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University Physics Volume 1

5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams

University Physics Volume 15.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of the section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the rules for drawing a free-body diagram
  • Construct free-body diagrams for different situations

The first step in describing and analyzing most phenomena in physics involves the careful drawing of a free-body diagram. Free-body diagrams have been used in examples throughout this chapter. Remember that a free-body diagram must only include the external forces acting on the body of interest. Once we have drawn an accurate free-body diagram, we can apply Newton’s first law if the body is in equilibrium (balanced forces; that is, Fnet=0Fnet=0) or Newton’s second law if the body is accelerating (unbalanced force; that is, Fnet0Fnet0).

In Forces, we gave a brief problem-solving strategy to help you understand free-body diagrams. Here, we add some details to the strategy that will help you in constructing these diagrams.

Problem-Solving Strategy: Constructing Free-Body Diagrams

Observe the following rules when constructing a free-body diagram:

  1. Draw the object under consideration; it does not have to be artistic. At first, you may want to draw a circle around the object of interest to be sure you focus on labeling the forces acting on the object. If you are treating the object as a particle (no size or shape and no rotation), represent the object as a point. We often place this point at the origin of an xy-coordinate system.
  2. Include all forces that act on the object, representing these forces as vectors. Consider the types of forces described in Common Forces—normal force, friction, tension, and spring force—as well as weight and applied force. Do not include the net force on the object. With the exception of gravity, all of the forces we have discussed require direct contact with the object. However, forces that the object exerts on its environment must not be included. We never include both forces of an action-reaction pair.
  3. Convert the free-body diagram into a more detailed diagram showing the x- and y-components of a given force (this is often helpful when solving a problem using Newton’s first or second law). In this case, place a squiggly line through the original vector to show that it is no longer in play—it has been replaced by its x- and y-components.
  4. If there are two or more objects, or bodies, in the problem, draw a separate free-body diagram for each object.

Note: If there is acceleration, we do not directly include it in the free-body diagram; however, it may help to indicate acceleration outside the free-body diagram. You can label it in a different color to indicate that it is separate from the free-body diagram.

Let’s apply the problem-solving strategy in drawing a free-body diagram for a sled. In Figure 5.31(a), a sled is pulled by force P at an angle of 30°30°. In part (b), we show a free-body diagram for this situation, as described by steps 1 and 2 of the problem-solving strategy. In part (c), we show all forces in terms of their x- and y-components, in keeping with step 3.

Figure a shows a sled of 15 kg. An arrow labeled P pointing right and up forms an angle of 30 degrees with the horizontal. Figure b is a free body diagram with P, N pointing up and w pointing down. Figure c is a free body diagram with P, N, w and two components of P: Px pointing right and Py pointing up.
Figure 5.31 (a) A moving sled is shown as (b) a free-body diagram and (c) a free-body diagram with force components.

Example 5.14

Two Blocks on an Inclined Plane Construct the free-body diagram for object A and object B in Figure 5.32.

Strategy We follow the four steps listed in the problem-solving strategy.

Solution We start by creating a diagram for the first object of interest. In Figure 5.32(a), object A is isolated (circled) and represented by a dot.

Figure a shows two objects on an inclined plane, sloping down to the left. Object A is on top of object B. A free body diagram shows T pointing right and up, parallel to the plane, N subscript BA pointing left and up, perpendicular to the plane, f subscript BA pointing left and down, parallel to the plane and w subscript A pointing vertically down. W subscript A is weight of block A, T is tension, N subscript BA is normal force exerted by B on A, f subscript BA is friction force exerted by B on A. Figure b shows the objects on the slope in the same manner. A free body diagram has f subscript B and f subscript AB pointing right and up, parallel to the slope, N subscript B pointing left and up perpendicular to the slope, w subscript B pointing vertically down and N subscript AB pointing down and right, perpendicular to the slope. W subscript B is weight of block B, N subscript AB is normal force exerted by A on B, N subscript B is normal force exerted by the incline plane on B. f subscript AB is friction force exerted by A on B. f subscript B is friction force exerted by the incline plane on B.
Figure 5.32 (a) The free-body diagram for isolated object A. (b) The free-body diagram for isolated object B. Comparing the two drawings, we see that friction acts in the opposite direction in the two figures. Because object A experiences a force that tends to pull it to the right, friction must act to the left. Because object B experiences a component of its weight that pulls it to the left, down the incline, the friction force must oppose it and act up the ramp. Friction always acts opposite the intended direction of motion.

We now include any force that acts on the body. Here, no applied force is present. The weight of the object acts as a force pointing vertically downward, and the presence of the cord indicates a force of tension pointing away from the object. Object A has one interface and hence experiences a normal force, directed away from the interface. The source of this force is object B, and this normal force is labeled accordingly. Since object B has a tendency to slide down, object A has a tendency to slide up with respect to the interface, so the friction fBAfBA is directed downward parallel to the inclined plane.

As noted in step 4 of the problem-solving strategy, we then construct the free-body diagram in Figure 5.32(b) using the same approach. Object B experiences two normal forces and two friction forces due to the presence of two contact surfaces. The interface with the inclined plane exerts external forces of NBNB and fBfB, and the interface with object B exerts the normal force NABNAB and friction fABfAB; NABNAB is directed away from object B, and fABfAB is opposing the tendency of the relative motion of object B with respect to object A.

Significance The object under consideration in each part of this problem was circled in gray. When you are first learning how to draw free-body diagrams, you will find it helpful to circle the object before deciding what forces are acting on that particular object. This focuses your attention, preventing you from considering forces that are not acting on the body.

Example 5.15

Two Blocks in Contact A force is applied to two blocks in contact, as shown.

Strategy Draw a free-body diagram for each block. Be sure to consider Newton’s third law at the interface where the two blocks touch.

Two squares are shown in contact with each other. The left one is smaller and is labeled m1. The right one is bigger and is labeled m2. An arrow pointing right towards m1 is labeled F.

Solution

Figure shows two free body diagrams. The first one shows arrow A subscript 21 pointing left and arrow F pointing right. The second one shows arrow A 12 pointing right. Both diagrams also have arrows pointing up and down.

Significance A21A21 is the action force of block 2 on block 1. A12A12 is the reaction force of block 1 on block 2. We use these free-body diagrams in Applications of Newton’s Laws.

Example 5.16

Block on the Table (Coupled Blocks) A block rests on the table, as shown. A light rope is attached to it and runs over a pulley. The other end of the rope is attached to a second block. The two blocks are said to be coupled. Block m2m2 exerts a force due to its weight, which causes the system (two blocks and a string) to accelerate.

Strategy We assume that the string has no mass so that we do not have to consider it as a separate object. Draw a free-body diagram for each block.

Figure shows block m1 placed on a table. A string attached to it runs over a pulley and down the right side of the table. A block m2 is suspended from it. An arrow a1 points right and an arrow a2 points down.

Solution

Figure a shows block m1. An arrow labeled N point upwards from it, an arrow m1g points downwards and an arrow T points right. Figure b shows block m2. An arrow T points upwards from it and an arrow m2g points downwards.

SignificanceEach block accelerates (notice the labels shown for a1a1 and a2a2); however, assuming the string remains taut, the magnitudes of acceleration are equal. Thus, we have |a1|=|a2||a1|=|a2|. If we were to continue solving the problem, we could simply call the acceleration aa. Also, we use two free-body diagrams because we are usually finding tension T, which may require us to use a system of two equations in this type of problem. The tension is the same on both m1andm2m1andm2.

Check Your Understanding 5.10

(a) Draw the free-body diagram for the situation shown. (b) Redraw it showing components; use x-axes parallel to the two ramps.

Two carts are tied with a rope which goes over a pulley on top of a hill. Each cart rests on one  slope of the hill on either side of the pulley. The cart on the left is labeled m1 and the one on the right is labeled m2.

Interactive

View this simulation to predict, qualitatively, how an external force will affect the speed and direction of an object’s motion. Explain the effects with the help of a free-body diagram. Use free-body diagrams to draw position, velocity, acceleration, and force graphs, and vice versa. Explain how the graphs relate to one another. Given a scenario or a graph, sketch all four graphs.

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