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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Check Your Understanding

7.1

K=12mv2,v=2Km=24.5×10−7J4.00×10−9kg=15m/sK=12mv2,v=2Km=24.5×10−7J4.00×10−9kg=15m/s

7.2

It has kinetic energy of 4.5×10−7J4.5×10−7J at point r2r2 and potential energy of 9.0×10−7J,9.0×10−7J, which means that as Q approaches infinity, its kinetic energy totals three times the kinetic energy at r2,r2, since all of the potential energy gets converted to kinetic.

7.3

positive, negative, and these quantities are the same as the work you would need to do to bring the charges in from infinity

7.4

ΔU=qΔV=(100C)(1.5V)=150JΔU=qΔV=(100C)(1.5V)=150J

7.5

–2.00 C, ne=1.25×1019electronsne=1.25×1019electrons

7.6

It would be going in the opposite direction, with no effect on the calculations as presented.

7.7

Given a fixed maximum electric field strength, the potential at which a strike occurs increases with increasing height above the ground. Hence, each electron will carry more energy. Determining if there is an effect on the total number of electrons lies in the future.

7.8

V=kqr=(8.99×109N·m2/C2)(−3.00×10−9C5.00×10−3m)=−5390V;V=kqr=(8.99×109N·m2/C2)(−3.00×10−9C5.00×10−3m)=−5390V; recall that the electric field inside a conductor is zero. Hence, any path from a point on the surface to any point in the interior will have an integrand of zero when calculating the change in potential, and thus the potential in the interior of the sphere is identical to that on the surface.

7.9

The x-axis the potential is zero, due to the equal and opposite charges the same distance from it. On the z-axis, we may superimpose the two potentials; we will find that for z>>dz>>d, again the potential goes to zero due to cancellation.

7.10

It will be zero, as at all points on the axis, there are equal and opposite charges equidistant from the point of interest. Note that this distribution will, in fact, have a dipole moment.

7.11

Any, but cylindrical is closest to the symmetry of a dipole.

7.12

infinite cylinders of constant radius, with the line charge as the axis

Conceptual Questions

1.

No. We can only define potential energies for conservative fields.

3.

No, though certain orderings may be simpler to compute.

5.

The electric field strength is zero because electric potential differences are directly related to the field strength. If the potential difference is zero, then the field strength must also be zero.

7.

Potential difference is more descriptive because it indicates that it is the difference between the electric potential of two points.

9.

They are very similar, but potential difference is a feature of the system; when a charge is introduced to the system, it will have a potential energy which may be calculated by multiplying the magnitude of the charge by the potential difference.

11.

An electron-volt is a volt multiplied by the charge of an electron. Volts measure potential difference, electron-volts are a unit of energy.

13.

The second has 1/4 the dipole moment of the first.

15.

The region outside of the sphere will have a potential indistinguishable from a point charge; the interior of the sphere will have a different potential.

17.

No. It will be constant, but not necessarily zero.

19.

no

21.

No; it might not be at electrostatic equilibrium.

23.

Yes. It depends on where the zero reference for potential is. (Though this might be unusual.)

25.

So that lightning striking them goes into the ground instead of the television equipment.

27.

They both make use of static electricity to stick small particles to another surface. However, the precipitator has to charge a wide variety of particles, and is not designed to make sure they land in a particular place.

Problems

29.

a. U=3.4J;U=3.4J;
b. 12mv2=Q1Q2(1ri1rf)v=2.4x104m/s12mv2=Q1Q2(1ri1rf)v=2.4x104m/s

31.

U=4.36×10−18JU=4.36×10−18J

33.

12meve2=qV,12mHvH2=qV,so thatmeve2mHvH2=1orvevH=42.812meve2=qV,12mHvH2=qV,so thatmeve2mHvH2=1orvevH=42.8

35.

1V=1J/C;1J=1N·m1V/m=1N/C1V=1J/C;1J=1N·m1V/m=1N/C

37.

a. VAB=3.00kVVAB=3.00kV; b. VAB=750VVAB=750V

39.

a. VAB=EdE=5.63kV/mVAB=EdE=5.63kV/m;
b. VAB=563VVAB=563V

41.

a. ΔK=qΔVandVAB=Ed,so thatΔK=800keV;ΔK=qΔVandVAB=Ed,so thatΔK=800keV;
b. d=25.0kmd=25.0km

43.

One possibility is to stay at constant radius and go along the arc from P1P1 to P2P2, which will have zero potential due to the path being perpendicular to the electric field. Then integrate from a to b: Vab=αln(ba)Vab=αln(ba)

45.

V=144VV=144V

47.

V=kQrQ=8.33×10−7CV=kQrQ=8.33×10−7C;
The charge is positive because the potential is positive.

49.

a. V=45.0MVV=45.0MV;
b. V=kQrr=45.0mV=kQrr=45.0m;
c. ΔU=132MeVΔU=132MeV

51.

V=kQ/rV=kQ/r; a. Relative to origin, find the potential at each point and then calculate the difference.
ΔV=135×103VΔV=135×103V;
b. To double the potential difference, move the point from 20 cm to infinity; the potential at 20 cm is halfway between zero and that at 10 cm.

53.

a. VP1=7.4×105VVP1=7.4×105V
and VP2=6.9×103VVP2=6.9×103V;
b. VP1=6.9×105VVP1=6.9×105V and VP2=6.9×103VVP2=6.9×103V

55.

The problem is describing a uniform field, so E=200V/mE=200V/m in the –z-direction.

57.

Apply E=VE=V with =r^r+φ^1rφ+z^z=r^r+φ^1rφ+z^z to the potential calculated earlier,
V=−2kλlns:E=2kλ1rr^V=−2kλlns:E=2kλ1rr^ as expected.

59.

a. increases; the constant (negative) electric field has this effect, the reference point only matters for magnitude; b. they are planes parallel to the sheet; c. 0.006 m/V

61.

a. from the previous chapter, the electric field has magnitude σε0σε0 in the region between the plates and zero outside; defining the negatively charged plate to be at the origin and zero potential, with the positively charged plate located at +5mm+5mm in the z-direction, V=1.7×104VV=1.7×104V so the potential is 0 for z<0,1.7×104V(z5mm)z<0,1.7×104V(z5mm) for 0z5mm,1.7×104V0z5mm,1.7×104V for z>5mm;z>5mm;
b. qV=12mv2v=7.7×107m/sqV=12mv2v=7.7×107m/s

63.

V=85VV=85V

65.

In the region arb,E=kQr2r^arb,E=kQr2r^, and E is zero elsewhere; hence, the potential difference is V=kQ(1a1b)V=kQ(1a1b).

67.

From previous results VPVR=−2kλlnsPsR.VPVR=−2kλlnsPsR., note that b is a very convenient location to define the zero level of potential: ΔV=−2kQLlnab.ΔV=−2kQLlnab.

69.

a. F=5.58×10−11N/CF=5.58×10−11N/C;

The electric field is towards the surface of Earth. b. The coulomb force is much stronger than gravity.

71.

We know from the Gauss’s law chapter that the electric field for an infinite line charge is EP=2kλ1ss^EP=2kλ1ss^, and from earlier in this chapter that the potential of a wire-cylinder system of this sort is VP=−2kλlnsPRVP=−2kλlnsPR by integration. We are not given λλ, but we are given a fixed V0V0; thus, we know that V0=−2kλlnaRV0=−2kλlnaR and hence λ=V02kln(aR)λ=V02kln(aR). We may substitute this back in to find a. EP=V0ln(aR)1ss^EP=V0ln(aR)1ss^; b. VP=V0ln(sPR)ln(aR)VP=V0ln(sPR)ln(aR); c. 4.74×104N/C4.74×104N/C

73.

a. U1=−7.68×10−18JU2=−5.76×10−18JU1=−7.68×10−18JU2=−5.76×10−18J;
b. U1+U2=−1.34×10−17JU1+U2=−1.34×10−17J

75.

a. U=2.30×10−16JU=2.30×10−16J;
b. K=32kTT=1.11×107KK=32kTT=1.11×107K

77.

a. 1.9×106m/s1.9×106m/s; b. 4.2×106m/s4.2×106m/s; c. 5.9×106m/s5.9×106m/s; d. 7.3×106m/s7.3×106m/s; e. 8.4×106m/s8.4×106m/s

79.

a. E=2.5×106V/m<3×106V/mNo, the field strength is smaller than the breakdown strength for air.E=2.5×106V/m<3×106V/mNo, the field strength is smaller than the breakdown strength for air.;
b. d=1.7mmd=1.7mm

81.

Kf=qVAB=qEdE=8.00×105V/mKf=qVAB=qEdE=8.00×105V/m

83.

a. Energy=2.00×109JEnergy=2.00×109J;
b. Q=m(cΔT+L)m=766kgQ=m(cΔT+L)m=766kg;
c. The expansion of the steam upon boiling can literally blow the tree apart.

85.

a. V=kQrr=1.80kmV=kQrr=1.80km; b. A 1-C charge is a very large amount of charge; a sphere of 1.80 km is impractical.

87.

The alpha particle approaches the gold nucleus until its original energy is converted to potential energy. 5.00MeV=8.00×10−13J5.00MeV=8.00×10−13J, so
E0=qkQrr=4.54×10−14mE0=qkQrr=4.54×10−14m
(Size of gold nucleus is about 7×10−15m7×10−15m).

Additional Problems

89.

Etot=4.67×107JEtot=qVq=EtotV=3.89×106CEtot=4.67×107JEtot=qVq=EtotV=3.89×106C

91.

VP=kqtotz2+R2qtot=−3.5×10−11CVP=kqtotz2+R2qtot=−3.5×10−11C

93.

VP=−2.2GVVP=−2.2GV

95.

Recall from the previous chapter that the electric field EP=σ02ε0EP=σ02ε0 is uniform throughout space, and that for uniform fields we have E=ΔVΔzE=ΔVΔz for the relation. Thus, we get σ2ε0=ΔVΔzΔz=0.22mσ2ε0=ΔVΔzΔz=0.22m for the distance between 25-V equipotentials.

97.

a. Take the result from Example 7.13, divide both the numerator and the denominator by x, take the limit of that, and then apply a Taylor expansion to the resulting log to get: VPkλLxVPkλLx; b. which is the result we expect, because at great distances, this should look like a point charge of q=λLq=λL

99.

a. V=9.0×103VV=9.0×103V; b. −9.0×103V(1.25cm2.0cm)=−5.7×103V−9.0×103V(1.25cm2.0cm)=−5.7×103V

101.

a. E=KQr2Q=−6.76×105CE=KQr2Q=−6.76×105C;
b. F=ma=qEa=qEm=2.63×1013m/s2(upwards)F=ma=qEa=qEm=2.63×1013m/s2(upwards);
c. F=mg=qEm=qEg=2.45×10−18kgF=mg=qEm=qEg=2.45×10−18kg

103.

If the electric field is zero ¼ from the way of q1andq2q1andq2, then we know from
E=kQr2that|E1|=|E2|Kq1x2=Kq2(3x)2so thatq2q1=(3x)2x2=9E=kQr2that|E1|=|E2|Kq1x2=Kq2(3x)2so thatq2q1=(3x)2x2=9; the charge q2q2 is 9 times larger than q1q1.

105.

a. The field is in the direction of the electron’s initial velocity.
b. v2=v02+2axx=v022a(v=0).Also,F=ma=qEa=qEm,x=3.56×10−4m;v2=v02+2axx=v022a(v=0).Also,F=ma=qEa=qEm,x=3.56×10−4m;
c. v2=v0+att=v0mqE(v=0),t=1.42×10−10s;v2=v0+att=v0mqE(v=0),t=1.42×10−10s;
d. v=(2qExm)1/2−5.00×106m/s(opposite its initial velocity)v=(2qExm)1/2−5.00×106m/s(opposite its initial velocity)

Challenge Problems

107.

Answers will vary. This appears to be proprietary information, and ridiculously difficult to find. Speeds will be 20 m/s or less, and there are claims of ~10−7~10−7 grams for the mass of a drop.

109.

Apply E=VE=V with =r^r+θ^1rθ+φ^1rsinθφ=r^r+θ^1rθ+φ^1rsinθφ to the potential calculated earlier, VP=kp·r^r2VP=kp·r^r2 with p=qd,p=qd, and assume that the axis of the dipole is aligned with the z-axis of the coordinate system. Thus, the potential is VP=kqd·r^r2=kqdcosθr2VP=kqd·r^r2=kqdcosθr2.
E=2kqd(cosθr3)r^+kqd(sinθr3)θ^E=2kqd(cosθr3)r^+kqd(sinθr3)θ^

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