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14 principles of management
Created by Henri Fayol.
Adam Smith
Adam Smith proposed the ideas of division of labor, specialization, and coordination within a corporation.
Carl G. Barth
Carl G. Barth (1860–1939), mathematician, developed a slide rule for calculating how much steel to cut.
Chester Barnard
Chester Barnard (1886–1961) argued that the executive purpose was to gain resources from members within the organization by ensuring that they perform their jobs and that cooperation exists between various groups within the organization.
In a compromise, neither side gets what it wants. The best each side could get is what each can agree too.
Contingency school
The contingency school explained that there were no universal laws in management, due to a wide variety of variables that influence relationships and create unique situations, and that each situation required a different response.
In dominance, one dictates the terms of the arrangement.
Elton Mayo
Elton Mayo (1880–1949) researched, theorized, and developed human relations theory based on an experiment at the Hawthorne plant on how to manage workers and to improve production.
Five functions of management
Created by Henri Fayol: planning, organizing, staffing, controlling, and directing.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Their major contribution was motion studies.
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Taylor is known as the father of scientific management.
The Code of Hammurabi was a listing of 282 laws that regulated conduct on a wide variety of behaviors, including business dealings, personnel behavior, interpersonal relations, punishments and a wide variety of other outcomes.
Henri Fayol
Fayol’s administrative theory was the first general statement on management theory.
Henry Gantt
Henry Gantt (1861–1919) developed the Gantt chart, which allowed for the process of control to occur.
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution occurred between roughly 1760 and 1900 and saw the emergence of the modern factory.
In integration, both parties state their preferences and attempt to reach an agreement.
Italian Renaissance
The Italian Renaissance was a major leap of knowledge and learning that had economic and business implications.
Joan Woodward
A British scholar who did her work in the 1950s and 1960s. She argued that contingencies, such as technology, play a role in how much training workers should receive.
Mary Parker Follett
Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933) found a way to utilize the tenets of the human relations movement to solve some of the issues with scientific management.
Max Weber
Weber developed the idea that organizations should be formalized and legalistic in their operations.
Modern bureaucracy
Decisions should be made on a formal basis, rather than what a bureaucrat felt was correct. Weber stressed that knowledge, not birth circumstances, should be the basis of hiring and promotion within a bureaucracy.
Motion studies
Film studies of work.
Nebuchadnezzar (605 BC–c. 562 BC) was a pioneer in the development of incentives in that he gave greater rewards to workers who were productive.
Open system
An open system interacts with the environment to gain resources.
Sun Tzu
Sun Tzu developed subdivisions, various rankings of authority, and the use of colors as coordination between units.
Unity of command
Unity of command stresses that each worker should have only one supervisor.
Zone of indifference
Workers would comply with orders if they were indifferent to them. This does not mean they have to agree with the orders. Rather the zone of indifference suggests that workers need merely to be indifferent to an order to follow it.
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