Extended Response
19.1 Ohm's law

Current is the ratio of charge passing through a conductor per unit time. The currentâ€™s direction is the direction in which protons would flow.

Charge is the ratio of current passing through a conductor per unit time. The chargeâ€™s direction is the direction in which protons would flow.

Current is the product of charge passing through a conductor and the amount of time that passes. The currentâ€™s direction is the direction in which electrons would flow.

Charge is the product of current passing through a conductor and time. The chargeâ€™s direction is the direction in which electrons would flow.

If the amount of current flowing through the material is too low, the resistor may heat up, creating a nonlinear relationship between current and voltage.

If the amount of current flowing though the material is too high, the resistor may heat up, creating a nonlinear relationship between current and voltage.

If the amount of current flowing through the material is too low, the resistor may not warm up enough to allow a nonlinear relationship between current and voltage.

If the amount of current flowing through the material is too high, the resistor may not warm up enough to allow a nonlinear relationship between current and voltage.

\frac{R}{10}

5\,\text{R}

\frac{10}{R}

10\,\text{R}
19.2 Series Circuits
Explain why the current is the same at all points in the circuit below.

If the current were not constant, the mobile charges would bunch up in places, which means that the voltage would decrease at that point. A lower voltage at some point would push the current in the direction that further decreases the voltage.

If the current were not constant, the mobile charges would bunch up in places, which means that the voltage would increase at that point. But a higher voltage at some point would push the current in the direction that decreases the voltage.

If the current were not constant, the mobile charges would bunch up in places, which mean that the voltage would increase at that point. A higher voltage at some point would push the current in the direction that further increases the voltage.

If the current were not constant, the mobile charges would bunch up in places, which mean that the voltage would decrease at that point. But a lower voltage at some point would push the current in the direction that increases the voltage.
What is the current through each resistor in the circuit?
 Current through resistors R_{1}, R_{2}, R_{3}, and R_{4} is 0.48 A, 0.30 A, 1.2 A, and 0.24 A, respectively.
 Current through resistors R_{1}, R_{2}, R_{3}, and R_{4} is 1200 A, 1920 A, 480 A, and 2400 A, respectively.
 Current through resistors R_{1}, R_{2}, R_{3}, and is R_{4} 2.08 A, 3.34 A, 0.833 A, and 4.17 A, respectively.
 The same amount of current, 0.096 A, flows through all of the resistors.
19.3 Parallel Circuits

All outlets on the circuit have the same voltage because they are wired in parallel.

All outlets on the circuit have the same voltage because they are wired in series.

Outlets further away from the source have a lower voltage because they are wired in parallel.

Outlets further away from the source have a lower voltage because they are wired in series.
19.4 Electric Power

No, the power dissipated remain same.

Yes, the power dissipated increases.

Yes, the power dissipated decreases.

Batteries are connected in series for higher voltage and power output.

Batteries are connected in series for lower voltage and power output.

Batteries are connected in series so that power output is a much lower for the same amount of voltage.

Batteries are connected in series to reduce the overall loss of energy from the circuit.