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University Physics Volume 1

Additional Problems

University Physics Volume 1Additional Problems
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Additional Problems

78.

A marble is rolling across the floor at a speed of 7.0 m/s when it starts up a plane inclined at 30°30° to the horizontal. (a) How far along the plane does the marble travel before coming to a rest? (b) How much time elapses while the marble moves up the plane?

79.

Repeat the preceding problem replacing the marble with a hollow sphere. Explain the new results.

80.

The mass of a hoop of radius 1.0 m is 6.0 kg. It rolls across a horizontal surface with a speed of 10.0 m/s. (a) How much work is required to stop the hoop? (b) If the hoop starts up a surface at 30°30° to the horizontal with a speed of 10.0 m/s, how far along the incline will it travel before stopping and rolling back down?

81.

Repeat the preceding problem for a hollow sphere of the same radius and mass and initial speed. Explain the differences in the results.

82.

A particle has mass 0.5 kg and is traveling along the line x=5.0mx=5.0m at 2.0 m/s in the positive y-direction. What is the particle’s angular momentum about the origin?

83.

A 4.0-kg particle moves in a circle of radius 2.0 m. The angular momentum of the particle varies in time according to l=5.0t2.l=5.0t2. (a) What is the torque on the particle about the center of the circle at t=3.4st=3.4s? (b) What is the angular velocity of the particle at t=3.4st=3.4s?

84.

A proton is accelerated in a cyclotron to 5.0×106m/s5.0×106m/s in 0.01 s. The proton follows a circular path. If the radius of the cyclotron is 0.5 km, (a) What is the angular momentum of the proton about the center at its maximum speed? (b) What is the torque on the proton about the center as it accelerates to maximum speed?

85.

(a) What is the angular momentum of the Moon in its orbit around Earth? (b) How does this angular momentum compare with the angular momentum of the Moon on its axis? Remember that the Moon keeps one side toward Earth at all times.

86.

A DVD is rotating at 500 rpm. What is the angular momentum of the DVD if has a radius of 6.0 cm and mass 20.0 g?

87.

A potter’s disk spins from rest up to 10 rev/s in 15 s. The disk has a mass 3.0 kg and radius 30.0 cm. What is the angular momentum of the disk at t=5s,t=10 st=5s,t=10 s?

88.

Suppose you start an antique car by exerting a force of 300 N on its crank for 0.250 s. What is the angular momentum given to the engine if the handle of the crank is 0.300 m from the pivot and the force is exerted to create maximum torque the entire time?

89.

A solid cylinder of mass 2.0 kg and radius 20 cm is rotating counterclockwise around a vertical axis through its center at 600 rev/min. A second solid cylinder of the same mass and radius is rotating clockwise around the same vertical axis at 900 rev/min. If the cylinders couple so that they rotate about the same vertical axis, what is the angular velocity of the combination?

90.

A boy stands at the center of a platform that is rotating without friction at 1.0 rev/s. The boy holds weights as far from his body as possible. At this position the total moment of inertia of the boy, platform, and weights is 5.0kg·m2.5.0kg·m2. The boy draws the weights in close to his body, thereby decreasing the total moment of inertia to 1.5kg·m2.1.5kg·m2. (a) What is the final angular velocity of the platform? (b) By how much does the rotational kinetic energy increase?

91.

Eight children, each of mass 40 kg, climb on a small merry-go-round. They position themselves evenly on the outer edge and join hands. The merry-go-round has a radius of 4.0 m and a moment of inertia 1000.0kg·m21000.0kg·m2. After the merry-go-round is given an angular velocity of 6.0 rev/min, the children walk inward and stop when they are 0.75 m from the axis of rotation. What is the new angular velocity of the merry-go-round? Assume there is negligible frictional torque on the structure.

92.

A thin meter stick of mass 150 g rotates around an axis perpendicular to the stick’s long axis at an angular velocity of 240 rev/min. What is the angular momentum of the stick if the rotation axis (a) passes through the center of the stick? (b) Passes through one end of the stick?

93.

A satellite in the shape of a sphere of mass 20,000 kg and radius 5.0 m is spinning about an axis through its center of mass. It has a rotation rate of 8.0 rev/s. Two antennas deploy in the plane of rotation extending from the center of mass of the satellite. Each antenna can be approximated as a rod has mass 200.0 kg and length 7.0 m. What is the new rotation rate of the satellite?

94.

A top has moment of inertia 3.2×10−4kg·m23.2×10−4kg·m2 and radius 4.0 cm from the center of mass to the pivot point. If it spins at 20.0 rev/s and is precessing, how many revolutions does it precess in 10.0 s?

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