### Summary

### 10.1 Electromotive Force

- All voltage sources have two fundamental parts: a source of electrical energy that has a characteristic electromotive force (emf), and an internal resistance
*r*. The emf is the work done per charge to keep the potential difference of a source constant. The emf is equal to the potential difference across the terminals when no current is flowing. The internal resistance*r*of a voltage source affects the output voltage when a current flows. - The voltage output of a device is called its terminal voltage ${V}_{\text{terminal}}$ and is given by ${V}_{\text{terminal}}=\epsilon -Ir$, where
*I*is the electric current and is positive when flowing away from the positive terminal of the voltage source and*r*is the internal resistance.

### 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel

- The equivalent resistance of an electrical circuit with resistors wired in a series is the sum of the individual resistances: ${R}_{\text{s}}={R}_{1}+{R}_{2}+{R}_{3}+\text{\cdots}={\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{N}{R}_{i}}$.
- Each resistor in a series circuit has the same amount of current flowing through it.
- The potential drop, or power dissipation, across each individual resistor in a series is different, and their combined total is the power source input.
- The equivalent resistance of an electrical circuit with resistors wired in parallel is less than the lowest resistance of any of the components and can be determined using the formula

$${R}_{\text{eq}}={\left(\frac{1}{{R}_{1}}+\frac{1}{{R}_{2}}+\frac{1}{{R}_{3}}+\text{\cdots}\right)}^{\mathrm{-1}}={\left({\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{N}\frac{1}{{R}_{i}}}\right)}^{\mathrm{-1}}.$$ - Each resistor in a parallel circuit has the same full voltage of the source applied to it.
- The current flowing through each resistor in a parallel circuit is different, depending on the resistance.
- If a more complex connection of resistors is a combination of series and parallel, it can be reduced to a single equivalent resistance by identifying its various parts as series or parallel, reducing each to its equivalent, and continuing until a single resistance is eventually reached.

### 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules

- Kirchhoff’s rules can be used to analyze any circuit, simple or complex. The simpler series and parallel connection rules are special cases of Kirchhoff’s rules.
- Kirchhoff’s first rule, also known as the junction rule, applies to the charge to a junction. Current is the flow of charge; thus, whatever charge flows into the junction must flow out.
- Kirchhoff’s second rule, also known as the loop rule, states that the voltage drop around a loop is zero.
- When calculating potential and current using Kirchhoff’s rules, a set of conventions must be followed for determining the correct signs of various terms.
- When multiple voltage sources are in series, their internal resistances add together and their emfs add together to get the total values.
- When multiple voltage sources are in parallel, their internal resistances combine to an equivalent resistance that is less than the individual resistance and provides a higher current than a single cell.
- Solar cells can be wired in series or parallel to provide increased voltage or current, respectively.

### 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments

- Voltmeters measure voltage, and ammeters measure current. Analog meters are based on the combination of a resistor and a galvanometer, a device that gives an analog reading of current or voltage. Digital meters are based on analog-to-digital converters and provide a discrete or digital measurement of the current or voltage.
- A voltmeter is placed in parallel with the voltage source to receive full voltage and must have a large resistance to limit its effect on the circuit.
- An ammeter is placed in series to get the full current flowing through a branch and must have a small resistance to limit its effect on the circuit.
- Standard voltmeters and ammeters alter the circuit they are connected to and are thus limited in accuracy.
- Ohmmeters are used to measure resistance. The component in which the resistance is to be measured should be isolated (removed) from the circuit.

### 10.5 RC Circuits

- An
*RC*circuit is one that has both a resistor and a capacitor. - The time constant $\tau $ for an
*RC*circuit is $\tau =RC.$ - When an initially uncharged $(q=0\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{at}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t=0)$ capacitor in series with a resistor is charged by a dc voltage source, the capacitor asymptotically approaches the maximum charge.
- As the charge on the capacitor increases, the current exponentially decreases from the initial current: ${I}_{0}=\epsilon \text{/}R.$
- If a capacitor with an initial charge
*Q*is discharged through a resistor starting at $t=0$, then its charge decreases exponentially. The current flows in the opposite direction, compared to when it charges, and the magnitude of the charge decreases with time.

### 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety

- The two types of electric hazards are thermal (excessive power) and shock (current through a person). Electrical safety systems and devices are employed to prevent thermal and shock hazards.
- Shock severity is determined by current, path, duration, and ac frequency.
- Circuit breakers and fuses interrupt excessive currents to prevent thermal hazards.
- The three-wire system guards against thermal and shock hazards, utilizing live/hot, neutral, and ground wires, and grounding the neutral wire and case of the appliance.
- A ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) prevents shock by detecting the loss of current to unintentional paths.