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  1. Preface
  2. Levels of Organization
    1. 1 An Introduction to the Human Body
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
      3. 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body
      4. 1.3 Functions of Human Life
      5. 1.4 Requirements for Human Life
      6. 1.5 Homeostasis
      7. 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
      8. 1.7 Medical Imaging
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 The Chemical Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
      3. 2.2 Chemical Bonds
      4. 2.3 Chemical Reactions
      5. 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      6. 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Cell Membrane
      3. 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
      4. 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication
      5. 3.4 Protein Synthesis
      6. 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
      7. 3.6 Cellular Differentiation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 The Tissue Level of Organization
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Types of Tissues
      3. 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
      4. 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
      5. 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion
      6. 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
      7. 4.6 Tissue Injury and Aging
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Support and Movement
    1. 5 The Integumentary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Layers of the Skin
      3. 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
      4. 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System
      5. 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 6 Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System
      3. 6.2 Bone Classification
      4. 6.3 Bone Structure
      5. 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
      6. 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
      7. 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
      8. 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 7 Axial Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
      3. 7.2 The Skull
      4. 7.3 The Vertebral Column
      5. 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
      6. 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
      3. 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
      4. 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
      5. 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
      6. 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 9 Joints
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Classification of Joints
      3. 9.2 Fibrous Joints
      4. 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
      5. 9.4 Synovial Joints
      6. 9.5 Types of Body Movements
      7. 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
      8. 9.7 Development of Joints
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 10 Muscle Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues
      3. 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
      4. 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
      5. 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
      6. 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
      7. 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance
      8. 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
      9. 10.8 Smooth Muscle
      10. 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
      11. Key Terms
      12. Chapter Review
      13. Interactive Link Questions
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    7. 11 The Muscular System
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
      3. 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
      4. 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
      5. 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
      6. 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
      7. 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Regulation, Integration, and Control
    1. 12 The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      3. 12.2 Nervous Tissue
      4. 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue
      5. 12.4 The Action Potential
      6. 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 13 Anatomy of the Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective
      3. 13.2 The Central Nervous System
      4. 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System
      5. 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 14 The Somatic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Sensory Perception
      3. 14.2 Central Processing
      4. 14.3 Motor Responses
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 15 The Autonomic Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      3. 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
      4. 15.3 Central Control
      5. 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Review
      8. Interactive Link Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 16 The Neurological Exam
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
      3. 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
      4. 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
      5. 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
      6. 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    6. 17 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System
      3. 17.2 Hormones
      4. 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
      5. 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
      6. 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
      7. 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
      8. 17.7 The Pineal Gland
      9. 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones
      10. 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
      11. 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
      12. 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
      13. Key Terms
      14. Chapter Review
      15. Interactive Link Questions
      16. Review Questions
      17. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Fluids and Transport
    1. 18 The Cardiovascular System: Blood
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 An Overview of Blood
      3. 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
      4. 18.3 Erythrocytes
      5. 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
      6. 18.5 Hemostasis
      7. 18.6 Blood Typing
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Heart Anatomy
      3. 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
      4. 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
      5. 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
      6. 19.5 Development of the Heart
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
      3. 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
      4. 20.3 Capillary Exchange
      5. 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
      6. 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
      7. 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Review
      10. Interactive Link Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 21 The Lymphatic and Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
      3. 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
      4. 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
      5. 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
      6. 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
      7. 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
      8. 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
    1. 22 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
      3. 22.2 The Lungs
      4. 22.3 The Process of Breathing
      5. 22.4 Gas Exchange
      6. 22.5 Transport of Gases
      7. 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
      8. 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 23 The Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
      3. 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation
      4. 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
      5. 23.4 The Stomach
      6. 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
      7. 23.6 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
      8. 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 24 Metabolism and Nutrition
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
      3. 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
      4. 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
      5. 24.4 Protein Metabolism
      6. 24.5 Metabolic States of the Body
      7. 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
      8. 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 25 The Urinary System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Physical Characteristics of Urine
      3. 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
      4. 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
      5. 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
      6. 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
      7. 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
      8. 25.7 Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
      9. 25.8 Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
      10. 25.9 Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
      11. 25.10 The Urinary System and Homeostasis
      12. Key Terms
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Review Questions
      15. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
      3. 26.2 Water Balance
      4. 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
      5. 26.4 Acid-Base Balance
      6. 26.5 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Review
      9. Interactive Link Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Human Development and the Continuity of Life
    1. 27 The Reproductive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
      3. 27.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
      4. 27.3 Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Interactive Link Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 28 Development and Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Fertilization
      3. 28.2 Embryonic Development
      4. 28.3 Fetal Development
      5. 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
      6. 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
      7. 28.6 Lactation
      8. 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Review
      11. Interactive Link Questions
      12. Review Questions
      13. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. References
  9. Index
A
abdominopelvic cavity 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
ABO blood group 18.6 Blood Typing
absolute refractory period 12.4 The Action Potential
accessory digestive organ 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
accommodation–convergence reflex 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
acromial end of the clavicle 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
acromial process 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
acromioclavicular joint 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
acrosomal reaction 28.1 Fertilization
activation energy 2.3 Chemical Reactions
active transport 3.1 The Cell Membrane
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
adductor tubercle 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
adenylyl cyclase 17.2 Hormones
adrenal cortex 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
adrenal glands 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
agglutination 18.6 Blood Typing
agranular leukocytes 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
alarm reaction 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
alpha (α)-adrenergic receptor 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
Alveolar dead space 22.3 The Process of Breathing
Alveolar process of the mandible 7.2 The Skull
alveolar process of the maxilla 7.2 The Skull
amacrine cells 14.1 Sensory Perception
anastomosis 19.1 Heart Anatomy
anatomical dead space 22.3 The Process of Breathing
anatomical position 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
anchoring junction 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
angiotensin-converting enzyme 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
angle of the mandible 7.2 The Skull
angle of the rib 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
anterior (ventral) sacral foramen 7.3 The Vertebral Column
anterior border of the tibia 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
anterior cardiac veins 19.1 Heart Anatomy
anterior cerebral artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
anterior communicating artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
anterior compartment of the forearm 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
anterior corticospinal tract 14.3 Motor Responses
anterior cranial fossa 7.2 The Skull
anterior cruciate ligament 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
anterior inferior iliac spine 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
anterior interventricular artery 19.1 Heart Anatomy
anterior interventricular sulcus 19.1 Heart Anatomy
anterior longitudinal ligament 7.3 The Vertebral Column
anterior median fissure 13.2 The Central Nervous System
anterior sacroiliac ligament 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
anterior superior iliac spine 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
anterior talofibular ligament 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
anterior tibial artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
anterior tibial vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
anterograde amnesia 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
anticoagulant 18.5 Hemostasis
Antithrombin 18.5 Hemostasis
anulus fibrosus 7.3 The Vertebral Column
aortic valve 19.1 Heart Anatomy
Apocrine secretion 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
arcuate line of the ilium 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
articular capsule 9.4 Synovial Joints
articular disc 9.4 Synovial Joints
Articular tubercle 7.2 The Skull
ascending pathway 14.2 Central Processing
association area 14.2 Central Processing
Atmospheric pressure 22.3 The Process of Breathing
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
atrioventricular bundle branches 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
atrioventricular septum 19.1 Heart Anatomy
atrioventricular valves 19.1 Heart Anatomy
auricular surface of the ilium 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
autosomal chromosomes 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
autosomal dominant 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
autosomal recessive 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
axon hillock 12.2 Nervous Tissue
axon segment 12.2 Nervous Tissue
axon terminal 12.2 Nervous Tissue
B
Bainbridge reflex 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
ball-and-socket joint 9.4 Synovial Joints
baroreceptor reflex 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
basal metabolic rate (BMR) 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
base of the metatarsal bone 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
basement membrane 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
basilar membrane 14.1 Sensory Perception
beta (β)-hydroxybutyrate 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
beta (β)-oxidation 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
bicuspid valve 19.1 Heart Anatomy
biliverdin 18.3 Erythrocytes
binocular depth cues 14.2 Central Processing
blood colloidal osmotic pressure (BCOP) 20.3 Capillary Exchange
Blood hydrostatic pressure 20.3 Capillary Exchange
blood-brain barrier (BBB) 12.2 Nervous Tissue
body mass index (BMI) 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
body of the rib 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
brachiocephalic vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
brain case 7.2 The Skull
bronchial artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
bronchoconstriction 22.2 The Lungs
bronchodilation 22.2 The Lungs
Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
C
calvaria 7.2 The Skull
capacitation 28.1 Fertilization
capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP) 20.3 Capillary Exchange
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) 22.5 Transport of Gases
cardiac accelerator nerves 15.3 Central Control
cardiac cycle 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
Cardiac output (CO) 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
cardiac plexus 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
cardiac reflexes 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
cardiac reserve 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
cardiac skeleton 19.1 Heart Anatomy
cardiomyocyte 19.1 Heart Anatomy
cardiovascular center 15.3 Central Control
carpometacarpal joint 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
cartilaginous joint 9.1 Classification of Joints
cell junction 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
cell membrane 3.1 The Cell Membrane
cellular respiration 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
central chemoreceptor 22.3 The Process of Breathing
cephalic phase 23.4 The Stomach
cerebral peduncles 14.3 Motor Responses
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 12.2 Nervous Tissue
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
cervical enlargement 14.3 Motor Responses
cervical vertebrae 7.3 The Vertebral Column
channel protein 3.1 The Cell Membrane
Chemical energy 2.3 Chemical Reactions
chief cells 23.4 The Stomach
chief sensory nucleus 14.2 Central Processing
chloride shift 22.5 Transport of Gases
cholecystokinin (CCK) 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
chordae tendineae 19.1 Heart Anatomy
chorionic membrane 28.2 Embryonic Development
chymotrypsinogen 24.4 Protein Metabolism
circadian rhythm 14.2 Central Processing
circumflex artery 19.1 Heart Anatomy
clasp-knife response 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
clavicular notch 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
closed reduction 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
clotting factors 18.5 Hemostasis
coagulation 18.5 Hemostasis
Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
colostrum 28.6 Lactation
common carotid artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
common hepatic artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
common iliac artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
common iliac vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
common pathway 18.5 Hemostasis
compact bone 6.3 Bone Structure
Computed tomography (CT) 1.7 Medical Imaging
concentration gradient 3.1 The Cell Membrane
Conduction aphasia 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
conductive hearing 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
condylar process of the mandible 7.2 The Skull
condyloid joint 9.4 Synovial Joints
cone photoreceptor 14.1 Sensory Perception
Connective tissue 4.1 Types of Tissues
connective tissue membrane 4.1 Types of Tissues
continuous conduction 12.4 The Action Potential
control center 1.5 Homeostasis
coracoclavicular ligament 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
coracoid process 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
corneal reflex 14.3 Motor Responses
corona radiata 28.1 Fertilization
coronal suture 7.2 The Skull
Coronary arteries 19.1 Heart Anatomy
coronary sinus 19.1 Heart Anatomy
coronary sulcus 19.1 Heart Anatomy
Coronary veins 19.1 Heart Anatomy
coronoid process of the mandible 7.2 The Skull
coronoid process of the ulna 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
cortical reaction 28.1 Fertilization
cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
corticobulbar tract 14.3 Motor Responses
corticospinal tract 14.3 Motor Responses
costal cartilage 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
costal groove 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
costoclavicular ligament 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
countercurrent multiplier system 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
covalent bond 2.2 Chemical Bonds
cranial nerve ganglion 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
cribriform plate 7.2 The Skull
crista galli 7.2 The Skull
cutaneous membrane 4.1 Types of Tissues
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) 17.2 Hormones
cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
D
Dalton’s law 22.4 Gas Exchange
decomposition reaction 2.3 Chemical Reactions
deep femoral artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
deep femoral vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
deep posterior compartment of the forearm 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
dehydration 26.2 Water Balance
deltoid tuberosity 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
deoxyhemoglobin 18.3 Erythrocytes
dermal papilla 5.1 Layers of the Skin
descending aorta 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
diabetes mellitus 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
diacylglycerol (DAG) 17.2 Hormones
digital arteries 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
dihydroxyvitamin D 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
distal convoluted tubules 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
distal radioulnar joint 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
distal tibiofibular joint 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
dorsal (posterior) cavity 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
dorsal (posterior) nerve root 13.2 The Central Nervous System
dorsal (posterior) root ganglion 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
dorsal column system 14.2 Central Processing
dorsal longitudinal fasciculus 15.3 Central Control
dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
dorsal respiratory group (DRG) 22.3 The Process of Breathing
dorsal venous arch 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
dorsalis pedis artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
downregulation 17.2 Hormones
E
ectopic pregnancy 28.2 Embryonic Development
ejection fraction 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
Elastin fibers 5.1 Layers of the Skin
electrical gradient 3.1 The Cell Membrane
electrochemical exclusion 12.4 The Action Potential
electron transport chain (ETC) 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
embryonic folding 28.2 Embryonic Development
encapsulated ending 14.1 Sensory Perception
end diastolic volume (EDV) 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
end systolic volume (ESV) 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
endocardium 19.1 Heart Anatomy
endochondral ossification 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
energy-consuming phase 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
energy-yielding phase 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
enteric nervous system 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
enteroendocrine cells 23.4 The Stomach
ependymal cell 12.2 Nervous Tissue
epicardial coronary arteries 19.1 Heart Anatomy
epiphyseal plate 6.3 Bone Structure
epithelial membrane 4.1 Types of Tissues
Epithelial tissue 4.1 Types of Tissues
erythrocyte 18.3 Erythrocytes
esophageal artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
ethmoid air cell 7.2 The Skull
ethmoid bone 7.2 The Skull
exchange reaction 2.3 Chemical Reactions
excitable membrane 12.4 The Action Potential
excitation-contraction coupling 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
executive functions 14.3 Motor Responses
exocrine gland 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) 22.3 The Process of Breathing
expressive aphasia 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
External acoustic meatus 7.2 The Skull
external anal sphincter 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
external carotid artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
external iliac artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
external iliac vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
external jugular vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
external occipital protuberance 7.2 The Skull
External respiration 22.4 Gas Exchange
external urinary sphincter 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
extrapyramidal system 14.3 Motor Responses
extrinsic ligament 9.4 Synovial Joints
extrinsic muscles of the tongue 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
extrinsic pathway 18.5 Hemostasis
F
facial bones 7.2 The Skull
Facilitated diffusion 3.1 The Cell Membrane
fasciculus cuneatus 14.2 Central Processing
fasciculus gracilis 14.2 Central Processing
fast glycolytic (FG) 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
Fast oxidative (FO) 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
fatty acid oxidation 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
femoral circumflex vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
Fertilization 28.1 Fertilization
fertilization membrane 28.1 Fertilization
Fibrinolysis 18.5 Hemostasis
fibular collateral ligament 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
first messenger 17.2 Hormones
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
floating ribs 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
fontanelles 9.2 Fibrous Joints
Foramen lacerum 7.2 The Skull
Foramen ovale of the middle cranial fossa 7.2 The Skull
Foramen rotundum 7.2 The Skull
Foramen spinosum 7.2 The Skull
foremilk 28.6 Lactation
fossa ovalis 19.1 Heart Anatomy
fracture hematoma 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
Frank-Starling mechanism 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
free nerve ending 14.1 Sensory Perception
frontal bone 7.2 The Skull
frontal sinus 7.2 The Skull
functional residual capacity (FRC) 22.3 The Process of Breathing
G
gastric emptying 23.4 The Stomach
gastric gland 23.4 The Stomach
gastric phase 23.4 The Stomach
gastric pits 23.4 The Stomach
Gene expression 3.4 Protein Synthesis
general adaptation syndrome (GAS) 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
genicular artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
glabella 7.2 The Skull
glenoid cavity 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
glossopharyngeal nerve 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
glucocorticoids 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
glucose-6-phosphate 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
gluteal tuberosity 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
Granular leukocytes 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
great cardiac vein 19.1 Heart Anatomy
great cerebral vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
great saphenous vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
greater sciatic foramen 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
greater sciatic notch 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
greater trochanter 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
greater wings of the sphenoid bone 7.2 The Skull
gustatory receptor cells 14.1 Sensory Perception
H
Haldane effect 22.5 Transport of Gases
hard palate 7.2 The Skull
head of the femur 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
head of the fibula 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
head of the humerus 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
head of the metatarsal bone 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
head of the radius 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
head of the rib 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
heart rate (HR) 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
heart sounds 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
Hemoglobin 18.3 Erythrocytes
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) 18.6 Blood Typing
hemophilia 18.5 Hemostasis
hemopoietic growth factors 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
hemorrhage 18.5 Hemostasis
hemosiderin 18.3 Erythrocytes
hemostasis 18.5 Hemostasis
Henry’s law 22.4 Gas Exchange
hepatic artery proper 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
hepatic portal system 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
hepatopancreatic ampulla 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
hepatopancreatic sphincter 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
Hindmilk 28.6 Lactation
holocrine secretion 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
hook of the hamate bone 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
horizontal plate 7.2 The Skull
hormone receptor 17.2 Hormones
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 28.2 Embryonic Development
hydrochloric acid (HCl) 23.4 The Stomach
hydrogen bond 2.2 Chemical Bonds
hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA) 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
hyperparathyroidism 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
Hyperphosphatemia 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
hyperplasia 10.8 Smooth Muscle
hyperthyroidism 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 19.1 Heart Anatomy
hypoglossal canal 7.2 The Skull
hypoparathyroidism 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
Hypophosphatemia 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
hypophyseal (pituitary) fossa 7.2 The Skull
hypothyroidism 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
I
inactivation gate 12.4 The Action Potential
inactive proenzymes 24.4 Protein Metabolism
incomplete dominance 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
inferior angle of the scapula 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
inferior articular process 7.3 The Vertebral Column
inferior cerebellar peduncle (ICP) 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
inferior mesenteric artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
inferior nasal concha 7.2 The Skull
inferior oblique 14.1 Sensory Perception
inferior phrenic artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
inferior pubic ramus 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
inferior rectus 14.1 Sensory Perception
Inferior rotation 9.5 Types of Body Movements
infraglenoid tubercle 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
infraorbital foramen 7.2 The Skull
infraspinous fossa 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
infratemporal fossa 7.2 The Skull
inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) 12.5 Communication Between Neurons
initial segment 12.2 Nervous Tissue
inner synaptic layer 14.1 Sensory Perception
inositol triphosphate (IP3) 17.2 Hormones
Inspiratory capacity (IC) 22.3 The Process of Breathing
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) 22.3 The Process of Breathing
insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
integral protein 3.1 The Cell Membrane
integumentary system 5.1 Layers of the Skin
interatrial septum 19.1 Heart Anatomy
interaural intensity difference 14.2 Central Processing
interaural time difference 14.2 Central Processing
intercalated cell 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
intercondylar eminence 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
intercondylar fossa 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
intercostal artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
intercostal vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
intermediate cuneiform 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
Internal acoustic meatus 7.2 The Skull
internal anal sphincter 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
internal capsule 14.3 Motor Responses
internal carotid artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
internal iliac artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
internal iliac vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
internal jugular vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
Internal respiration 22.4 Gas Exchange
internal thoracic artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
internal thoracic vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
internal urinary sphincter 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
internuclear ophthalmoplegia 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
interosseous border of the fibula 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
interosseous border of the radius 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
interosseous border of the tibia 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
interosseous border of the ulna 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
interosseous membrane 9.2 Fibrous Joints
interosseous membrane of the forearm 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
interosseous membrane of the leg 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
interphalangeal joint 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
Interstitial fluid (IF) 3.1 The Cell Membrane
interstitial fluid colloidal osmotic pressure (IFCOP) 20.3 Capillary Exchange
interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IFHP) 20.3 Capillary Exchange
intertrochanteric crest 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
intertrochanteric line 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
intertubercular groove (sulcus) 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
interventricular septum 19.1 Heart Anatomy
intervertebral foramen 7.3 The Vertebral Column
intestinal phase 23.4 The Stomach
Intra-alveolar pressure 22.3 The Process of Breathing
intracapsular ligament 9.4 Synovial Joints
intracellular fluid (ICF) 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
Intracellular fluid (ICF) 3.1 The Cell Membrane
intramembranous ossification 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
Intrapleural pressure 22.3 The Process of Breathing
intrinsic factor 23.4 The Stomach
intrinsic ligament 9.4 Synovial Joints
intrinsic muscles of the tongue 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
intrinsic pathway 18.5 Hemostasis
ionotropic receptor 12.4 The Action Potential
irregular bone 6.2 Bone Classification
isovolumic contraction 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
isovolumic ventricular relaxation phase 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
L
lacrimal bone 7.2 The Skull
lacrimal fossa 7.2 The Skull
lacrimal gland 14.1 Sensory Perception
Lactation 28.6 Lactation
lambdoid suture 7.2 The Skull
lamina propria 4.1 Types of Tissues
Langerhans cell 5.1 Layers of the Skin
latch-bridges 10.8 Smooth Muscle
lateral (external) rotation 9.5 Types of Body Movements
lateral border of the scapula 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
lateral circumflex artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
lateral condyle of the femur 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
lateral condyle of the tibia 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
lateral corticospinal tract 14.3 Motor Responses
lateral cuneiform 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
lateral epicondyle of the femur 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
lateral epicondyle of the humerus 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
Lateral excursion 9.5 Types of Body Movements
lateral geniculate nucleus 14.2 Central Processing
lateral malleolus 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
lateral plantar artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
lateral pterygoid plate 7.2 The Skull
lateral rectus 14.1 Sensory Perception
lateral sacral crest 7.3 The Vertebral Column
lateral supracondylar ridge 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
lateral tibiofemoral joint 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
leaky tight junctions 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
left atrioventricular valve 19.1 Heart Anatomy
left gastric artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
lesser sciatic foramen 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
lesser sciatic notch 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
lesser trochanter 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
lesser wings of the sphenoid bone 7.2 The Skull
let-down reflex 28.6 Lactation
levator palpebrae superioris 14.1 Sensory Perception
ligamentum flavum 7.3 The Vertebral Column
ligand-gated channel 12.4 The Action Potential
Localization of function 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
longitudinal fissure 13.2 The Central Nervous System
lower esophageal sphincter 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
lumbar enlargement 14.3 Motor Responses
Lumbar vertebrae 7.3 The Vertebral Column
M
Macrophage oxidative metabolism 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1.7 Medical Imaging
major duodenal papilla 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
Mandibular foramen 7.2 The Skull
Mandibular fossa 7.2 The Skull
mandibular notch 7.2 The Skull
marginal arteries 19.1 Heart Anatomy
mastoid process 7.2 The Skull
maxillary bone 7.2 The Skull
maxillary sinus 7.2 The Skull
mechanically gated channel 12.4 The Action Potential
mechanoreceptor 14.1 Sensory Perception
medial (internal) rotation 9.5 Types of Body Movements
medial border of the scapula 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
medial condyle of the femur 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
medial condyle of the tibia 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
medial epicondyle of the femur 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
medial epicondyle of the humerus 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
medial forebrain bundle 15.3 Central Control
medial geniculate nucleus 14.2 Central Processing
medial lemniscus 14.2 Central Processing
medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
medial plantar artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
medial pterygoid plate 7.2 The Skull
medial tibiofemoral joint 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
median antebrachial vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
median cubital vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
median sacral artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
median sacral crest 7.3 The Vertebral Column
mediastinal artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
medullary cavity 6.3 Bone Structure
membrane potential 12.4 The Action Potential
Mental foramen 7.2 The Skull
Mental protuberance 7.2 The Skull
Merocrine secretion 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
mesencephalic nuclei 14.2 Central Processing
messenger RNA (mRNA) 3.4 Protein Synthesis
metacarpophalangeal joint 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
metatarsophalangeal joint 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
middle cardiac vein 19.1 Heart Anatomy
middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
middle cerebral artery 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
middle cranial fossa 7.2 The Skull
middle nasal concha 7.2 The Skull
middle sacral vein 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
migrating motility complex 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
mineralocorticoids 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
mitral valve 19.1 Heart Anatomy
mixing wave 23.4 The Stomach
moderator band 19.1 Heart Anatomy
monoglyceride molecules 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
motor end-plate 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
mucosal barrier 23.4 The Stomach
mucous membrane 4.1 Types of Tissues
mucous neck cells 23.4 The Stomach
multimodal integration area 14.2 Central Processing
Muscle tissue 4.1 Types of Tissues