation 39.3 Breathing
Alzheimer’s disease 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
amino acid-derived hormones 37.1 Types of Hormones
Amino acids 3.4 Proteins
aminoacyl tRNA synthetases 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
amnion 29.4 Reptiles
amoebocytes 28.1 Phylum Porifera
Amphibia 29.3 Amphibians
ampullae of Lorenzini 29.2 Fishes
anaerobic cellular respiration 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
analytical model 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
Anapsids 29.4 Reptiles
Anatomical dead space 39.3 Breathing
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
anterior pituitary 37.5 Endocrine Glands
antheridium 25.1 Early Plant Life
Anthophyta 26.3 Angiosperms
antibiotic resistance 17.1 Biotechnology
antibody 42.3 Antibodies
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
antigen-presenting cell (APC) 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
aphotic zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
apical bud 30.2 Stems
Apical meristems 30.1 The Plant Body
Apocrine glands 29.6 Mammals
aposematic coloration 45.6 Community Ecology
appendicular skeleton 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
applied science 1.1 The Science of Biology
Appositional growth 38.2 Bone
arbuscular mycorrhiza 24.3 Ecology of Fungi
arbuscular mycorrhizae 24.2 Classifications of Fungi
Archaeopteryx 29.5 Birds
archosaurs 29.4 Reptiles
aromatic hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
Asexual reproduction 43.1 Reproduction Methods
assortative mating 19.2 Population Genetics
asymptomatic infection 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) 37.5 Endocrine Glands
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
auditory ossicles 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
autoimmune response 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
autonomic nervous system 35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
avidity 42.3 Antibodies
axillary bud 30.2 Stems
B
B horizon 31.2 The Soil
Ball-and-socket joints 38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
bark 30.2 Stems
Basal angiosperms 26.3 Angiosperms
basal metabolic rate (BMR) 33.1 Animal Form and Function
base 2.2 Water
Batesian mimicry 45.6 Community Ecology
bedrock 31.2 The Soil
Behavioral isolation 18.2 Formation of New Species
benthic realm 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 ) (HCO 3 ) 39.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
binary (prokaryotic) fission 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
binomial nomenclature 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
Biodiversity hotspots 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
biogeochemical cycle 46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
Biogeography 44.2 Biogeography
biological carbon pump 23.3 Groups of Protists
biological macromolecules 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
Biological nitrogen fixation 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
bioluminescence 23.3 Groups of Protists
bipolar neurons 36.3 Taste and Smell
blood urea nitrogen 41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
Bone 38.2 Bone
Bone remodeling 38.2 Bone
bottleneck effect 19.2 Population Genetics
Brumation 29.4 Reptiles
Buffers 2.2 Water
bulb 30.2 Stems
C
C horizon 31.2 The Soil
caecilians 29.3 Amphibians
Calcification 38.2 Bone
calorie 2.2 Water
cAMP-dependent kinase (A-kinase) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
candela 36.5 Vision
capillary action 2.2 Water
Carbohydrates 3.2 Carbohydrates
carrier protein 5.2 Passive Transport
Cartilaginous joints 38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
Casineria 29.4 Reptiles
Casparian strip 30.3 Roots
catabolite activator protein (CAP) 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
cell cycle checkpoints 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
cell plate 10.2 The Cell Cycle
cell-mediated immune response 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
cellular cloning 17.1 Biotechnology
Cellulose 3.2 Carbohydrates
Central Dogma 15.1 The Genetic Code
central vacuole 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
centrioles 10.2 The Cell Cycle
centromere 10.1 Cell Division
Cephalochordata 29.1 Chordates
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 35.3 The Central Nervous System
Channel proteins 5.2 Passive Transport
chaperones 3.4 Proteins
Charophytes 25.1 Early Plant Life
chemical diversity 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
chlorophyll 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Chloroplasts 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Choanocytes 28.1 Phylum Porifera
Chondrichthyes 29.2 Fishes
chorion 29.4 Reptiles
chromatids 10.1 Cell Division
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage
chronic infections 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
chytridiomycosis 47.3 Threats to Biodiversity
circadian 36.5 Vision
cleavage furrow 10.2 The Cell Cycle
climax community 45.6 Community Ecology
closed circulatory system 40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
coenocytic hyphae 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
coenzymes 6.5 Enzymes
cofactors 6.5 Enzymes
cohesion 2.2 Water
Collenchyma cells 30.2 Stems
Columnar epithelial 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Compact bone 38.2 Bone
Companion cells 30.2 Stems
competitive exclusion principle 45.6 Community Ecology
competitive inhibition 6.5 Enzymes
complement system 42.1 Innate Immune Response
complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries 17.2 Mapping Genomes
compliance 39.3 Breathing
compound leaf 30.4 Leaves
concentration gradient 5.2 Passive Transport
conceptual model 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
cones 36.5 Vision
Conifers 26.2 Gymnosperms
Connective tissues 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Contour feathers 29.5 Birds
contractile vacuoles 23.3 Groups of Protists
convergent evolution 18.1 Understanding Evolution
Coral reefs 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Corms 30.2 Stems
cornea 36.5 Vision
countercurrent multiplier 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
Craniata 29.1 Chordates
cranium 29.1 Chordates
Crocodilia 29.4 Reptiles
Cross reactivity 42.3 Antibodies
cryptofauna 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Cuboidal epithelial 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Cushing’s disease 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
cutaneous respiration 29.3 Amphibians
cyclic AMP (cAMP) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
cyclin-dependent kinases 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
Cytogenetic mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
Cytokinesis 10.2 The Cell Cycle
cytoplasmic streaming 23.3 Groups of Protists
cytoskeleton 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
D
dead space 39.3 Breathing
Deductive reasoning 1.1 The Science of Biology
demographic-based models 45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
denaturation 3.4 Proteins
denature 6.5 Enzymes
denitrification 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
dentary 29.6 Mammals
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
dephosphorylation 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
Dermal tissue 30.1 The Plant Body
Descriptive (or discovery) science 1.1 The Science of Biology
detrital food web 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
diabetogenic effect 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
diacylglycerol (DAG) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
diaphysis 38.2 Bone
diapsids 29.4 Reptiles
dideoxynucleotides 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
dioecious 26.2 Gymnosperms
diphyodonts 29.6 Mammals
diploid-dominant 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
directional selection 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Disaccharides 3.2 Carbohydrates
dissociation 2.2 Water
distal convoluted tubule (DCT) 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
divergent evolution 18.1 Understanding Evolution
diversifying selection 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
dorsal hollow nerve cord 29.1 Chordates
double fertilization 32.2 Pollination and Fertilization
down feathers 29.5 Birds
down-regulation 37.2 How Hormones Work
E
Eccrine glands 29.6 Mammals
ecosystem diversity 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
ecosystem dynamics 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
ecosystem services 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Ectomycorrhizae 24.3 Ecology of Fungi
elastic recoil 39.3 Breathing
elastic work 39.3 Breathing
electrocardiogram (ECG) 40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
electrochemical gradient 5.3 Active Transport
electrogenic pump 5.3 Active Transport
electron microscopes 4.1 Studying Cells
embryophytes 25.1 Early Plant Life
Emergent vegetation 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Emsleyan/Mertensian mimicry 45.6 Community Ecology
Enantiomers 2.3 Carbon
Enantiornithes 29.5 Birds
Endochondral ossification 38.2 Bone
endocrine glands 37.5 Endocrine Glands
Endocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
endodermis 30.3 Roots
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
endosymbiosis 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins
endosymbiotic theory 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins
environmental disturbances 45.6 Community Ecology
Enzymes 3.4 Proteins
epiphyseal plate 38.2 Bone
epiphyses 38.2 Bone
Epithelial tissues 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Erythropoietin (EPO) 37.5 Endocrine Glands
Estrogens 37 Chapter Summary
eukaryotic cells 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Eutherian mammals 29.6 Mammals
evaporation 2.2 Water
evolutionary (Darwinian) fitness 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Exocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
expressed sequence tag (EST) 17.2 Mapping Genomes
external fertilization 43.2 Fertilization
extinction rates 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
extracellular digestion 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
F
facilitated transport 5.2 Passive Transport
faculative anaerobes 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
Feedback inhibition 6.5 Enzymes
Fibrous connective tissues 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
fibrous root system 30.3 Roots
filament 26.3 Angiosperms
first messenger 37.2 How Hormones Work
Flat bones 38.2 Bone
Flight feathers 29.5 Birds
Flow-resistive 39.3 Breathing
fluid mosaic model 5.1 Components and Structure
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
forced expiratory volume (FEV) 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
foreign DNA 17.1 Biotechnology
Foundation species 45.6 Community Ecology
founder effect 19.1 Population Evolution
fovea 36.5 Vision
free nerve ending 36.2 Somatosensation
frequency-dependent selection 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Functional groups 2.3 Carbon
functional residual capacity (FRC) 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
functional vital capacity (FVC) 39.3 Breathing
furcula 29.5 Birds
G
gastric inhibitory peptide 34.4 Digestive System Regulation
gastrodermis 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
Gel electrophoresis 17.1 Biotechnology
Gene targeting 17.1 Biotechnology
gene transfer agents (GTAs) 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
genetic diagnosis 17.1 Biotechnology
Genetic diversity 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
genetic drift 19.2 Population Genetics
Genetic engineering 17.1 Biotechnology
genetic map 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic marker 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic recombination 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic structure 19.1 Population Evolution
genetic testing 17.1 Biotechnology
genetic variance 19.2 Population Genetics
genetically modified organism 17.1 Biotechnology
genome annotation 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
Genome mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genomic libraries 17.2 Mapping Genomes
geographical variation 19.2 Population Genetics
Geometric isomers 2.3 Carbon
gingkophytes 26.2 Gymnosperms
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
glucose-sparing effect 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
Glycolysis 7.2 Glycolysis
glycosidic bond 3.2 Carbohydrates
Gnathostomes 29.2 Fishes
Gnetophytes 26.2 Gymnosperms
Golgi tendon organs 36.2 Somatosensation
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
good genes hypothesis 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
grazing food web 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
gross primary productivity 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Ground tissue 30.1 The Plant Body
Growth hormone (GH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
guard cells 30.2 Stems
Gymnosperms 26.2 Gymnosperms
H
habitat isolation 18.2 Formation of New Species
Hagfishes 29.2 Fishes
handicap principle 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
haploid-dominant 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
Haversian canal 38.2 Bone
heat of vaporization 2.2 Water
helper T (TH) lymphocytes 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
herbaceous 26.3 Angiosperms
Hermaphroditism 43.1 Reproduction Methods
heterodont teeth 29.6 Mammals
heterospecifics 44.1 The Scope of Ecology
heterosporous 25.1 Early Plant Life
histone acetylation 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
histone proteins 10.1 Cell Division
holistic ecosystem model 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
Homo sapiens sapiens 29.7 The Evolution of Primates
homologous 10.1 Cell Division
homologous structures 18.1 Understanding Evolution
homosporous 25.1 Early Plant Life
honest signal 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
horizon 31.2 The Soil
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
horizontal transmission 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
Hormones 3.4 Proteins
hornworts 25.3 Bryophytes
human beta chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) 43.5 Human Pregnancy and Birth
humoral immune response 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
hybrid inviability 18.2 Formation of New Species
Hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
hydrogenosomes 23.3 Groups of Protists
hydrostatic skeleton 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
hydrothermal vent 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
Hylonomus 29.4 Reptiles
hyperopia 36.5 Vision
hypophyseal portal system 37.5 Endocrine Glands
hypothesis-based science 1.1 The Science of Biology
I
inbreeding depression 19.2 Population Genetics
incomplete dominance 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
induced fit 6.5 Enzymes
Induced mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
Inductive reasoning 1.1 The Science of Biology
inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Innate immunity 42.1 Innate Immune Response
inositol phospholipids 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
inositol triphosphate (IP3) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
Integral proteins 5.1 Components and Structure
integument 26.2 Gymnosperms
Intercalary meristems 30.1 The Plant Body
intercostal muscles 39.3 Breathing
Intermediate filaments 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
internal fertilization 43.2 Fertilization
internode 30.2 Stems
interphase 10.2 The Cell Cycle
interspecific competition 45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
interstitial cells of Leydig 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
intertidal zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Intervertebral discs 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
intracellular hormone receptors 37.2 How Hormones Work
Intramembranous ossification 38.2 Bone
intrapleural space 39.3 Breathing
invertebrata 28.1 Phylum Porifera
Ion channel-linked receptors 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
Irregular bones 38.2 Bone
island biogeography 45.6 Community Ecology
islets of Langerhans 37.5 Endocrine Glands
isomerase 7.2 Glycolysis
isomers 2.3 Carbon
L
lamellae 38.2 Bone
lamina 30.4 Leaves
Lampreys 29.2 Fishes
lancelets 29.1 Chordates
large intestine 34.1 Digestive Systems
lateral line 29.2 Fishes
Lateral meristems 30.1 The Plant Body
law of dominance 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
law of independent assortment 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
law of segregation 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
lenticels 30.2 Stems
lepidosaurs 29.4 Reptiles
light microscopes 4.1 Studying Cells
light-dependent reactions 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
light-independent reactions 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
linkage analysis 17.2 Mapping Genomes
lipid hormones 37.1 Types of Hormones
Lipids 3.3 Lipids
litmus 2.2 Water
Liverworts 25.3 Bryophytes
Long bones 38.2 Bone
Long-term depression (LTD) 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Long-term potentiation (LTP) 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Loose connective tissue 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Lophotrochozoa 27.3 Animal Phylogeny
lysis buffer 17.1 Biotechnology
M
macroevolution 19.1 Population Evolution
major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules 42.1 Innate Immune Response
Malpighian tubules 41.3 Excretion Systems
Mammals 29.6 Mammals
Mammary glands 29.6 Mammals
mark and recapture 45.1 Population Demography
Marsupials 29.6 Mammals
materials and methods 1.1 The Science of Biology
mechanoreceptor 36.1 Sensory Processes
megasporocyte 26.2 Gymnosperms
Meissner’s corpuscles 36.2 Somatosensation
membrane potential 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Meristematic tissue 30.1 The Plant Body
Merkel’s disks 36.2 Somatosensation
messenger RNA (mRNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
Metagenomics 17.4 Applying Genomics
metaphase plate 10.2 The Cell Cycle
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
MHC II molecules 42.1 Innate Immune Response
microevolution 19.1 Population Evolution
microfilaments 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
Micropropagation 32.3 Asexual Reproduction
microsatellite polymorphisms 17.2 Mapping Genomes
microscope 4.1 Studying Cells
microspores 25.1 Early Plant Life
microsporocytes 26.2 Gymnosperms
microtubules 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
midsagittal plane 33.1 Animal Form and Function
mineral soils 31.2 The Soil
mismatch repair 14.6 DNA Repair
Mitochondria 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
mitotic phase 10.2 The Cell Cycle
mitotic spindle 10.2 The Cell Cycle
modern synthesis 19.1 Population Evolution
Monocots 26.3 Angiosperms
monoecious 26.2 Gymnosperms
Monosaccharides 3.2 Carbohydrates
monotremes 29.6 Mammals
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
Müllerian mimicry 45.6 Community Ecology
multiple cloning site (MCS) 17.1 Biotechnology
Muscle spindles 36.2 Somatosensation
Mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
mycorrhizae Introduction
Myopia 36.5 Vision
Myxini 29.2 Fishes
N
natural killer (NK) cells 42.1 Innate Immune Response
natural sciences 1.1 The Science of Biology
Natural selection 18.1 Understanding Evolution
negative feedback loop 33.3 Homeostasis
negative regulators 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
nematocysts 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
Neognathae 29.5 Birds
Neornithes 29.5 Birds
nephridiopore 41.3 Excretion Systems
neritic zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Net consumer productivity 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Net production efficiency (NPE) 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Neurodegenerative disorders 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
next-generation sequencing 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
nitrogen fixation 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
nociception 36.2 Somatosensation
Nodes 30.2 Stems
nodes of Ranvier 35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
non-endospermic dicots 32.2 Pollination and Fertilization
non-renewable resource 46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
non-vascular plants 25.1 Early Plant Life
nonrandom mating 19.2 Population Genetics
nonsense codons 15.1 The Genetic Code
nontemplate strand 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
northern blotting 17.1 Biotechnology
notochord 29.1 Chordates
nuclear envelope 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleic acids 3.5 Nucleic Acids
nucleoplasm 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
nucleosome 10.1 Cell Division
nucleotide excision repair 14.6 DNA Repair
nucleotides 3.5 Nucleic Acids
O
O horizon 31.2 The Soil
obligate anaerobes 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
Obstructive diseases 39.3 Breathing
Ocean upwelling 44.2 Biogeography
oceanic zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
olfactory bulb 36.3 Taste and Smell
olfactory epithelium 36.3 Taste and Smell
olfactory receptor 36.3 Taste and Smell
Oligodendrocytes 35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
Omega 3.3 Lipids
one-child policy 45.5 Human Population Growth
open circulatory system 40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
organic molecules 2.3 Carbon
organic soils 31.2 The Soil
Ornithorhynchidae 29.6 Mammals
osseous tissue 38.2 Bone
Ossification 38.2 Bone
Osteichthyes 29.2 Fishes
Osteoblasts 38.2 Bone
Osteoclasts 38.2 Bone
Osteocytes 38.2 Bone
Osteoprogenitor cells 38.2 Bone
ostracoderms 29.2 Fishes
oviparity 43.2 Fertilization
ovoviparity 43.2 Fertilization
ovulate cones 26.2 Gymnosperms
oxidative phosphorylation 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
P
Pacinian corpuscles 36.2 Somatosensation
pairwise-end sequencing 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
Paleognathae 29.5 Birds
palmately compound leaf 30.4 Leaves
parafollicular cells 37.5 Endocrine Glands
parasympathetic nervous system 35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
parathyroid glands 37.5 Endocrine Glands
parathyroid hormone (PTH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
Parenchyma cells 30.2 Stems
parent material 31.2 The Soil
Parkinson’s disease 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
Parthenogenesis 43.1 Reproduction Methods
particulate matter 39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
passive immunity 42.3 Antibodies
Passive transport 5.2 Passive Transport
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) 42.1 Innate Immune Response
pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) 42.1 Innate Immune Response
Peer-reviewed manuscripts 1.1 The Science of Biology
pelagic realm 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
peptide bond 3.4 Proteins
peptide hormones 37.1 Types of Hormones
pericycle 30.3 Roots
periderm 30.2 Stems
Peripheral proteins 5.1 Components and Structure
peripheral resistance