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Physics

Extended Response

PhysicsExtended Response
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Extended Response

9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem

46.

Work can be negative as well as positive because an object or system can do work on its surroundings as well as have work done on it. Which of the following statements describes:
a situation in which an object does work on its surroundings by decreasing its velocity and
a situation in which an object can do work on its surroundings by decreasing its altitude?

  1. A gasoline engine burns less fuel at a slower speed.
    Solar cells capture sunlight to generate electricity.
  2. A hybrid car charges its batteries as it decelerates.
    Falling water turns a turbine to generate electricity.
  3. Airplane flaps use air resistance to slow down for landing.
    Rising steam turns a turbine to generate electricity.
  4. An electric train requires less electrical energy as it decelerates.
    A parachute captures air to slow a skydiver’s fall.
47.

A boy is pulling a girl in a child’s wagon at a constant speed. He begins to pull harder, which increases the speed of the wagon. Which of the following describes two ways you could calculate the change in energy of the wagon and girl if you had all the information you needed?

  1. Calculate work done from the force and the velocity.
    Calculate work done from the change in the potential energy of the system.
  2. Calculate work done from the force and the displacement.
    Calculate work done from the change in the potential energy of the system.
  3. Calculate work done from the force and the velocity.
    Calculate work done from the change in the kinetic energy of the system.
  4. Calculate work done from the force and the displacement.
    Calculate work done from the change in the kinetic energy of the system.

9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy

48.

Acceleration due to gravity on the moon is 1.6 m/s2 or about 16% of the value of g on Earth.
If an astronaut on the moon threw a moon rock to a height of 7.8 m, what would be its velocity as it struck the moon’s surface?
How would the fact that the moon has no atmosphere affect the velocity of the falling moon rock? Explain your answer.

  1. The velocity of the rock as it hits the ground would be 5.0 m/s. Due to the lack of air friction, there would be complete transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic energy as the rock hits the moon’s surface.
  2. The velocity of the rock as it hits the ground would be 5.0 m/s. Due to the lack of air friction, there would be incomplete transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic energy as the rock hits the moon’s surface.
  3. The velocity of the rock as it hits the ground would be 12 m/s. Due to the lack of air friction, there would be complete transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic energy as the rock hits the moon’s surface.
  4. The velocity of the rock as it hits the ground would be 12 m/s. Due to the lack of air friction, there would be incomplete transformation of the potential energy into the kinetic energy as the rock hits the moon’s surface.
49.
A boulder rolls from the top of a mountain, travels across a valley below, and rolls part way up the ridge on the opposite side. Describe all the energy transformations taking place during these events and identify when they happen.
  1. As the boulder rolls down the mountainside, KE is converted to PE. As the boulder rolls up the opposite slope, PE is converted to KE. The boulder rolls only partway up the ridge because some of the PE has been converted to thermal energy due to friction.
  2. As the boulder rolls down the mountainside, KE is converted to PE. As the boulder rolls up the opposite slope, KE is converted to PE. The boulder rolls only partway up the ridge because some of the PE has been converted to thermal energy due to friction.
  3. As the boulder rolls down the mountainside, PE is converted to KE. As the boulder rolls up the opposite slope, PE is converted to KE. The boulder rolls only partway up the ridge because some of the PE has been converted to thermal energy due to friction.
  4. As the boulder rolls down the mountainside, PE is converted to KE. As the boulder rolls up the opposite slope, KE is converted to PE. The boulder rolls only partway up the ridge because some of the PE has been converted to thermal energy due to friction.

9.3 Simple Machines

50.

To dig a hole, one holds the handles together and thrusts the blades of a posthole digger, like the one in the image, into the ground. Next, the handles are pulled apart, which squeezes the dirt between them, making it possible to remove the dirt from the hole. This complex machine is composed of two pairs of two different simple machines. Identify and describe the parts that are simple machines and explain how you would find the IMA of each type of simple machine.

A post hole digger is shown with yellow and black handles. The digging apparatus is to the right and the post hole digger is closed.
  1. Each handle and its attached blade is a lever with the fulcrum at the hinge. Each blade is a wedge.
    The IMA of a lever would be the length of the handle divided by the length of the blade. The IMA of the wedges would be the length of the blade divided by its width.
  2. Each handle and its attached to blade is a lever with the fulcrum at the end. Each blade is a wedge.
    The IMA of a lever would be the length of the handle divided by the length of the blade. The IMA of the wedges would be the length of the blade divided by its width.
  3. Each handle and its attached blade is a lever with the fulcrum at the hinge. Each blade is a wedge.
    The IMA of a lever would be the length of the handle multiplied by the length of the blade. The IMA of the wedges would be the length of the blade multiplied by its width.
  4. Each handle and its attached blade is a lever with the fulcrum at the end. Each blade is a wedge.
    The IMA of a lever would be the length of the handle multiplied by the length of the blade. The IMA of the wedges would be the length of the blade multiplied by its width.
51.

A wooden crate is pulled up a ramp that is 1.0 m high and 6.0 m long. The crate is attached to a rope that is wound around an axle with a radius of 0.020 m . The axle is turned by a 0.20 m long handle. What is the overall IMA of the complex machine?

  1. 6
  2. 10
  3. 16
  4. 60
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