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abusive head trauma (AHT)
a preventable, severe form of physical child abuse that results in injury to the brain of an infant or child; includes shaken baby syndrome
ageism
discrimination against older people because of negative and inaccurate stereotyping
alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD)
congenital disorders due to FASD in which the infant may have problems with the heart, kidneys, bones, and/or hearing
alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)
an FASD in which the infant may experience intellectual disabilities and/or problems with behavior and learning; may have difficulties in school, particularly with math, memory, attention, and judgment, as well as poor impulse control
code-switching
the mixing of two languages during a conversation that often occurs in dual language learners
concussion
a traumatic brain injury caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body, which causes the person to experience any of a defined set of signs or symptoms
developmental disabilities
a group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas, which begin during the developmental period, may impact day-to-day functioning, and usually last throughout the lifetime
dual language learners (DLLs)
children who are learning two or more languages simultaneously or learning a second language while still learning their first language
elder abuse
an intentional act or failure to act that causes or creates a risk of harm to an older adult
family engagement
the process used to build genuine relationships with families to promote strong parent-child relationships, family well-being, and better outcomes for children and families
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs)
a group of conditions that can occur in a person who was exposed to alcohol before birth
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
an FASD in which the infant exhibits central nervous system (CNS) problems, minor facial features, growth problems, or problems with learning, memory, attention span, communication, vision, and/or hearing; may have difficulties in school and trouble getting along with others
gestational diabetes
diabetes that can develop during pregnancy; caused when the body cannot make enough insulin to meet its needs during pregnancy
infant mortality rate
the number of children dying under 1 year of age divided by the number of live births that year
low birth weight (LBW)
a newborn weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth
multiple gestation
the term for pregnancy with twins, triplets, or more fetuses
neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)
a treatable condition that occurs in newborns exposed to certain drugs, particularly opioids, in utero
neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS)
a term used specifically to describe the symptoms experienced by infants exposed to opioids in utero
neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE)
an FASD in which the delivering client must have consumed more than 13 alcoholic drinks per month of pregnancy (that is, any 30-day period of pregnancy) or more than two alcoholic drinks in one setting, and the child must have problems in three defined areas
obesity
adult body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher
preeclampsia
a sudden spike in a pregnant client’s high blood pressure
preterm birth
when a baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy
sexual risk behavior
any sexual behavior (typically condom-unprotected oral, vaginal, or anal intercourse) that puts one at risk for one or more defined adverse health outcomes
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
the sudden, unexpected death of a baby less than 1 year old that does not have a known cause even after full investigation
sudden unexpected infant death (SUID)
umbrella category for all sudden, unexpected infant deaths from known causes, such as injury or accident, and those from unknown causes
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