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A-Beta (Aβ) fibers
nociceptive neurons that manage touch and vibration sensations
A-Delta (Aδ) fibers
nociceptive neurons that transmit pressure, mechanical deformation, and extreme temperature sensations
neurotransmitter responsible for cognitive functions, work on skeletal muscles, and ganglia
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
part of the HPA axis, is released and travels to the adrenal glands where it then triggers the release of cortisol
afferent pathway
part of the peripheral nervous system that brings sensory information to the brain
pair of small almond-shaped regions located anterior to the hippocampus and responsible for the formation and encoding of memories, especially those that are highly emotionally charged, such as trauma
located in the central nervous system and involved with building new synaptic connections and ensuring an appropriate chemical environment for the neuron
autonomic nervous system
regulated by the hypothalamus, manages involuntary homeostatic control over the body’s internal processes, like temperature, inclusive of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
long, narrow part of the neuron where impulses are conducted from the axon hillock to the axon terminus
axon terminus
end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters
basal ganglia
group of subcortical nuclei most often associated with managing motor control, involved with the formation of procedural memories
C fibers
nociceptive neurons that transmit burning pain, itch, and dull ache
cauda equina
collection of nerves at the terminus of the spinal cord
central nervous system (CNS)
comprises the brain and spinal cord
in the basal part of the brain between the cerebrum and the brain stem; responsible for balance, walking, standing, and measuring distance and timing
circadian cycle
24-hour homeostatic cycle regulated by the hypothalamus determined by light and dark patterns and internal regulatory functions
released in the wake of adrenocorticotropic hormone, and part of the HPA axis, is responsible for mobilizing glucose for energy, increasing protein metabolism, immune effects, and systemic anti-inflammatory effects
declarative memories
inclusive of episodic and semantic memories of personal events, facts, and experiences
extensions of a neuron from the soma that receive information from other neurons
central area of the brain located above the brainstem, including the epithalamus, thalamus, subthalamus, and hypothalamus, responsible for forming recognition-based memories
discontinuation syndrome
time-limited syndrome caused by sudden cessation or tapering too quickly of an antidepressant
monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for the management of mood states, attention and focus, motor control and regulation, sexual gratification, reward and motivation, and lactation
efferent pathway
response from the brain to the periphery
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
use of electrical currents under anesthesia to produce a seizure
neuropeptides that function as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones in the CNS
neuropeptides that function as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones in the CNS
innovative treatment derived from ketamine for treatment-resistant depression and major depressive disorder with suicidality
excitatory effects
promotion of an action potential between neurons by neurotransmitters
extrapyramidal side effects (EPS)
drug-induced movement disorders
made up of the cerebrum and diencephalon, responsible for higher-level cognitive function, emotions, and management of sensory information
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
major inhibitory neurotransmitter responsible for sensory transmission and learning and memory, decreasing all sensory impulses, including pain and cognition
glial cells
(also, microglia) provide structure, repair, and scaffolding for migration of the nerve cells
major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
growth hormone
(also, somatotropin) manages protein synthesis and growth during child development
made up of the pons, medulla, and cerebellum, responsible for the management of respiration, blood pressure, heart rate, muscle coordination, posture, and body position
part of the limbic system and responsible for encoding memories, learning, and perception of space
monoamine neurotransmitter that is responsible for management of awake states, homeostasis, appetite, and smooth muscle contractions
homeostatic process
sleep debt model, modulated by the amount of time that a person is awake or asleep
group of molecules that function to send signals to other cellular organisms in the human body
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
hormonal negative feedback loop that is released in the context of environmental stressors, purpose is to mobilize energy, immune function, and systemic anti-inflammatory responses
inhibitory effects
inhibition of an action potential by neurotransmitters
those that connect neurons primarily within the CNS
long-term potentiation
process of synaptic strengthening through signal increases in the neuron
medulla oblongata
connection between the brainstem and the spinal cord
melanocyte stimulating hormone
secreted from the hypothalamus, responsible for releasing melatonin from the pineal gland
responsible for initiating sleep during circadian cycles
made up of the mesencephalon, responsible for the management of vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake states, and temperature regulation
motor cortex
made up of the primary, premotor, and supplementary motor areas, is responsible for voluntary control over movement
motor neurons
those that take information away from the CNS to effector organs or skeletal muscle at neuromuscular junctions
myelin sheath
made up of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system or Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, it forms an insulating layer that allows for an action potential to travel successfully
nervous system
made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
neuromuscular junction
where muscle fibers and nerves connect
fundamental cell of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and transmitting electrical signals
chemical messenger that carries messages from one neuron to another
nerve cell endings distributed throughout the body that initiate pain sensation through afferent pathways
nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath
non-declarative memories
those that individuals cannot explicitly recollect consciously norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is one of the monoamines, responsible for flight or fight response, increase in blood pressure/heart rate/respirations, peripheral vasoconstriction, and focus and concentration
type of glial cell that maintains the myelin sheath in the central nervous system
when released, is responsible for uterine contraction and the stimulation of milk from mammary glands after pregnancy
pain modulation
response to pain
parasympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system that functions to conserve and store energy
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
contains all nerves outside the central nervous system
what a drug does to the body
what the human body does to a drug
premotor cortex
lies rostral to the primary motor cortex and responsible for managing coordinated motor responses
primary motor cortex
located along the precentral gyrus and responsible for generating efferent neuronal impulses down the spinal cord to manage movement
stimulated by the release of prolactin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, responsible for the stimulation of milk production during pregnancy
automatic brain function that eliminates unused synapses, allowing new growth
saltatory conduction
action potential conducted along the axon at the nodes of Ranvier
Schwann cells
type of glial cell in the peripheral nervous system that maintains the myelin sheath
neurotransmitter and a monoamine, responsible for the promotion of mood and sleep regulation, mitigation of pain, aggression and sexual behavior, stimulation of gastric secretion, and other hormonal behaviors
serotonin syndrome
potentially life-threatening drug-drug interaction that is caused when high levels of serotonin are built up in the body
side effects
undesirable effects of a medical treatment or drug
cell body of the neuron that contains a nucleus
somatic nervous system
part of the PNS that delivers conscious sensory (afferent) information to the CNS and a voluntary motor response (efferent)
stress diathesis model
theory that posits that there are genetic traits combined with certain environmental influences that create the potential for the expression of a mental health disorder
substantia nigra
prominent nucleus in the midbrain, contains a dopaminergic nucleus that manages motor control
sympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system that manages the fight or flight response
small space between neurons where chemical transmission occurs
synaptic growth
process by which neurons in the brain connect
telemental health
provision of mental health services though telephone or videoconferencing
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
released when stimulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, responsible for optimal thyroid functioning, which manages temperature regulation, mood states, and food metabolism
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
noninvasive treatment that consists of an electromagnetic coil being placed against a client’s head (over the prefrontal cortex) and delivering a magnetic pulse to stimulate nerve cells in the brain
also known as antidiuretic hormone, responsible for retaining water and maintaining blood pressure
virtual reality (VR)
computer generated two- or three-dimensional environment that contains scenes or objects that allow the user to immerse with a seemingly real surrounding

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