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University Physics Volume 2

Additional Problems

University Physics Volume 2Additional Problems
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Additional Problems

67.

A circuit contains a D cell battery, a switch, a 20-Ω20-Ω resistor, and four 20-mF capacitors connected in series. (a) What is the equivalent capacitance of the circuit? (b) What is the RC time constant? (c) How long before the current decreases to 50%50% of the initial value once the switch is closed?

68.

A circuit contains a D-cell battery, a switch, a 20-Ω20-Ω resistor, and three 20-mF capacitors. The capacitors are connected in parallel, and the parallel connection of capacitors are connected in series with the switch, the resistor and the battery. (a) What is the equivalent capacitance of the circuit? (b) What is the RC time constant? (c) How long before the current decreases to 50%50% of the initial value once the switch is closed?

69.

Consider the circuit below. The battery has an emf of ε=30.00Vε=30.00V and an internal resistance of r=1.00Ω.r=1.00Ω. (a) Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the current out of the battery. (b) Find the current through each resistor. (c) Find the potential drop across each resistor. (d) Find the power dissipated by each resistor. (e) Find the total power supplied by the batteries.

The figure shows positive terminal of voltage source of 30 V and internal resistance 1 Ω connected in series to two sets of parallel resistors. The first set has R subscript 1 of 9 Ω and R subscript 2 of 18 Ω. The second has R subscript 3 of 10 Ω and R subscript 4 of 10 Ω. The sets are connected in series to resistor R subscript 5 of 8 Ω.
70.

A homemade capacitor is constructed of 2 sheets of aluminum foil with an area of 2.00 square meters, separated by paper, 0.05 mm thick, of the same area and a dielectric constant of 3.7. The homemade capacitor is connected in series with a 100.00-Ω100.00-Ω resistor, a switch, and a 6.00-V voltage source. (a) What is the RC time constant of the circuit? (b) What is the initial current through the circuit, when the switch is closed? (c) How long does it take the current to reach one third of its initial value?

71.

A student makes a homemade resistor from a graphite pencil 5.00 cm long, where the graphite is 0.05 mm in diameter. The resistivity of the graphite is ρ=1.38×10−5Ω/mρ=1.38×10−5Ω/m. The homemade resistor is place in series with a switch, a 10.00-mF capacitor and a 0.50-V power source. (a) What is the RC time constant of the circuit? (b) What is the potential drop across the pencil 1.00 s after the switch is closed?

72.

The rather simple circuit shown below is known as a voltage divider. The symbol consisting of three horizontal lines is represents “ground” and can be defined as the point where the potential is zero. The voltage divider is widely used in circuits and a single voltage source can be used to provide reduced voltage to a load resistor as shown in the second part of the figure. (a) What is the output voltage VoutVout of circuit (a) in terms of R1,R2,andVin?R1,R2,andVin? (b) What is the output voltage VoutVout of circuit (b) in terms of R1,R2,RL,andVin?R1,R2,RL,andVin?

Part a shows positive terminal of voltage source V subscript in connected in series to resistors R subscript 1 and R subscript 2. The negative terminal of the source is grounded and V subscript out is between the two resistors. Part b shows the same circuit as part a but with V subscript out connected to ground through resistor R subscript L.
73.

Three 300-Ω300-Ω resistors are connect in series with an AAA battery with a rating of 3 AmpHours. (a) How long can the battery supply the resistors with power? (b) If the resistors are connected in parallel, how long can the battery last?

74.

Consider a circuit that consists of a real battery with an emf εε and an internal resistance of r connected to a variable resistor R. (a) In order for the terminal voltage of the battery to be equal to the emf of the battery, what should the resistance of the variable resistor be adjusted to? (b) In order to get the maximum current from the battery, what should the resistance variable resistor be adjusted to? (c) In order for the maximum power output of the battery to be reached, what should the resistance of the variable resistor be set to?

75.

Consider the circuit shown below. What is the energy stored in each capacitor after the switch has been closed for a very long time?

The positive terminal of voltage source V of 12 V is connected to an open switch. The other end of the open switch is connected to resistor R subscript 1 of 100 Ω which is connected to two parallel branches. The first branch has capacitor C subscript 1 of 10 mF and R subscript 2 of 100 Ω. The second branch has R subscript 3 of 100 Ω and C subscript 2 of 4.7 mF.
76.

Consider a circuit consisting of a battery with an emf εε and an internal resistance of r connected in series with a resistor R and a capacitor C. Show that the total energy supplied by the battery while charging the battery is equal to ε2Cε2C.

77.

Consider the circuit shown below. The terminal voltages of the batteries are shown. (a) Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the current out of the battery. (b) Find the current through each resistor. (c) Find the potential drop across each resistor. (d) Find the power dissipated by each resistor. (e) Find the total power supplied by the batteries.

The figure shows two series voltage sources of 12 V each with upward negative terminals connected to four resistors. The sources are connected in series to resistor R subscript 1 of 14 Ω connected in series to two parallel resistors, R subscript 2 of 9 Ω and R subscript 3 of 18 Ω connected in series to resistor R subscript 4 of 4 Ω.
78.

Consider the circuit shown below. (a) What is the terminal voltage of the battery? (b) What is the potential drop across resistor R2R2?

The negative terminal of voltage source V is connected to two parallel branches, one with resistor R subscript 1 of 40 Ω with downward current I subscript 1 of 50 mA and second with R subscript 2 of 5 Ω in series with R subscript 3 of 15 Ω.
79.

Consider the circuit shown below. (a)Determine the equivalent resistance and the current from the battery with switch S1S1 open. (b) Determine the equivalent resistance and the current from the battery with switch S1S1 closed.

The negative terminal of voltage source of 12 V is connected to two parallel branches, one with resistor R subscript 1 of 8 Ω in series with resistor R subscript 4 of 8 Ω and second with R subscript 2 of 8 Ω in series with R subscript 3 of 8 Ω. The branches are connected together to resistor R subscript 5 of 4 Ω. An open switch S connects the two branches in the middle.
80.

Two resistors, one having a resistance of 145Ω145Ω, are connected in parallel to produce a total resistance of 150Ω150Ω. (a) What is the value of the second resistance? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumptions are unreasonable or inconsistent?

81.

Two resistors, one having a resistance of 900kΩ,900kΩ, are connected in series to produce a total resistance of 0.500MΩ0.500MΩ. (a) What is the value of the second resistance? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which assumptions are unreasonable or inconsistent?

82.

Apply the junction rule at point a shown below.

The figure shows a circuit with three horizontal branches and two vertical branches. The first horizontal branch has voltage source ε subscript 1 of 24 V and internal resistance 0.1 Ω with right positive terminal. The second horizontal branch has voltage source ε subscript 2 of 48 V and internal resistance 0.5 Ω with right positive terminal and resistor R subscript 2 of 40 Ω with right current I subscript 2. The third horizontal branch has voltage source ε subscript 3 of 6 V and internal resistance 0.05 Ω with left positive terminal. The first and second branches are connected on the left through resistor R subscript 1 of 5 Ω with upward current I subscript 1 and on the right through R subscript 5 of 20 Ω. The second and third branch are connected on the left through resistor R subscript 3 of 78 Ω with upward current I subscript 3 and on the right through voltage source ε subscript 4 of 36 V and internal resistance 0.2 Ω with upward positive terminal.
83.

Apply the loop rule to Loop akledcba in the preceding problem.

84.

Find the currents flowing in the circuit in the preceding problem. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy: Series and Parallel Resistors.

85.

Consider the circuit shown below. (a) Find the current through each resistor. (b) Check the calculations by analyzing the power in the circuit.

The positive terminal of voltage source of 20 V and internal resistance 5 Ω is connected to two parallel branches. The first branch has resistors R subscript 1 of 15 Ω and R subscript 3 of 10 Ω. The second branch has resistors R subscript 2 of 10 Ω and R subscript 4 of 15 Ω. The two branches are connected in the middle using resistor R subscript 5 of 5 Ω.
86.

A flashing lamp in a Christmas earring is based on an RC discharge of a capacitor through its resistance. The effective duration of the flash is 0.250 s, during which it produces an average 0.500 W from an average 3.00 V. (a) What energy does it dissipate? (b) How much charge moves through the lamp? (c) Find the capacitance. (d) What is the resistance of the lamp? (Since average values are given for some quantities, the shape of the pulse profile is not needed.)

87.

A 160-μF160-μF capacitor charged to 450 V is discharged through a 31.2-kΩ31.2-kΩ resistor. (a) Find the time constant. (b) Calculate the temperature increase of the resistor, given that its mass is 2.50 g and its specific heat is 1.67kJ/kg·°C,1.67kJ/kg·°C, noting that most of the thermal energy is retained in the short time of the discharge. (c) Calculate the new resistance, assuming it is pure carbon. (d) Does this change in resistance seem significant?

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