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University Physics Volume 2

Additional Problems

University Physics Volume 2Additional Problems
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Additional Problems

63.

Shown in the following figure is a long, straight wire and a single-turn rectangular loop, both of which lie in the plane of the page. The wire is parallel to the long sides of the loop and is 0.50 m away from the closer side. At an instant when the emf induced in the loop is 2.0 V, what is the time rate of change of the current in the wire?

Figure shows a long, straight wire and a single-turn rectangular wire loop with length 3.0 m and width 0.5cm, both of which lie in the plane of the page. The wire is parallel to the long sides of the loop and is 0.50 m away from the closer side.
64.

A metal bar of mass 500 g slides outward at a constant speed of 1.5 cm/s over two parallel rails separated by a distance of 30 cm which are part of a U-shaped conductor. There is a uniform magnetic field of magnitude 2 T pointing out of the page over the entire area. The railings and metal bar have an equivalent resistance of 150Ω.150Ω. (a) Determine the induced current, both magnitude and direction. (b) Find the direction of the induced current if the magnetic field is pointing into the page. (c) Find the direction of the induced current if the magnetic field is pointed into the page and the bar moves inwards.

65.

A current is induced in a circular loop of radius 1.5 cm between two poles of a horseshoe electromagnet when the current in the electromagnet is varied. The magnetic field in the area of the loop is perpendicular to the area and has a uniform magnitude. If the rate of change of magnetic field is 10 T/s, find the magnitude and direction of the induced current if resistance of the loop is 25Ω25Ω.

66.

A metal bar of length 25 cm is placed perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of strength 3 T. (a) Determine the induced emf between the ends of the rod when it is not moving. (b) Determine the emf when the rod is moving perpendicular to its length and magnetic field with a speed of 50 cm/s.

67.

A coil with 50 turns and area 10 cm2cm2 is oriented with its plane perpendicular to a 0.75-T magnetic field. If the coil is flipped over (rotated through 180°180°) in 0.20 s, what is the average emf induced in it?

68.

A 2-turn planer loop of flexible wire is placed inside a long solenoid of n turns per meter that carries a constant current I0I0. The area A of the loop is changed by pulling on its sides while ensuring that the plane of the loop always remains perpendicular to the axis of the solenoid. If n=500turnsn=500turns per meter, I0=20A,I0=20A, and A=20cm2,A=20cm2, what is the emf induced in the loop when dA/dt=100?dA/dt=100?

69.

The conducting rod shown in the accompanying figure moves along parallel metal rails that are 25-cm apart. The system is in a uniform magnetic field of strength 0.75 T, which is directed into the page. The resistances of the rod and the rails are negligible, but the section PQ has a resistance of 0.25Ω0.25Ω. (a) What is the emf (including its sense) induced in the rod when it is moving to the right with a speed of 5.0 m/s? (b) What force is required to keep the rod moving at this speed? (c) What is the rate at which work is done by this force? (d) What is the power dissipated in the resistor?

Figure shows the rod that slides to the right along the conducting rails at a constant velocity 5 meters per second in a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Distance between the rails is 25 cm. The rails are connected trough the 0.25 Ohm resistor.
70.

A circular loop of wire of radius 10 cm is mounted on a vertical shaft and rotated at a frequency of 5 cycles per second in a region of uniform magnetic field of 2 Gauss perpendicular to the axis of rotation. (a) Find an expression for the time-dependent flux through the ring. (b) Determine the time-dependent current through the ring if it has a resistance of 10 Ω.Ω.

Figure shows a circular loop of wire mounted on a vertical shaft and rotated in a region of uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of rotation.
71.

The magnetic field between the poles of a horseshoe electromagnet is uniform and has a cylindrical symmetry about an axis from the middle of the South Pole to the middle of the North Pole. The magnitude of the magnetic field changes as a rate of dB/dt due to the changing current through the electromagnet. Determine the electric field at a distance r from the center.

72.

A long solenoid of radius a with n turns per unit length is carrying a time-dependent current I(t)=I0sin(ωt)I(t)=I0sin(ωt), where I0I0 and ωω are constants. The solenoid is surrounded by a wire of resistance R that has two circular loops of radius b with b>ab>a (see the following figure). Find the magnitude and direction of current induced in the outer loops at time t=0t=0.

Figure shows a long solenoid of radius a which is surrounded by a wire of resistance R that has two circular loops of larger radius b.
73.

A 120-V, series-wound dc motor draws 0.50 A from its power source when operating at full speed, and it draws 2.0 A when it starts. The resistance of the armature coils is 10Ω10Ω. (a) What is the resistance of the field coils? (b) What is the back emf of the motor when it is running at full speed? (c) The motor operates at a different speed and draws 1.0 A from the source. What is the back emf in this case?

74.

The armature and field coils of a series-wound motor have a total resistance of 3.0Ω3.0Ω. When connected to a 120-V source and running at normal speed, the motor draws 4.0 A. (a) How large is the back emf? (b) What current will the motor draw just after it is turned on? Can you suggest a way to avoid this large initial current?

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