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Review Questions

c. The creatinine level is viewed as a reasonable assessment of the GFR. Measurement of the actual GFR requires either an insulin infusion or radioisotope exposure.
d. The hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries promotes glomerular filtration, whereas the hydrostatic pressure in the Bowman’s capsule and the oncotic pressure of the glomerular capillaries oppose glomerular filtration.
a. Risk factors for this type of incontinence include age, infection, and obstruction of the bladder outlet by an enlarged prostate gland.
d. The juxtaglomerular cells regulate the release of renin.
b. The parasympathetic stimulation contracts the detrusor muscle fibers in the bladder.
c. Increasing fluid intake decreases urine concentration, which in turn decreases the concentration of minerals in the urine that contribute to stone formation.
a. Fluid volume excess may be manifested by distention of the neck veins resulting from right heart failure.
c. Juxtamedullary nephrons comprise about 15% of all nephrons and are responsible for concentrating urine.
b. Functional incontinence occurs when an obstruction—such as a urethral obstruction due to enlargement of the prostate gland—interferes with bladder emptying and increases the post-void residual amounts.
a. Renal colic is the term most commonly used to describe the pain associated with kidney stones.

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