University Physics Volume 3

# Conceptual Questions

University Physics Volume 3Conceptual Questions

### 8.1The Hydrogen Atom

1.

Identify the physical significance of each of the quantum numbers of the hydrogen atom.

2.

Describe the ground state of hydrogen in terms of wave function, probability density, and atomic orbitals.

3.

Distinguish between Bohr’s and Schrödinger’s model of the hydrogen atom. In particular, compare the energy and orbital angular momentum of the ground states.

### 8.2Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron

4.

Explain why spectral lines of the hydrogen atom are split by an external magnetic field. What determines the number and spacing of these lines?

5.

A hydrogen atom is placed in a magnetic field. Which of the following quantities are affected? (a) total energy; (b) angular momentum; (c) z-component of angular momentum; (d) polar angle.

6.

On what factors does the orbital magnetic dipole moment of an electron depend?

### 8.3Electron Spin

7.

Explain how a hydrogen atom in the ground state $(l=0(l=0$) can interact magnetically with an external magnetic field.

8.

Compare orbital angular momentum with spin angular momentum of an electron in the hydrogen atom.

9.

List all the possible values of s and $msms$ for an electron. Are there particles for which these values are different?

10.

Are the angular momentum vectors $L→L→$ and $S→S→$ necessarily aligned?

11.

What is spin-orbit coupling?

### 8.4The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table

12.

What is Pauli’s exclusion principle? Explain the importance of this principle for the understanding of atomic structure and molecular bonding.

13.

Compare the electron configurations of the elements in the same column of the periodic table.

14.

Compare the electron configurations of the elements that belong in the same row of the periodic table of elements.

### 8.5Atomic Spectra and X-rays

15.

Atomic and molecular spectra are discrete. What does discrete mean, and how are discrete spectra related to the quantization of energy and electron orbits in atoms and molecules?

16.

Discuss the process of the absorption of light by matter in terms of the atomic structure of the absorbing medium.

17.

NGC1763 is an emission nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud just outside our Milky Way Galaxy. Ultraviolet light from hot stars ionize the hydrogen atoms in the nebula. As protons and electrons recombine, light in the visible range is emitted. Compare the energies of the photons involved in these two transitions.

18.

Why are X-rays emitted only for electron transitions to inner shells? What type of photon is emitted for transitions between outer shells?

19.

How do the allowed orbits for electrons in atoms differ from the allowed orbits for planets around the sun?

### 8.6Lasers

20.

Distinguish between coherent and monochromatic light.

21.

Why is a metastable state necessary for the production of laser light?

22.

How does light from an incandescent light bulb differ from laser light?

23.

24.

What are the similarities and differences between a CD player and a Blu-Ray player?

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