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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of the section, you will be able to:
  • Distinguish between kinematics and dynamics
  • Understand the definition of force
  • Identify simple free-body diagrams
  • Define the SI unit of force, the newton
  • Describe force as a vector

The study of motion is called kinematics, but kinematics only describes the way objects move—their velocity and their acceleration. Dynamics is the study of how forces affect the motion of objects and systems. It considers the causes of motion of objects and systems of interest, where a system is anything being analyzed. The foundation of dynamics are the laws of motion stated by Isaac Newton (1642–1727). These laws provide an example of the breadth and simplicity of principles under which nature functions. They are also universal laws in that they apply to situations on Earth and in space.

Newton’s laws of motion were just one part of the monumental work that has made him legendary (Figure 5.2). The development of Newton’s laws marks the transition from the Renaissance to the modern era. Not until the advent of modern physics was it discovered that Newton’s laws produce a good description of motion only when the objects are moving at speeds much less than the speed of light and when those objects are larger than the size of most molecules (about 10−910−9 m in diameter). These constraints define the realm of Newtonian mechanics. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein (1879–1955) developed the theory of relativity and, along with many other scientists, quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics does not have the constraints present in Newtonian physics. All of the situations we consider in this chapter, and all those preceding the introduction of relativity in Relativity, are in the realm of Newtonian physics.

A portrait of Isaac Newton.
Figure 5.2 Isaac Newton (1642–1727) published his amazing work, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, in 1687. It proposed scientific laws that still apply today to describe the motion of objects (the laws of motion). Newton also discovered the law of gravity, invented calculus, and made great contributions to the theories of light and color.

Working Definition of Force

Dynamics is the study of the forces that cause objects and systems to move. To understand this, we need a working definition of force. An intuitive definition of force—that is, a push or a pull—is a good place to start. We know that a push or a pull has both magnitude and direction (therefore, it is a vector quantity), so we can define force as the push or pull on an object with a specific magnitude and direction. Force can be represented by vectors or expressed as a multiple of a standard force.

The push or pull on an object can vary considerably in either magnitude or direction. For example, a cannon exerts a strong force on a cannonball that is launched into the air. In contrast, Earth exerts only a tiny downward pull on a flea. Our everyday experiences also give us a good idea of how multiple forces add. If two people push in different directions on a third person, as illustrated in Figure 5.3, we might expect the total force to be in the direction shown. Since force is a vector, it adds just like other vectors. Forces, like other vectors, are represented by arrows and can be added using the familiar head-to-tail method or trigonometric methods. These ideas were developed in Vectors.

Figure a shows two people pushing a third using forces F1 and F2, which are perpendicular to each other. Another figure shows vector addition, where F1 and F2 are placed head to tail, and the resultant vector F total forms the hypotenuse of the triangle. Figure b shows a free body diagram where F1 and F2 originate from the same point source.
Figure 5.3 (a) An overhead view of two ice skaters pushing on a third skater. Forces are vectors and add like other vectors, so the total force on the third skater is in the direction shown. (b) A free-body diagram representing the forces acting on the third skater.

Figure 5.3(b) is our first example of a free-body diagram, which is a sketch showing all external forces acting on an object or system. The object or system is represented by a single isolated point (or free body), and only those forces acting on it that originate outside of the object or system—that is, external forces—are shown. (These forces are the only ones shown because only external forces acting on the free body affect its motion. We can ignore any internal forces within the body.) The forces are represented by vectors extending outward from the free body.

Free-body diagrams are useful in analyzing forces acting on an object or system, and are employed extensively in the study and application of Newton’s laws of motion. You will see them throughout this text and in all your studies of physics. The following steps briefly explain how a free-body diagram is created; we examine this strategy in more detail in Drawing Free-Body Diagrams.

Problem-Solving Strategy: Drawing Free-Body Diagrams

  1. Draw the object under consideration. If you are treating the object as a particle, represent the object as a point. Place this point at the origin of an xy-coordinate system.
  2. Include all forces that act on the object, representing these forces as vectors. However, do not include the net force on the object or the forces that the object exerts on its environment.
  3. Resolve all force vectors into x- and y-components.
  4. Draw a separate free-body diagram for each object in the problem.

We illustrate this strategy with two examples of free-body diagrams (Figure 5.4). The terms used in this figure are explained in more detail later in the chapter.

Figure a shows a box at rest on a horizontal surface. A free body diagram shows normal force vector pointing upwards and weight vector pointing downwards. Figure b shows a box on an inclined plane. Its free body diagram shows the weight vector pointing straight downwards, normal force vector pointing up, in a direction perpendicular to the plane and a friction force vector pointing up along the direction of the plane.
Figure 5.4 In these free-body diagrams, NN is the normal force, ww is the weight of the object, and ff is the friction.

The steps given here are sufficient to guide you in this important problem-solving strategy. The final section of this chapter explains in more detail how to draw free-body diagrams when working with the ideas presented in this chapter.

Development of the Force Concept

A quantitative definition of force can be based on some standard force, just as distance is measured in units relative to a standard length. One possibility is to stretch a spring a certain fixed distance (Figure 5.5) and use the force it exerts to pull itself back to its relaxed shape—called a restoring force—as a standard. The magnitude of all other forces can be considered as multiples of this standard unit of force. Many other possibilities exist for standard forces. Some alternative definitions of force will be given later in this chapter.

Figure a shows an undisturbed string of length x. Figure b shows the spring stretched by a distance delta x and a force F restore acting in the opposite direction. Figure c shows a spring scale. A hook attached to a spring is pulled in one direction. There are markings on the scale to show how much the spring has been stretched.
Figure 5.5 The force exerted by a stretched spring can be used as a standard unit of force. (a) This spring has a length x when undistorted. (b) When stretched a distance ΔxΔx, the spring exerts a restoring force Frestore,Frestore, which is reproducible. (c) A spring scale is one device that uses a spring to measure force. The force FrestoreFrestore is exerted on whatever is attached to the hook. Here, this force has a magnitude of six units of the force standard being employed.

Let’s analyze force more deeply. Suppose a physics student sits at a table, working diligently on his homework (Figure 5.6). What external forces act on him? Can we determine the origin of these forces?

Figure a shows a person sitting on a chair with his forearms resting on a table. Force C in the upward direction and W in the downward direction, both having equal magnitude, act along the line of his torso. Force T is in the upward direction near the person’s forearms. Force F is in the upward direction near the person’s feet. Figure b shows the free body-diagram of C and W.
Figure 5.6 (a) The forces acting on the student are due to the chair, the table, the floor, and Earth’s gravitational attraction. (b) In solving a problem involving the student, we may want to consider only the forces acting along the line running through his torso. A free-body diagram for this situation is shown.

In most situations, forces are grouped into two categories: contact forces and field forces. As you might guess, contact forces are due to direct physical contact between objects. For example, the student in Figure 5.6 experiences the contact forces CC, FF, and TT, which are exerted by the chair on his posterior, the floor on his feet, and the table on his forearms, respectively. Field forces, however, act without the necessity of physical contact between objects. They depend on the presence of a “field” in the region of space surrounding the body under consideration. Since the student is in Earth’s gravitational field, he feels a gravitational force ww; in other words, he has weight.

You can think of a field as a property of space that is detectable by the forces it exerts. Scientists think there are only four fundamental force fields in nature. These are the gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and weak fields (we consider these four forces in nature later in this text). As noted for ww in Figure 5.6, the gravitational field is responsible for the weight of a body. The forces of the electromagnetic field include those of static electricity and magnetism; they are also responsible for the attraction among atoms in bulk matter. Both the strong nuclear and the weak force fields are effective only over distances roughly equal to a length of scale no larger than an atomic nucleus (10−15m10−15m). Their range is so small that neither field has influence in the macroscopic world of Newtonian mechanics.

Contact forces are fundamentally electromagnetic. While the elbow of the student in Figure 5.6 is in contact with the tabletop, the atomic charges in his skin interact electromagnetically with the charges in the surface of the table. The net (total) result is the force TT. Similarly, when adhesive tape sticks to a piece of paper, the atoms of the tape are intermingled with those of the paper to cause a net electromagnetic force between the two objects. However, in the context of Newtonian mechanics, the electromagnetic origin of contact forces is not an important concern.

Vector Notation for Force

As previously discussed, force is a vector; it has both magnitude and direction. The SI unit of force is called the newton (abbreviated N), and 1 N is the force needed to accelerate an object with a mass of 1 kg at a rate of 1m/s21m/s2: 1N=1kg·m/s2.1N=1kg·m/s2. An easy way to remember the size of a newton is to imagine holding a small apple; it has a weight of about 1 N.

We can thus describe a two-dimensional force in the form F=ai^+bj^F=ai^+bj^ (the unit vectors i^andj^i^andj^ indicate the direction of these forces along the x-axis and the y-axis, respectively) and a three-dimensional force in the form F=ai^+bj^+ck^.F=ai^+bj^+ck^. In Figure 5.3, let’s suppose that ice skater 1, on the left side of the figure, pushes horizontally with a force of 30.0 N to the right; we represent this as F1=30.0i^N.F1=30.0i^N. Similarly, if ice skater 2 pushes with a force of 40.0 N in the positive vertical direction shown, we would write F2=40.0j^N.F2=40.0j^N. The resultant of the two forces causes a mass to accelerate—in this case, the third ice skater. This resultant is called the net external force FnetFnet and is found by taking the vector sum of all external forces acting on an object or system (thus, we can also represent net external force as FF):

Fnet=F=F1+F2+Fnet=F=F1+F2+
(5.1)

This equation can be extended to any number of forces.

In this example, we have Fnet=F=F1+F2=30.0i^+40.0j^NFnet=F=F1+F2=30.0i^+40.0j^N. The hypotenuse of the triangle shown in Figure 5.3 is the resultant force, or net force. It is a vector. To find its magnitude (the size of the vector, without regard to direction), we use the rule given in Vectors, taking the square root of the sum of the squares of the components:

Fnet=(30.0N)2+(40.0N)2=50.0N.Fnet=(30.0N)2+(40.0N)2=50.0N.

The direction is given by

θ=tan−1(F2F1)=tan−1(40.030.0)=53.1°,θ=tan−1(F2F1)=tan−1(40.030.0)=53.1°,

measured from the positive x-axis, as shown in the free-body diagram in Figure 5.3(b).

Let’s suppose the ice skaters now push the third ice skater with F1=3.0i^+8.0j^NF1=3.0i^+8.0j^N and F2=5.0i^+4.0j^NF2=5.0i^+4.0j^N. What is the resultant of these two forces? We must recognize that force is a vector; therefore, we must add using the rules for vector addition:

Fnet=F1+F2=(3.0i^+8.0j^)+(5.0i^+4.0j^)=8.0i^+12j^NFnet=F1+F2=(3.0i^+8.0j^)+(5.0i^+4.0j^)=8.0i^+12j^N
Check Your Understanding 5.1

Find the magnitude and direction of the net force in the ice skater example just given.

Interactive

View this interactive simulation to learn how to add vectors. Drag vectors onto a graph, change their length and angle, and sum them together. The magnitude, angle, and components of each vector can be displayed in several formats.

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