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University Physics Volume 2

Challenge Problems

University Physics Volume 2Challenge Problems
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Challenge Problems

75.

A copper wire of length L is fashioned into a circular coil with N turns. When the magnetic field through the coil changes with time, for what value of N is the induced emf a maximum?

76.

A 0.50-kg copper sheet drops through a uniform horizontal magnetic field of 1.5 T, and it reaches a terminal velocity of 2.0 m/s. (a) What is the net magnetic force on the sheet after it reaches terminal velocity? (b) Describe the mechanism responsible for this force. (c) How much power is dissipated as Joule heating while the sheet moves at terminal velocity?

77.

A circular copper disk of radius 7.5 cm rotates at 2400 rpm around the axis through its center and perpendicular to its face. The disk is in a uniform magnetic field BB of strength 1.2 T that is directed along the axis. What is the potential difference between the rim and the axis of the disk?

78.

A short rod of length a moves with its velocity vv parallel to an infinite wire carrying a current I (see below). If the end of the rod nearer the wire is a distance b from the wire, what is the emf induced in the rod?

Figure shows a short rod of length a that moves with its velocity v parallel to an infinite wire carrying a current I. Rod is moving at a distance b from the wire.
79.

A rectangular circuit containing a resistance R is pulled at a constant velocity vv away from a long, straight wire carrying a current I0I0 (see below). Derive an equation that gives the current induced in the circuit as a function of the distance x between the near side of the circuit and the wire.

Figure shows a rectangular circuit containing a resistor R that is pulled at a constant velocity v away from a long, straight wire carrying a current I0. Circuit is currently located at a distance x from the wire. Long side of the circuit is of the length a. It is parallel to the wire and contains the resistor. Short side of the circuit is of the length b.
80.

Two infinite solenoids cross the plane of the circuit as shown below. The radii of the solenoids are 0.10 and 0.20 m, respectively, and the current in each solenoid is changing such that dB/dt=50.0T/s.dB/dt=50.0T/s. What are the currents in the resistors of the circuit?

Figure shows two infinite solenoids that cross the plane of the circuit. The circuit consists of three resistors: 8 Ohm resistor at the center and two 4 Ohm resistors at the edges.
81.

An eight-turn coil is tightly wrapped around the outside of the long solenoid as shown below. The radius of the solenoid is 2.0 cm and it has 10 turns per centimeter. The current through the solenoid increases according to I=I0(1eαt),I=I0(1eαt), where I0=4.0AI0=4.0A and α=2.0×102s1.α=2.0×102s1. What is the emf induced in the coil when (a) t=0t=0, (b) t=1.0×102s,t=1.0×102s, and (c) t?t?

Figure shows a coil that is tightly wrapped around the outside of the long solenoid.
82.

Shown below is a long rectangular loop of width w, length l, mass m, and resistance R. The loop starts from rest at the edge of a uniform magnetic field BB and is pushed into the field by a constant force F.F. Calculate the speed of the loop as a function of time.

Figure shows a long rectangular loop of width w. The loop starts from rest at the edge of a uniform magnetic field and is pushed into the field by a constant force F.
83.

A square bar of mass m and resistance R is sliding without friction down very long, parallel conducting rails of negligible resistance (see below). The two rails are a distance l apart and are connected to each other at the bottom of the incline by a zero-resistance wire. The rails are inclined at an angle θθ, and there is a uniform vertical magnetic field BB throughout the region. (a) Show that the bar acquires a terminal velocity given by v=mgRsinθB2l2cos2θ.v=mgRsinθB2l2cos2θ. (b) Calculate the work per unit time done by the force of gravity. (c) Compare this with the power dissipated in the Joule heating of the bar. (d) What would happen if BB were reversed?

Figure shows a square sliding down very long, parallel conducting rails. The two rails are a distance l apart and are inclined at an angle theta. There is a uniform vertical magnetic field B throughout the region.
84.

The accompanying figure shows a metal disk of inner radius r1r1 and other radius r2r2 rotating at an angular velocity ωω while in a uniform magnetic field directed parallel to the rotational axis. The brush leads of a voltmeter are connected to the dark’s inner and outer surfaces as shown. What is the reading of the voltmeter?

Figure shows a metal disk rotating at an angular velocity in a uniform magnetic field directed parallel to the rotational axis. The brush leads of a voltmeter are connected to the disk’s inner and outer surfaces.
85.

A long solenoid with 10 turns per centimeter is placed inside a copper ring such that both objects have the same central axis. The radius of the ring is 10.0 cm, and the radius of the solenoid is 5.0 cm. (a) What is the emf induced in the ring when the current I through the solenoid is 5.0 A and changing at a rate of 100 A/s? (b) What is the emf induced in the ring when I=2.0AI=2.0A and dI/dt=100A/s?dI/dt=100A/s? (c) What is the electric field inside the ring for these two cases? (d) Suppose the ring is moved so that its central axis and the central axis of the solenoid are still parallel but no longer coincide. (You should assume that the solenoid is still inside the ring.) Now what is the emf induced in the ring? (e) Can you calculate the electric field in the ring as you did in part (c)?

86.

The current in the long, straight wire shown in the accompanying figure is given by I=I0sinωt,I=I0sinωt, where I0=15AI0=15A and ω=120πrad/s.ω=120πrad/s. What is the current induced in the rectangular loop at (a) t=0t=0 and (b) t=2.1×103s?t=2.1×103s? The resistance of the loop is 2.0Ω.2.0Ω.

Figure shows a rectangular circuit located next to a long, straight wire carrying a current I. Circuit is located at a distance 5 cm from the wire. Side of the circuit that is 8 cm long is parallel to the wire, side of the circuit that is 5 cm long is perpendicular to the wire.
87.

A 500-turn coil with a 0.250-m20.250-m2 area is spun in Earth’s 5.00×10−5T5.00×10−5T magnetic field, producing a 12.0-kV maximum emf. (a) At what angular velocity must the coil be spun? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumption or premise is responsible?

88.

A circular loop of wire of radius 10 cm is mounted on a vertical shaft and rotated at a frequency of 5 cycles per second in a region of uniform magnetic field of 2×10−4T2×10−4T perpendicular to the axis of rotation. (a) Find an expression for the time-dependent flux through the ring (b) Determine the time-dependent current through the ring if it has a resistance of 10Ω10Ω.

89.

A long solenoid of radius aa with nn turns per unit length is carrying a time-dependent current I(t)=I0sinωtI(t)=I0sinωt where I0I0 and ωω are constants. The solenoid is surrounded by a wire of resistance R that has two circular loops of radius b with b>ab>a. Find the magnitude and direction of current induced in the outer loops at time t=0t=0.

90.

A rectangular copper loop of mass 100 g and resistance 0.2Ω0.2Ω is in a region of uniform magnetic field that is perpendicular to the area enclosed by the ring and horizontal to Earth’s surface (see below). The loop is let go from rest when it is at the edge of the nonzero magnetic field region. (a) Find an expression for the speed when the loop just exits the region of uniform magnetic field. (b) If it was let go at t=0t=0, what is the time when it exits the region of magnetic field for the following values: a=25cm,b=50cm,B=3Ta=25cm,b=50cm,B=3T, g=9.8m/s2g=9.8m/s2? Assume that the magnetic field of the induced current is negligible compared to 3 T.

Figure A shows rectangular loop with the sides a and b in a region of uniform magnetic field that is perpendicular to the area enclosed by the loop and horizontal to Earth’s surface. Figure B shows rectangular loop that due to the force of gravity left a region of uniform magnetic field.
91.

A metal bar of mass m slides without friction over two rails a distance D apart in the region that has a uniform magnetic field of magnitude B0B0 and direction perpendicular to the rails (see below). The two rails are connected at one end to a resistor whose resistance is much larger than the resistance of the rails and the bar. The bar is given an initial speed of v0v0. It is found to slow down. How far does the bar go before coming to rest? Assume that the magnetic field of the induced current is negligible compared to B0B0.

Figure shows metal bar that slides over two rails a distance D apart in the region that has a uniform magnetic field of magnitude in direction perpendicular to the rails. The two rails are connected at one end to a resistor R.
92.

A time-dependent uniform magnetic field of magnitude B(t) is confined in a cylindrical region of radius R. A conducting rod of length 2D is placed in the region, as shown below. Show that the emf between the ends of the rod is given by dBdtDR2D2dBdtDR2D2. (Hint: To find the emf between the ends, we need to integrate the electric field from one end to the other. To find the electric field, use Faraday’s law as “Ampère’s law for E.”)

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