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8.1 The Hydrogen Atom

  • A hydrogen atom can be described in terms of its wave function, probability density, total energy, and orbital angular momentum.
  • The state of an electron in a hydrogen atom is specified by its quantum numbers (n, l, m).
  • In contrast to the Bohr model of the atom, the Schrödinger model makes predictions based on probability statements.
  • The quantum numbers of a hydrogen atom can be used to calculate important information about the atom.

8.2 Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron

  • A hydrogen atom has magnetic properties because the motion of the electron acts as a current loop.
  • The energy levels of a hydrogen atom associated with orbital angular momentum are split by an external magnetic field because the orbital angular magnetic moment interacts with the field.
  • The quantum numbers of an electron in a hydrogen atom can be used to calculate the magnitude and direction of the orbital magnetic dipole moment of the atom.

8.3 Electron Spin

  • The state of an electron in a hydrogen atom can be expressed in terms of five quantum numbers.
  • The spin angular momentum quantum of an electron is = +½+½. The spin angular momentum projection quantum number is ms =+½or½=+½or½ (spin up or spin down).
  • The fine and hyperfine structures of the hydrogen spectrum are explained by magnetic interactions within the atom.

8.4 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table

  • Pauli’s exclusion principle states that no two electrons in an atom can have all the same quantum numbers.
  • The structure of the periodic table of elements can be explained in terms of the total energy, orbital angular momentum, and spin of electrons in an atom.
  • The state of an atom can be expressed by its electron configuration, which describes the shells and subshells that are filled in the atom.

8.5 Atomic Spectra and X-rays

  • Radiation is absorbed and emitted by atomic energy-level transitions.
  • Quantum numbers can be used to estimate the energy, frequency, and wavelength of photons produced by atomic transitions.
  • Atomic fluorescence occurs when an electron in an atom is excited several steps above the ground state by the absorption of a high-energy ultraviolet (UV) photon.
  • X-ray photons are produced when a vacancy in an inner shell of an atom is filled by an electron from the outer shell of the atom.
  • The frequency of X-ray radiation is related to the atomic number Z of an atom.

8.6 Lasers

  • Laser light is coherent (monochromatic and “phase linked”) light.
  • Laser light is produced by population inversion and subsequent de-excitation of electrons in a material (solid, liquid, or gas).
  • CD and Blu-Ray players uses lasers to read digital information stored on discs.
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