3.1 The Early Origins of Management
- Describe management in the ancient world.
We can track the concept of management from its development under the Sumerians. The Sumerians provided the concepts of writing and record keeping that allowed for an urban economy to develop, which in turn led to the establishment of small businesses. The Egyptians helped to pioneer the ideas of specialization of labor, span of control, and hierarchy of command. Sun Tzu developed subdivisions, various rankings of authority, and coordination. The Greeks and Romans built forerunners of the modern corporation and guilds.
3.2 The Italian Renaissance
- How did the Italian Renaissance affect the progression of management theory?
The Crusades and various travelers brought new knowledge from both the Muslim and Chinese societies. In addition, there was a rediscovery of trade throughout Europe. These factors led to the establishment of the Renaissance that took place initially in Italy. The development of the printing press saw a distribution of these ideas across Europe. The Renaissance saw a reemergence of trade. The Renaissance also saw the development of the idea of the corporation and double-entry accounting. In fact, some of the first multinational corporations have their genesis in the Italian Renaissance.
3.3 The Industrial Revolution
- How did the Industrial Revolution affect the progression of management theory?
The Industrial Revolution was a product of a combination of factors, including the spread of learning from the Italian Renaissance, the improvement of transportation, the Market Revolution, and technology. In addition, scholars such as Adam Smith provided support for the ideas of division of labor, specialization, and coordination within a corporation, allowing for the development of factories. This economic shifted created the need for managers.
3.4 Taylor-Made Management
- How did Frederick Winslow Taylor influence management theory, and how did efficiency in management affect current management theory?
Taylor was the man that added the scientific method to management. He developed the four principles of scientific management and the notion of time study. Henry Gantt developed his famous chart, which allowed managers to track what was done versus supposed to be done. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth added motion study to Taylor’s time management.
3.5 Administrative and Bureaucratic Management
- How do bureaucratic and administrative management complement scientific management?
Henri Fayol and Max Weber made notable contributions to the development of management thought. Fayol focused on top managers, and Weber focused on middle managers. Fayol’s administrative theory was the first general statement on management theory. He stressed the need for collective action and vision from top management. Weber developed the idea that organizations should be formalized and legalistic in their operations.
3.6 Human Relations Movement
- How did Elton Mayo influence management theory, and how did the human relations movement affect current management theory?
Elton Mayo noted the role of nonmonetary motivators and attitudes in terms of the workplace. Barnard developed the idea of the zone of indifference. Follett developed ways to resolve conflict without the use of compromise or domination.
3.7 Contingency and System Management
- How did contingency and systems management transform management thought?
Systems management developed the concept that management is an open system in that organizations interact with the environment to gain resources. Since organizations require resources from the environment, this constrains what managers can do. The contingency school explained that there were no universal laws in management, due to a wide variety of variables that influence relationships. Modern management is based on theory.