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University Physics Volume 1

Additional Problems

University Physics Volume 1Additional Problems
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Additional Problems

69.

A massless spring with force constant k=200N/mk=200N/m hangs from the ceiling. A 2.0-kg block is attached to the free end of the spring and released. If the block falls 17 cm before starting back upwards, how much work is done by friction during its descent?

70.

A particle of mass 2.0 kg moves under the influence of the force F(x)=(−5x2+7x)N.F(x)=(−5x2+7x)N. Suppose a frictional force also acts on the particle. If the particle’s speed when it starts at x=−4.0mx=−4.0m is 0.0 m/s and when it arrives at x=4.0mx=4.0m is 9.0 m/s, how much work is done on it by the frictional force between x=−4.0mx=−4.0m and x=4.0m?x=4.0m?

71.

Block 2 shown below slides along a frictionless table as block 1 falls. Both blocks are attached by a frictionless pulley. Find the speed of the blocks after they have each moved 2.0 m. Assume that they start at rest and that the pulley has negligible mass. Use m1=2.0kgm1=2.0kg and m2=4.0kg.m2=4.0kg.

A block, labeled as block 1, is suspended by a string that goes up, over a pulley, bends 90 degrees to the left, and connects to another block, labeled as block 2. Block 2 is sliding to the right on a horizontal surface. Block 1 is not in contact with any surface and is moving downward.
72.

A body of mass m and negligible size starts from rest and slides down the surface of a frictionless solid sphere of radius R. (See below.) Prove that the body leaves the sphere when θ=cos−1(2/3).θ=cos−1(2/3).

A sphere of radius R is shown. A block is shown at two locations on the surface of the sphere and moving clockwise. It is shown at the top, and at an angle of theta measured clockwise from the vertical.
73.

A mysterious force acts on all particles along a particular line and always points towards a particular point P on the line. The magnitude of the force on a particle increases as the cube of the distance from that point; that is Fr3Fr3, if the distance from P to the position of the particle is r. Let b be the proportionality constant, and write the magnitude of the force as F=br3F=br3. Find the potential energy of a particle subjected to this force when the particle is at a distance D from P, assuming the potential energy to be zero when the particle is at P.

74.

An object of mass 10 kg is released at point A, slides to the bottom of the 30°30° incline, then collides with a horizontal massless spring, compressing it a maximum distance of 0.75 m. (See below.) The spring constant is 500 M/m, the height of the incline is 2.0 m, and the horizontal surface is frictionless. (a) What is the speed of the object at the bottom of the incline? (b) What is the work of friction on the object while it is on the incline? (c) The spring recoils and sends the object back toward the incline. What is the speed of the object when it reaches the base of the incline? (d) What vertical distance does it move back up the incline?

A block is shown at the top of a downward sloping ramp. The ramp makes an angle of 30 degrees with the horizontal. The block is a vertical distance of 2.0 meters above the ground. To the right of the ramp, on the horizontal ground, is a  horizontal spring. The far end of the spring is attached to a wall.
75.

Shown below is a small ball of mass m attached to a string of length a. A small peg is located a distance h below the point where the string is supported. If the ball is released when the string is horizontal, show that h must be greater than 3a/5 if the ball is to swing completely around the peg.

A small ball is shown attached to a string of length a. A small peg is located a distance h below the point where the string is supported. The ball is released when the string is horizontal  and swings in a circular arc.
76.

A block leaves a frictionless inclined surface horizontally after dropping off by a height h. Find the horizontal distance D where it will land on the floor, in terms of h, H, and g.

A block is shown at rest at the top of a ramp, a vertical distance h above a horizontal platform. The platform is a distance H above the floor. The block is shows to be moving horizontally to the right with speed v on the platform and to land on the floor a horizontal distance D from where it drops off the platform.
77.

A block of mass m, after sliding down a frictionless incline, strikes another block of mass M that is attached to a spring of spring constant k (see below). The blocks stick together upon impact and travel together. (a) Find the compression of the spring in terms of m, M, h, g, and k when the combination comes to rest. Hint: The speed of the combined blocks m+M(v2)m+M(v2) is based on the speed of block m just prior to the collision with the block M (v1) based on the equation v2=(m/m)+M(v1)v2=(m/m)+M(v1). This will be discussed further in the chapter on Linear Momentum and Collisions. (b) The loss of kinetic energy as a result of the bonding of the two masses upon impact is stored in the so-called binding energy of the two masses. Calculate the binding energy.

A block of mass m is shown at the top of a downward sloping ramp. The block is a vertical distance h above the ground and is at rest (v=0.) To the right of the ramp, on the horizontal ground, is a mass M attached to  a horizontal spring. The far end of the spring is attached to a wall.
78.

A block of mass 300 g is attached to a spring of spring constant 100 N/m. The other end of the spring is attached to a support while the block rests on a smooth horizontal table and can slide freely without any friction. The block is pushed horizontally till the spring compresses by 12 cm, and then the block is released from rest. (a) How much potential energy was stored in the block-spring support system when the block was just released? (b) Determine the speed of the block when it crosses the point when the spring is neither compressed nor stretched. (c) Determine the speed of the block when it has traveled a distance of 20 cm from where it was released.

79.

Consider a block of mass 0.200 kg attached to a spring of spring constant 100 N/m. The block is placed on a frictionless table, and the other end of the spring is attached to the wall so that the spring is level with the table. The block is then pushed in so that the spring is compressed by 10.0 cm. Find the speed of the block as it crosses (a) the point when the spring is not stretched, (b) 5.00 cm to the left of point in (a), and (c) 5.00 cm to the right of point in (a).

80.

A skier starts from rest and slides downhill. What will be the speed of the skier if he drops by 20 meters in vertical height? Ignore any air resistance (which will, in reality, be quite a lot), and any friction between the skis and the snow.

81.

Repeat the preceding problem, but this time, suppose that the work done by air resistance cannot be ignored. Let the work done by the air resistance when the skier goes from A to B along the given hilly path be −2000 J. The work done by air resistance is negative since the air resistance acts in the opposite direction to the displacement. Supposing the mass of the skier is 50 kg, what is the speed of the skier at point B?

82.

Two bodies are interacting by a conservative force. Show that the mechanical energy of an isolated system consisting of two bodies interacting with a conservative force is conserved. (Hint: Start by using Newton’s third law and the definition of work to find the work done on each body by the conservative force.)

83.

In an amusement park, a car rolls in a track as shown below. Find the speed of the car at A, B, and C. Note that the work done by the rolling friction is zero since the displacement of the point at which the rolling friction acts on the tires is momentarily at rest and therefore has a zero displacement.

A roller coaster track with three hills is shown. The first hill is the tallest at 50 meters above the ground, the second is the smallest, and the third hill is of intermediate height at 40 meters above the ground. The car starts with v = 0 at the top of the first hill. Point A is the low point between the second and third hill, 20 meters above the ground. Point B is at the top of the third hill, 40 meters above the ground. Point C is at the ground near the end of the track.
84.

A 200-g steel ball is tied to a 2.00-m “massless” string and hung from the ceiling to make a pendulum, and then, the ball is brought to a position making a 30°30° angle with the vertical direction and released from rest. Ignoring the effects of the air resistance, find the speed of the ball when the string (a) is vertically down, (b) makes an angle of 20°20° with the vertical and (c) makes an angle of 10°10° with the vertical.

85.

A 300 g hockey puck is shot across an ice-covered pond. Before the hockey puck was hit, the puck was at rest. After the hit, the puck has a speed of 40 m/s. The puck comes to rest after going a distance of 30 m. (a) Describe how the energy of the puck changes over time, giving the numerical values of any work or energy involved. (b) Find the magnitude of the net friction force.

86.

A projectile of mass 2 kg is fired with a speed of 20 m/s at an angle of 30°30° with respect to the horizontal. (a) Calculate the initial total energy of the projectile given that the reference point of zero gravitational potential energy at the launch position. (b) Calculate the kinetic energy at the highest vertical position of the projectile. (c) Calculate the gravitational potential energy at the highest vertical position. (d) Calculate the maximum height that the projectile reaches. Compare this result by solving the same problem using your knowledge of projectile motion.

87.

An artillery shell is fired at a target 200 m above the ground. When the shell is 100 m in the air, it has a speed of 100 m/s. What is its speed when it hits its target? Neglect air friction.

88.

How much energy is lost to a dissipative drag force if a 60-kg person falls at a constant speed for 15 meters?

89.

A box slides on a frictionless surface with a total energy of 50 J. It hits a spring and compresses the spring a distance of 25 cm from equilibrium. If the same box with the same initial energy slides on a rough surface, it only compresses the spring a distance of 15 cm, how much energy must have been lost by sliding on the rough surface?

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