Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index
EA1.

LO 9.1Prepare journal entries for the following transactions from Restaurant Depot.

Nov. 8 Customer Miles Shandy purchased 200 pans at $35 per pan, costing Restaurant Depot $21 per pan. Terms of the sale are 2/10, n/30, invoice dated November 8.
Nov. 17 Miles Shandy pays in full with cash for his purchase of November 8.
EA2.

LO 9.1Prepare journal entries for the following transactions from Cars Plus.

Oct. 18 Customer Angela Sosa purchased $132,980 worth of car parts with her Standard credit card. The cost to Cars Plus for the sale is $86,250. Standard credit card charges Cars Plus a fee of 4% of the sale.
Oct. 24 Standard remits payment to Cars Plus, less any fees.
EA3.

LO 9.1Consider the following transaction: On March 6, Fun Cards sells 540 card decks with a sales price of $7 per deck to Padma Singh. The cost to Fun Cards is $4 per deck. Prepare a journal entry under each of the following conditions. Assume MoneyPlus charges a 2% fee for each sales transaction using its card.

  1. Payment is made using a credit, in-house account.
  2. Payment is made using a MoneyPlus credit card.
EA4.

LO 9.2Window World extended credit to customer Nile Jenkins in the amount of $130,900 for his purchase of window treatments on April 2. Terms of the sale are n/150. The cost of the purchase to Window World is $56,200. On September 4, Window World determined that Nile Jenkins’s account was uncollectible and wrote off the debt. On December 3, Mr. Jenkins unexpectedly paid in full on his account. Record each Window World transaction with Nile Jenkins. In order to demonstrate the write-off and then subsequent collection of an account receivable, assume in this example that Window World rarely extends credit directly, so this transaction is permitted to use the direct write-off method. Remember, however, that in most cases the direct write-off method is not allowed.

EA5.

LO 9.2Millennium Associates records bad debt using the allowance, income statement method. They recorded $299,420 in accounts receivable for the year, and $773,270 in credit sales. The uncollectible percentage is 3.2%. On February 5, Millennium Associates identifies one uncollectible account from Molar Corp in the amount of $1,330. On April 15, Molar Corp unexpectedly pays its account in full. Record journal entries for the following.

  1. Year-end adjusting entry for 2017 bad debt
  2. February 5, 2018 identification entry
  3. Entry for payment on April 15, 2018
EA6.

LO 9.2Millennium Associates records bad debt using the allowance, balance sheet method. They recorded $299,420 in accounts receivable for the year, and $773,270 in credit sales. The uncollectible percentage is 3.2%. On November 22, Millennium Associates identifies one uncollectible account from Angel’s Hardware in the amount of $3,650. On December 18, Angel’s Hardware unexpectedly pays its account in full. Record journal entries for the following.

  1. Year-end adjusting entry for 2017 bad debt
  2. November 22, 2018 identification entry
  3. Entry for payment on December 18, 2018
EA7.

LO 9.2The following accounts receivable information pertains to Marshall Inc.

Past Due Category, Accounts Receivable Total, Uncollectible Percentage, respectively are: 0–30 days, $84,550, 8 percent; 31–90 days, 32,230, 16 percent; Over 90 days, 22,170, 37 percent.

Determine the estimated uncollectible bad debt from Marshall Inc. using the balance sheet aging of receivables method, and record the year-end adjusting journal entry for bad debt.

EA8.

LO 9.3Using the following select financial statement information from Black Water Industries, compute the accounts receivable turnover ratios for 2018 and 2019 (round answers to two decimal places). What do the outcomes tell a potential investor about Black Water Industries?

Year, Net Credit Sales, and Ending Accounts Receivable, respectively: 2017, $685,430, 330,250; 2018, 700,290, 360,450; 2019, 768,500, 401,650.
EA9.

LO 9.3Using the following select financial statement information from Black Water Industries, compute the number of days’ sales in receivables ratios for 2018 and 2019 (round answers to two decimal places). What do the outcomes tell a potential investor about Black Water Industries?

Year, Net Credit Sales, and Ending Accounts Receivable, respectively: 2017, $685,430, 330,250; 2018, 700,290, 360,450; 2019, 768,500, 401,650.
EA10.

LO 9.3Millennial Manufacturing has net credit sales for 2018 in the amount of $1,433,630, beginning accounts receivable balance of $585,900, and an ending accounts receivable balance of $621,450. Compute the accounts receivable turnover ratio and the number of days’ sales in receivables ratio for 2018 (round answers to two decimal places). What do the outcomes tell a potential investor about Millennial Manufacturing if industry average is 2.6 times and number of day’s sales ratio is 180 days?

EA11.

LO 9.4Mirror Mart uses the balance sheet aging method to account for uncollectible debt on receivables. The following is the past-due category information for outstanding receivable debt for 2019.

0–30 days past due, 31–90 days past due, and Over 90 days past due, respectively: Accounts Receivable amount $50,000, 30,000, 15,000; Percent uncollectible 8 percent, 15 percent, 30 percent; Total per category ?, ?, ?; Total uncollectible ?

To manage earnings more efficiently, Mirror Mart decided to change past-due categories as follows.

0–60 days past due, 61–120 days past due, and Over 120 days past due, respectively: Accounts Receivable amount $80,000, 10,000, 5,000; Percent uncollectible 8 percent, 15 percent, 30 percent; Total per category ?, ?, ?; Total uncollectible ?

Complete the following.

  1. Complete each table by filling in the blanks.
  2. Determine the difference between total uncollectible.
  3. Explain how the new total uncollectible amount affects net income and accounts receivable.
EA12.

LO 9.4Aerospace Electronics reports $567,000 in credit sales for 2018 and $632,500 in 2019. They have a $499,000 accounts receivable balance at the end of 2018, and $600,000 at the end of 2019. Aerospace uses the income statement method to record bad debt estimation at 5% during 2018. To manage earnings more favorably, Aerospace changes bad debt estimation to the balance sheet method at 7% during 2019.

  1. Determine the bad debt estimation for 2018.
  2. Determine the bad debt estimation for 2019.
  3. Describe a benefit to Aerospace Electronics in 2019 as a result of its earnings management.
EA13.

LO 9.4Dortmund Stockyard reports $896,000 in credit sales for 2018 and $802,670 in 2019. It has a $675,000 accounts receivable balance at the end of 2018, and $682,000 at the end of 2019. Dortmund uses the balance sheet method to record bad debt estimation at 8% during 2018. To manage earnings more favorably, Dortmund changes bad debt estimation to the income statement method at 6% during 2019.

  1. Determine the bad debt estimation for 2018.
  2. Determine the bad debt estimation for 2019.
  3. Describe a benefit to Dortmund Stockyard in 2019 as a result of its earnings management.
EA14.

LO 9.6Arvan Patel is a customer of Bank’s Hardware Store. For Mr. Patel’s latest purchase on January 1, 2018, Bank’s Hardware issues a note with a principal amount of $480,000, 13% annual interest rate, and a 24-month maturity date on December 31, 2019. Record the journal entries for Bank’s Hardware Store for the following transactions.

  1. Note issuance
  2. Subsequent interest entry on December 31, 2018
  3. Honored note entry at maturity on December 31, 2019.
EA15.

LO 9.6Resin Milling issued a $390,500 note on January 1, 2018 to a customer in exchange for merchandise. The merchandise had a cost to Resin Milling of $170,000. The terms of the note are 24-month maturity date on December 31, 2019 at a 5% annual interest rate. The customer does not pay on its account and dishonors the note. Record the journal entries for Resin Milling for the following transactions.

  1. Initial sale on January 1, 2018
  2. Dishonored note entry on January 1, 2020, assuming interest has not been recognized before note maturity
EA16.

LO 9.6Mystic Magic issued a $120,250 note on January 1, 2018 to a customer, Amy Arnold, in exchange for merchandise. Terms of the note are 9-month maturity date on October 1, 2018 at a 9.6% annual interest rate. Amy Arnold does not pay on her account and dishonors the note. On November 10, 2018, Mystic Magic decides to sell the dishonored note to a collection agency for 25% of its value. Record the journal entries for Mystic Magic for the following transactions.

  1. Initial sale on January 1, 2018
  2. Dishonored note entry on October 1, 2018
  3. Receivable sale on November 10, 2018
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-financial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-financial-accounting/pages/1-why-it-matters
Citation information

© Apr 11, 2019 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.