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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 16 Gene Expression
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcription Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and the Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 23 Protists
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins
      3. 23.2 Characteristics of Protists
      4. 23.3 Groups of Protists
      5. 23.4 Ecology of Protists
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 24 Fungi
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
      3. 24.2 Classifications of Fungi
      4. 24.3 Ecology of Fungi
      5. 24.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens
      6. 24.5 Importance of Fungi in Human Life
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 25 Seedless Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Early Plant Life
      3. 25.2 Green Algae: Precursors of Land Plants
      4. 25.3 Bryophytes
      5. 25.4 Seedless Vascular Plants
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 26 Seed Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Evolution of Seed Plants
      3. 26.2 Gymnosperms
      4. 26.3 Angiosperms
      5. 26.4 The Role of Seed Plants
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 27 Introduction to Animal Diversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom
      3. 27.2 Features Used to Classify Animals
      4. 27.3 Animal Phylogeny
      5. 27.4 The Evolutionary History of the Animal Kingdom
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    8. 28 Invertebrates
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Phylum Porifera
      3. 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
      4. 28.3 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa
      5. 28.4 Superphylum Ecdysozoa
      6. 28.5 Superphylum Deuterostomia
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. 29 Vertebrates
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Chordates
      3. 29.2 Fishes
      4. 29.3 Amphibians
      5. 29.4 Reptiles
      6. 29.5 Birds
      7. 29.6 Mammals
      8. 29.7 The Evolution of Primates
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 30 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 The Plant Body
      3. 30.2 Stems
      4. 30.3 Roots
      5. 30.4 Leaves
      6. 30.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 30.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 31 Soil and Plant Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Nutritional Requirements of Plants
      3. 31.2 The Soil
      4. 31.3 Nutritional Adaptations of Plants
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 32 Plant Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Reproductive Development and Structure
      3. 32.2 Pollination and Fertilization
      4. 32.3 Asexual Reproduction
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. Unit 7. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 33 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 33.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 34 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 34.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 34.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 34.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 35 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 35.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 36 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 36.2 Somatosensation
      4. 36.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 36.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 36.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 37 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 37.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 37.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 37.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 38 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 38.2 Bone
      4. 38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 38.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 39 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 39.3 Breathing
      5. 39.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    8. 40 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 40.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 40.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    9. 41 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 41.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 41.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. 42 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 42.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 42.3 Antibodies
      5. 42.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. 43 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 43.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 43.2 Fertilization
      4. 43.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 43.5 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      7. 43.6 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      8. 43.7 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  9. Unit 8. Ecology
    1. 44 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 44.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 44.2 Biogeography
      4. 44.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 44.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 45 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 45.1 Population Demography
      3. 45.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 45.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 45.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 45.6 Community Ecology
      8. 45.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Visual Connection Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 46 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
      3. 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 47 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 47.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 47.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 47.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
A
A horizon 31.2 The Soil
aboveground biomass 44.2 Biogeography
abyssal zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Acanthostega 29.3 Amphibians
acclimatization 33.3 Homeostasis
acid 2.2 Water
Actinopterygii 29.2 Fishes
action potential 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
active site 6.5 Enzymes
Active transport 5.3 Active Transport
adaptive evolution 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Adaptive immunity 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
Addison’s disease 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
adenosine triphosphate 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
adenylyl cyclase 37.2 How Hormones Work
adhesion 2.2 Water
adrenal cortex 37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenal glands 37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenal medulla 37.5 Endocrine Glands
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
adventitious roots 30.3 Roots
aerobic respiration 7.2 Glycolysis
affinities 42.3 Antibodies
algal bloom 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
alimentary canal 34.1 Digestive Systems
aliphatic hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
allantois 29.4 Reptiles
allele frequency 19.1 Population Evolution
Allopatric speciation 18.2 Formation of New Species
allosteric inhibition 6.5 Enzymes
alpha cells 37.5 Endocrine Glands
alteration 33.3 Homeostasis
alternation of generations 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
alveolar ventilation 39.3 Breathing
Alzheimer’s disease 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
amino acid-derived hormones 37.1 Types of Hormones
Amino acids 3.4 Proteins
aminoacyl tRNA synthetases 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
amnion 29.4 Reptiles
amoebocytes 28.1 Phylum Porifera
Amphibia 29.3 Amphibians
ampullae of Lorenzini 29.2 Fishes
anaerobic cellular respiration 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
analytical model 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
Anapsids 29.4 Reptiles
Anatomical dead space 39.3 Breathing
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
anterior pituitary 37.5 Endocrine Glands
antheridium 25.1 Early Plant Life
Anthophyta 26.3 Angiosperms
antibiotic resistance 17.1 Biotechnology
antibody 42.3 Antibodies
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
antigen-presenting cell (APC) 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
aphotic zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
apical bud 30.2 Stems
Apical meristems 30.1 The Plant Body
Apocrine glands 29.6 Mammals
aposematic coloration 45.6 Community Ecology
appendicular skeleton 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
applied science 1.1 The Science of Biology
Appositional growth 38.2 Bone
arbuscular mycorrhiza 24.3 Ecology of Fungi
arbuscular mycorrhizae 24.2 Classifications of Fungi
Archaeopteryx 29.5 Birds
archosaurs 29.4 Reptiles
aromatic hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
Asexual reproduction 43.1 Reproduction Methods
assortative mating 19.2 Population Genetics
asymptomatic infection 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) 37.5 Endocrine Glands
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
auditory ossicles 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
autoimmune response 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
autonomic nervous system 35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
avidity 42.3 Antibodies
axillary bud 30.2 Stems
B
B horizon 31.2 The Soil
Ball-and-socket joints 38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
bark 30.2 Stems
Basal angiosperms 26.3 Angiosperms
basal metabolic rate (BMR) 33.1 Animal Form and Function
base 2.2 Water
Batesian mimicry 45.6 Community Ecology
bedrock 31.2 The Soil
Behavioral isolation 18.2 Formation of New Species
benthic realm 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 − ) (HCO 3 − ) 39.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
binary (prokaryotic) fission 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
binomial nomenclature 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
Biodiversity hotspots 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
biogeochemical cycle 46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
Biogeography 44.2 Biogeography
biological carbon pump 23.3 Groups of Protists
biological macromolecules 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
Biological nitrogen fixation 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
bioluminescence 23.3 Groups of Protists
bipolar neurons 36.3 Taste and Smell
blood urea nitrogen 41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
Bone 38.2 Bone
Bone remodeling 38.2 Bone
bottleneck effect 19.2 Population Genetics
Brumation 29.4 Reptiles
Buffers 2.2 Water
bulb 30.2 Stems
C
C horizon 31.2 The Soil
caecilians 29.3 Amphibians
Calcification 38.2 Bone
calorie 2.2 Water
cAMP-dependent kinase (A-kinase) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
candela 36.5 Vision
capillary action 2.2 Water
Carbohydrates 3.2 Carbohydrates
carrier protein 5.2 Passive Transport
Cartilaginous joints 38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
Casineria 29.4 Reptiles
Casparian strip 30.3 Roots
catabolite activator protein (CAP) 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
cell cycle checkpoints 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
cell plate 10.2 The Cell Cycle
cell-mediated immune response 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
cellular cloning 17.1 Biotechnology
Cellulose 3.2 Carbohydrates
Central Dogma 15.1 The Genetic Code
central vacuole 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
centrioles 10.2 The Cell Cycle
centromere 10.1 Cell Division
Cephalochordata 29.1 Chordates
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 35.3 The Central Nervous System
Channel proteins 5.2 Passive Transport
chaperones 3.4 Proteins
Charophytes 25.1 Early Plant Life
chemical diversity 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
chlorophyll 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Chloroplasts 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Choanocytes 28.1 Phylum Porifera
Chondrichthyes 29.2 Fishes
chorion 29.4 Reptiles
chromatids 10.1 Cell Division
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage
chronic infections 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
chytridiomycosis 47.3 Threats to Biodiversity
circadian 36.5 Vision
cleavage furrow 10.2 The Cell Cycle
climax community 45.6 Community Ecology
closed circulatory system 40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
coenocytic hyphae 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
coenzymes 6.5 Enzymes
cofactors 6.5 Enzymes
cohesion 2.2 Water
Collenchyma cells 30.2 Stems
Columnar epithelial 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Compact bone 38.2 Bone
Companion cells 30.2 Stems
competitive exclusion principle 45.6 Community Ecology
competitive inhibition 6.5 Enzymes
complement system 42.1 Innate Immune Response
complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries 17.2 Mapping Genomes
compliance 39.3 Breathing
compound leaf 30.4 Leaves
concentration gradient 5.2 Passive Transport
conceptual model 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
cones 36.5 Vision
Conifers 26.2 Gymnosperms
Connective tissues 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Contour feathers 29.5 Birds
contractile vacuoles 23.3 Groups of Protists
convergent evolution 18.1 Understanding Evolution
Coral reefs 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Corms 30.2 Stems
cornea 36.5 Vision
countercurrent multiplier 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
Craniata 29.1 Chordates
cranium 29.1 Chordates
Crocodilia 29.4 Reptiles
Cross reactivity 42.3 Antibodies
cryptofauna 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Cuboidal epithelial 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Cushing’s disease 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
cutaneous respiration 29.3 Amphibians
cyclic AMP (cAMP) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
cyclin-dependent kinases 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
Cytogenetic mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
Cytokinesis 10.2 The Cell Cycle
cytoplasmic streaming 23.3 Groups of Protists
cytoskeleton 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
D
dead space 39.3 Breathing
Deductive reasoning 1.1 The Science of Biology
demographic-based models 45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
denaturation 3.4 Proteins
denature 6.5 Enzymes
denitrification 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
dentary 29.6 Mammals
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
dephosphorylation 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
Dermal tissue 30.1 The Plant Body
Descriptive (or discovery) science 1.1 The Science of Biology
detrital food web 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
diabetogenic effect 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
diacylglycerol (DAG) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
diaphysis 38.2 Bone
diapsids 29.4 Reptiles
dideoxynucleotides 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
dioecious 26.2 Gymnosperms
diphyodonts 29.6 Mammals
diploid-dominant 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
directional selection 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Disaccharides 3.2 Carbohydrates
dissociation 2.2 Water
distal convoluted tubule (DCT) 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
divergent evolution 18.1 Understanding Evolution
diversifying selection 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
dorsal hollow nerve cord 29.1 Chordates
double fertilization 32.2 Pollination and Fertilization
down feathers 29.5 Birds
down-regulation 37.2 How Hormones Work
E
Eccrine glands 29.6 Mammals
ecosystem diversity 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
ecosystem dynamics 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
ecosystem services 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Ectomycorrhizae 24.3 Ecology of Fungi
elastic recoil 39.3 Breathing
elastic work 39.3 Breathing
electrocardiogram (ECG) 40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
electrochemical gradient 5.3 Active Transport
electrogenic pump 5.3 Active Transport
electron microscopes 4.1 Studying Cells
embryophytes 25.1 Early Plant Life
Emergent vegetation 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Emsleyan/Mertensian mimicry 45.6 Community Ecology
Enantiomers 2.3 Carbon
Enantiornithes 29.5 Birds
Endochondral ossification 38.2 Bone
endocrine glands 37.5 Endocrine Glands
Endocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
endodermis 30.3 Roots
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
endosymbiosis 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins
endosymbiotic theory 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins
environmental disturbances 45.6 Community Ecology
Enzymes 3.4 Proteins
epiphyseal plate 38.2 Bone
epiphyses 38.2 Bone
Epithelial tissues 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Erythropoietin (EPO) 37.5 Endocrine Glands
Estrogens 37 Chapter Summary
eukaryotic cells 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Eutherian mammals 29.6 Mammals
evaporation 2.2 Water
evolutionary (Darwinian) fitness 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Exocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
expressed sequence tag (EST) 17.2 Mapping Genomes
external fertilization 43.2 Fertilization
extinction rates 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
extracellular digestion 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
F
facilitated transport 5.2 Passive Transport
faculative anaerobes 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
Feedback inhibition 6.5 Enzymes
Fibrous connective tissues 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
fibrous root system 30.3 Roots
filament 26.3 Angiosperms
first messenger 37.2 How Hormones Work
Flat bones 38.2 Bone
Flight feathers 29.5 Birds
Flow-resistive 39.3 Breathing
fluid mosaic model 5.1 Components and Structure
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
forced expiratory volume (FEV) 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
foreign DNA 17.1 Biotechnology
Foundation species 45.6 Community Ecology
founder effect 19.1 Population Evolution
fovea 36.5 Vision
free nerve ending 36.2 Somatosensation
frequency-dependent selection 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
Functional groups 2.3 Carbon
functional residual capacity (FRC) 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
functional vital capacity (FVC) 39.3 Breathing
furcula 29.5 Birds
G
gastric inhibitory peptide 34.4 Digestive System Regulation
gastrodermis 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
Gel electrophoresis 17.1 Biotechnology
Gene targeting 17.1 Biotechnology
gene transfer agents (GTAs) 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
genetic diagnosis 17.1 Biotechnology
Genetic diversity 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
genetic drift 19.2 Population Genetics
Genetic engineering 17.1 Biotechnology
genetic map 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic marker 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic recombination 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genetic structure 19.1 Population Evolution
genetic testing 17.1 Biotechnology
genetic variance 19.2 Population Genetics
genetically modified organism 17.1 Biotechnology
genome annotation 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
Genome mapping 17.2 Mapping Genomes
genomic libraries 17.2 Mapping Genomes
geographical variation 19.2 Population Genetics
Geometric isomers 2.3 Carbon
gingkophytes 26.2 Gymnosperms
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
glucose-sparing effect 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
Glycolysis 7.2 Glycolysis
glycosidic bond 3.2 Carbohydrates
Gnathostomes 29.2 Fishes
Gnetophytes 26.2 Gymnosperms
Golgi tendon organs 36.2 Somatosensation
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
good genes hypothesis 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
grazing food web 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
gross primary productivity 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Ground tissue 30.1 The Plant Body
Growth hormone (GH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
guard cells 30.2 Stems
Gymnosperms 26.2 Gymnosperms
H
habitat isolation 18.2 Formation of New Species
Hagfishes 29.2 Fishes
handicap principle 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
haploid-dominant 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
Haversian canal 38.2 Bone
heat of vaporization 2.2 Water
helper T (TH) lymphocytes 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
herbaceous 26.3 Angiosperms
Hermaphroditism 43.1 Reproduction Methods
heterodont teeth 29.6 Mammals
heterospecifics 44.1 The Scope of Ecology
heterosporous 25.1 Early Plant Life
histone acetylation 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
histone proteins 10.1 Cell Division
holistic ecosystem model 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
Homo sapiens sapiens 29.7 The Evolution of Primates
homologous 10.1 Cell Division
homologous structures 18.1 Understanding Evolution
homosporous 25.1 Early Plant Life
honest signal 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
horizon 31.2 The Soil
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
horizontal transmission 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts
Hormones 3.4 Proteins
hornworts 25.3 Bryophytes
human beta chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) 43.5 Human Pregnancy and Birth
humoral immune response 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
hybrid inviability 18.2 Formation of New Species
Hydrocarbons 2.3 Carbon
hydrogenosomes 23.3 Groups of Protists
hydrostatic skeleton 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
hydrothermal vent 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
Hylonomus 29.4 Reptiles
hyperopia 36.5 Vision
hypophyseal portal system 37.5 Endocrine Glands
hypothesis-based science 1.1 The Science of Biology
I
inbreeding depression 19.2 Population Genetics
incomplete dominance 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
induced fit 6.5 Enzymes
Induced mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
Inductive reasoning 1.1 The Science of Biology
inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Innate immunity 42.1 Innate Immune Response
inositol phospholipids 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
inositol triphosphate (IP3) 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
Integral proteins 5.1 Components and Structure
integument 26.2 Gymnosperms
Intercalary meristems 30.1 The Plant Body
intercostal muscles 39.3 Breathing
Intermediate filaments 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
internal fertilization 43.2 Fertilization
internode 30.2 Stems
interphase 10.2 The Cell Cycle
interspecific competition 45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
interstitial cells of Leydig 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
intertidal zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Intervertebral discs 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
intracellular hormone receptors 37.2 How Hormones Work
Intramembranous ossification 38.2 Bone
intrapleural space 39.3 Breathing
invertebrata 28.1 Phylum Porifera
Ion channel-linked receptors 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
Irregular bones 38.2 Bone
island biogeography 45.6 Community Ecology
islets of Langerhans 37.5 Endocrine Glands
isomerase 7.2 Glycolysis
isomers 2.3 Carbon
L
lamellae 38.2 Bone
lamina 30.4 Leaves
Lampreys 29.2 Fishes
lancelets 29.1 Chordates
large intestine 34.1 Digestive Systems
lateral line 29.2 Fishes
Lateral meristems 30.1 The Plant Body
law of dominance 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
law of independent assortment 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
law of segregation 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
lenticels 30.2 Stems
lepidosaurs 29.4 Reptiles
light microscopes 4.1 Studying Cells
light-dependent reactions 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
light-independent reactions 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
linkage analysis 17.2 Mapping Genomes
lipid hormones 37.1 Types of Hormones
Lipids 3.3 Lipids
litmus 2.2 Water
Liverworts 25.3 Bryophytes
Long bones 38.2 Bone
Long-term depression (LTD) 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Long-term potentiation (LTP) 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Loose connective tissue 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
Lophotrochozoa 27.3 Animal Phylogeny
lysis buffer 17.1 Biotechnology
M
macroevolution 19.1 Population Evolution
major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules 42.1 Innate Immune Response
Malpighian tubules 41.3 Excretion Systems
Mammals 29.6 Mammals
Mammary glands 29.6 Mammals
mark and recapture 45.1 Population Demography
Marsupials 29.6 Mammals
materials and methods 1.1 The Science of Biology
mechanoreceptor 36.1 Sensory Processes
megasporocyte 26.2 Gymnosperms
Meissner’s corpuscles 36.2 Somatosensation
membrane potential 35.2 How Neurons Communicate
Meristematic tissue 30.1 The Plant Body
Merkel’s disks 36.2 Somatosensation
messenger RNA (mRNA) 3.5 Nucleic Acids
Metagenomics 17.4 Applying Genomics
metaphase plate 10.2 The Cell Cycle
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
MHC II molecules 42.1 Innate Immune Response
microevolution 19.1 Population Evolution
microfilaments 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
Micropropagation 32.3 Asexual Reproduction
microsatellite polymorphisms 17.2 Mapping Genomes
microscope 4.1 Studying Cells
microspores 25.1 Early Plant Life
microsporocytes 26.2 Gymnosperms
microtubules 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
midsagittal plane 33.1 Animal Form and Function
mineral soils 31.2 The Soil
mismatch repair 14.6 DNA Repair
Mitochondria 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
mitotic phase 10.2 The Cell Cycle
mitotic spindle 10.2 The Cell Cycle
modern synthesis 19.1 Population Evolution
Monocots 26.3 Angiosperms
monoecious 26.2 Gymnosperms
Monosaccharides 3.2 Carbohydrates
monotremes 29.6 Mammals
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response
Müllerian mimicry 45.6 Community Ecology
multiple cloning site (MCS) 17.1 Biotechnology
Muscle spindles 36.2 Somatosensation
Mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
mycorrhizae Introduction
Myopia 36.5 Vision
Myxini 29.2 Fishes
N
natural killer (NK) cells 42.1 Innate Immune Response
natural sciences 1.1 The Science of Biology
Natural selection 18.1 Understanding Evolution
negative feedback loop 33.3 Homeostasis
negative regulators 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
nematocysts 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
Neognathae 29.5 Birds
Neornithes 29.5 Birds
nephridiopore 41.3 Excretion Systems
neritic zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
Net consumer productivity 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Net production efficiency (NPE) 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
Neurodegenerative disorders 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
next-generation sequencing 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
nitrogen fixation 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
nociception 36.2 Somatosensation
Nodes 30.2 Stems
nodes of Ranvier 35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
non-endospermic dicots 32.2 Pollination and Fertilization
non-renewable resource 46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
non-vascular plants 25.1 Early Plant Life
nonrandom mating 19.2 Population Genetics
nonsense codons 15.1 The Genetic Code
nontemplate strand 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
northern blotting 17.1 Biotechnology
notochord 29.1 Chordates
nuclear envelope 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleic acids 3.5 Nucleic Acids
nucleoplasm 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
nucleosome 10.1 Cell Division
nucleotide excision repair 14.6 DNA Repair
nucleotides 3.5 Nucleic Acids
O
O horizon 31.2 The Soil
obligate anaerobes 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi
Obstructive diseases 39.3 Breathing
Ocean upwelling 44.2 Biogeography
oceanic zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
olfactory bulb 36.3 Taste and Smell
olfactory epithelium 36.3 Taste and Smell
olfactory receptor 36.3 Taste and Smell
Oligodendrocytes 35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
Omega 3.3 Lipids
one-child policy 45.5 Human Population Growth
open circulatory system 40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
organic molecules 2.3 Carbon
organic soils 31.2 The Soil
Ornithorhynchidae 29.6 Mammals
osseous tissue 38.2 Bone
Ossification 38.2 Bone
Osteichthyes 29.2 Fishes
Osteoblasts 38.2 Bone
Osteoclasts 38.2 Bone
Osteocytes 38.2 Bone
Osteoprogenitor cells 38.2 Bone
ostracoderms 29.2 Fishes
oviparity 43.2 Fertilization
ovoviparity 43.2 Fertilization
ovulate cones 26.2 Gymnosperms
oxidative phosphorylation 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
P
Pacinian corpuscles 36.2 Somatosensation
pairwise-end sequencing 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
Paleognathae 29.5 Birds
palmately compound leaf 30.4 Leaves
parafollicular cells 37.5 Endocrine Glands
parasympathetic nervous system 35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
parathyroid glands 37.5 Endocrine Glands
parathyroid hormone (PTH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
Parenchyma cells 30.2 Stems
parent material 31.2 The Soil
Parkinson’s disease 35.5 Nervous System Disorders
Parthenogenesis 43.1 Reproduction Methods
particulate matter 39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
passive immunity 42.3 Antibodies
Passive transport 5.2 Passive Transport
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) 42.1 Innate Immune Response
pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) 42.1 Innate Immune Response
Peer-reviewed manuscripts 1.1 The Science of Biology
pelagic realm 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
peptide bond 3.4 Proteins
peptide hormones 37.1 Types of Hormones
pericycle 30.3 Roots
periderm 30.2 Stems
Peripheral proteins 5.1 Components and Structure
peristome 25.3 Bryophytes
peritubular capillary network 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
permanent tissue 30.1 The Plant Body
Peroxisomes 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
petiole 30.4 Leaves
Petromyzontidae 29.2 Fishes
pH scale 2.2 Water
Pharmacogenomics 17.4 Applying Genomics
Pharyngeal slits 29.1 Chordates
phosphoanhydride bonds 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
phosphodiester 3.5 Nucleic Acids
Phospholipids 3.3 Lipids
photic zone 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
phyllotaxy 30.4 Leaves
physical map 17.2 Mapping Genomes
physical sciences 1.1 The Science of Biology
physiological dead space 39.3 Breathing
Pinacocytes 28.1 Phylum Porifera
Pinnately compound leaves 30.4 Leaves
pinocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
pioneer species 45.6 Community Ecology
pith 30.2 Stems
pituitary gland 37.5 Endocrine Glands
pituitary stalk 37.5 Endocrine Glands
planktivores 44.4 Aquatic Biomes
plasma membrane 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
plasma membrane hormone receptors 37.2 How Hormones Work
plasmolysis 5.2 Passive Transport
Pleurisy 39.3 Breathing
Pneumatic bones 29.5 Birds
Point mutations 14.6 DNA Repair
polymorphic 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria
polynucleotide 3.5 Nucleic Acids
polysaccharide 3.2 Carbohydrates
population density 45.1 Population Demography
population genetics 19.1 Population Evolution
population size (N) 45.1 Population Demography
population variation 19.2 Population Genetics
positive feedback loop 33.3 Homeostasis
post-anal tail 29.1 Chordates
post-transcriptional 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
posterior pituitary 37.5 Endocrine Glands
postzygotic barrier 18.2 Formation of New Species
potocytosis 5.4 Bulk Transport
preinitiation complex 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
presbyopia 36.5 Vision
prezygotic barrier 18.2 Formation of New Species
primary (main) bronchi 39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
Primary active transport 5.3 Active Transport
primary consumers 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
Primary feathers 29.5 Birds
primary growth 30.2 Stems
primary producers 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems
primary structure 3.4 Proteins
primary succession 45.6 Community Ecology
prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes
prometaphase 10.2 The Cell Cycle
proofreading 14.6 DNA Repair
prosthetic group