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Organic Chemistry

27.5 Terpenoids

Organic Chemistry27.5 Terpenoids

Table of contents
  1. Dedication and Preface
  2. 1 Structure and Bonding
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 1.1 Atomic Structure: The Nucleus
    3. 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals
    4. 1.3 Atomic Structure: Electron Configurations
    5. 1.4 Development of Chemical Bonding Theory
    6. 1.5 Describing Chemical Bonds: Valence Bond Theory
    7. 1.6 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Methane
    8. 1.7 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethane
    9. 1.8 sp2 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethylene
    10. 1.9 sp Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Acetylene
    11. 1.10 Hybridization of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 1.11 Describing Chemical Bonds: Molecular Orbital Theory
    13. 1.12 Drawing Chemical Structures
    14. Chemistry Matters—Organic Foods: Risk versus Benefit
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  3. 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 2.1 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity
    3. 2.2 Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments
    4. 2.3 Formal Charges
    5. 2.4 Resonance
    6. 2.5 Rules for Resonance Forms
    7. 2.6 Drawing Resonance Forms
    8. 2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted–Lowry Definition
    9. 2.8 Acid and Base Strength
    10. 2.9 Predicting Acid–Base Reactions from pKa Values
    11. 2.10 Organic Acids and Organic Bases
    12. 2.11 Acids and Bases: The Lewis Definition
    13. 2.12 Noncovalent Interactions between Molecules
    14. Chemistry Matters—Alkaloids: From Cocaine to Dental Anesthetics
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  4. 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 3.1 Functional Groups
    3. 3.2 Alkanes and Alkane Isomers
    4. 3.3 Alkyl Groups
    5. 3.4 Naming Alkanes
    6. 3.5 Properties of Alkanes
    7. 3.6 Conformations of Ethane
    8. 3.7 Conformations of Other Alkanes
    9. Chemistry Matters—Gasoline
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  5. 4 Organic Compounds: Cycloalkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 4.1 Naming Cycloalkanes
    3. 4.2 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
    4. 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain
    5. 4.4 Conformations of Cycloalkanes
    6. 4.5 Conformations of Cyclohexane
    7. 4.6 Axial and Equatorial Bonds in Cyclohexane
    8. 4.7 Conformations of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes
    9. 4.8 Conformations of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
    10. 4.9 Conformations of Polycyclic Molecules
    11. Chemistry Matters—Molecular Mechanics
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  6. 5 Stereochemistry at Tetrahedral Centers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 5.1 Enantiomers and the Tetrahedral Carbon
    3. 5.2 The Reason for Handedness in Molecules: Chirality
    4. 5.3 Optical Activity
    5. 5.4 Pasteur’s Discovery of Enantiomers
    6. 5.5 Sequence Rules for Specifying Configuration
    7. 5.6 Diastereomers
    8. 5.7 Meso Compounds
    9. 5.8 Racemic Mixtures and the Resolution of Enantiomers
    10. 5.9 A Review of Isomerism
    11. 5.10 Chirality at Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 5.11 Prochirality
    13. 5.12 Chirality in Nature and Chiral Environments
    14. Chemistry Matters—Chiral Drugs
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  7. 6 An Overview of Organic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 6.1 Kinds of Organic Reactions
    3. 6.2 How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms
    4. 6.3 Polar Reactions
    5. 6.4 An Example of a Polar Reaction: Addition of HBr to Ethylene
    6. 6.5 Using Curved Arrows in Polar Reaction Mechanisms
    7. 6.6 Radical Reactions
    8. 6.7 Describing a Reaction: Equilibria, Rates, and Energy Changes
    9. 6.8 Describing a Reaction: Bond Dissociation Energies
    10. 6.9 Describing a Reaction: Energy Diagrams and Transition States
    11. 6.10 Describing a Reaction: Intermediates
    12. 6.11 A Comparison Between Biological Reactions and Laboratory Reactions
    13. Chemistry Matters—Where Do Drugs Come From?
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  8. 7 Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 7.1 Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkenes
    3. 7.2 Calculating the Degree of Unsaturation
    4. 7.3 Naming Alkenes
    5. 7.4 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Alkenes
    6. 7.5 Alkene Stereochemistry and the E,Z Designation
    7. 7.6 Stability of Alkenes
    8. 7.7 Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes
    9. 7.8 Orientation of Electrophilic Additions: Markovnikov’s Rule
    10. 7.9 Carbocation Structure and Stability
    11. 7.10 The Hammond Postulate
    12. 7.11 Evidence for the Mechanism of Electrophilic Additions: Carbocation Rearrangements
    13. Chemistry Matters—Bioprospecting: Hunting for Natural Products
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  9. 8 Alkenes: Reactions and Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 8.1 Preparing Alkenes: A Preview of Elimination Reactions
    3. 8.2 Halogenation of Alkenes: Addition of X2
    4. 8.3 Halohydrins from Alkenes: Addition of HO-X
    5. 8.4 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Oxymercuration
    6. 8.5 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Hydroboration
    7. 8.6 Reduction of Alkenes: Hydrogenation
    8. 8.7 Oxidation of Alkenes: Epoxidation and Hydroxylation
    9. 8.8 Oxidation of Alkenes: Cleavage to Carbonyl Compounds
    10. 8.9 Addition of Carbenes to Alkenes: Cyclopropane Synthesis
    11. 8.10 Radical Additions to Alkenes: Chain-Growth Polymers
    12. 8.11 Biological Additions of Radicals to Alkenes
    13. 8.12 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to an Achiral Alkene
    14. 8.13 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to a Chiral Alkene
    15. Chemistry Matters—Terpenes: Naturally Occurring Alkenes
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  10. 9 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 9.1 Naming Alkynes
    3. 9.2 Preparation of Alkynes: Elimination Reactions of Dihalides
    4. 9.3 Reactions of Alkynes: Addition of HX and X2
    5. 9.4 Hydration of Alkynes
    6. 9.5 Reduction of Alkynes
    7. 9.6 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes
    8. 9.7 Alkyne Acidity: Formation of Acetylide Anions
    9. 9.8 Alkylation of Acetylide Anions
    10. 9.9 An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    11. Chemistry Matters—The Art of Organic Synthesis
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  11. 10 Organohalides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 10.1 Names and Structures of Alkyl Halides
    3. 10.2 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkanes: Radical Halogenation
    4. 10.3 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkenes: Allylic Bromination
    5. 10.4 Stability of the Allyl Radical: Resonance Revisited
    6. 10.5 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alcohols
    7. 10.6 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Grignard Reagents
    8. 10.7 Organometallic Coupling Reactions
    9. 10.8 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
    10. Chemistry Matters—Naturally Occurring Organohalides
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  12. 11 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 11.1 The Discovery of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
    3. 11.2 The SN2 Reaction
    4. 11.3 Characteristics of the SN2 Reaction
    5. 11.4 The SN1 Reaction
    6. 11.5 Characteristics of the SN1 Reaction
    7. 11.6 Biological Substitution Reactions
    8. 11.7 Elimination Reactions: Zaitsev’s Rule
    9. 11.8 The E2 Reaction and the Deuterium Isotope Effect
    10. 11.9 The E2 Reaction and Cyclohexane Conformation
    11. 11.10 The E1 and E1cB Reactions
    12. 11.11 Biological Elimination Reactions
    13. 11.12 A Summary of Reactivity: SN1, SN2, E1, E1cB, and E2
    14. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Summary of Reactions
    18. Additional Problems
  13. 12 Structure Determination: Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 12.1 Mass Spectrometry of Small Molecules: Magnetic-Sector Instruments
    3. 12.2 Interpreting Mass Spectra
    4. 12.3 Mass Spectrometry of Some Common Functional Groups
    5. 12.4 Mass Spectrometry in Biological Chemistry: Time-of-Flight (TOF) Instruments
    6. 12.5 Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    7. 12.6 Infrared Spectroscopy
    8. 12.7 Interpreting Infrared Spectra
    9. 12.8 Infrared Spectra of Some Common Functional Groups
    10. Chemistry Matters—X-Ray Crystallography
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  14. 13 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 13.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    3. 13.2 The Nature of NMR Absorptions
    4. 13.3 Chemical Shifts
    5. 13.4 Chemical Shifts in 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    6. 13.5 Integration of 1H NMR Absorptions: Proton Counting
    7. 13.6 Spin–Spin Splitting in 1H NMR Spectra
    8. 13.7 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Proton Equivalence
    9. 13.8 More Complex Spin–Spin Splitting Patterns
    10. 13.9 Uses of 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    11. 13.10 13C NMR Spectroscopy: Signal Averaging and FT–NMR
    12. 13.11 Characteristics of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    13. 13.12 DEPT 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    14. 13.13 Uses of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    15. Chemistry Matters—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Additional Problems
  15. 14 Conjugated Compounds and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 14.1 Stability of Conjugated Dienes: Molecular Orbital Theory
    3. 14.2 Electrophilic Additions to Conjugated Dienes: Allylic Carbocations
    4. 14.3 Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control of Reactions
    5. 14.4 The Diels–Alder Cycloaddition Reaction
    6. 14.5 Characteristics of the Diels–Alder Reaction
    7. 14.6 Diene Polymers: Natural and Synthetic Rubbers
    8. 14.7 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    9. 14.8 Interpreting Ultraviolet Spectra: The Effect of Conjugation
    10. 14.9 Conjugation, Color, and the Chemistry of Vision
    11. Chemistry Matters—Photolithography
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  16. 15 Benzene and Aromaticity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 15.1 Naming Aromatic Compounds
    3. 15.2 Structure and Stability of Benzene
    4. 15.3 Aromaticity and the Hückel 4n + 2 Rule
    5. 15.4 Aromatic Ions
    6. 15.5 Aromatic Heterocycles: Pyridine and Pyrrole
    7. 15.6 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
    8. 15.7 Spectroscopy of Aromatic Compounds
    9. Chemistry Matters—Aspirin, NSAIDs, and COX-2 Inhibitors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  17. 16 Chemistry of Benzene: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 16.1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Bromination
    3. 16.2 Other Aromatic Substitutions
    4. 16.3 Alkylation and Acylation of Aromatic Rings: The Friedel–Crafts Reaction
    5. 16.4 Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions
    6. 16.5 Trisubstituted Benzenes: Additivity of Effects
    7. 16.6 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
    8. 16.7 Benzyne
    9. 16.8 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds
    10. 16.9 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds
    11. 16.10 Synthesis of Polysubstituted Benzenes
    12. Chemistry Matters—Combinatorial Chemistry
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  18. 17 Alcohols and Phenols
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 17.1 Naming Alcohols and Phenols
    3. 17.2 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols
    4. 17.3 Preparation of Alcohols: A Review
    5. 17.4 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Reduction
    6. 17.5 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Grignard Reaction
    7. 17.6 Reactions of Alcohols
    8. 17.7 Oxidation of Alcohols
    9. 17.8 Protection of Alcohols
    10. 17.9 Phenols and Their Uses
    11. 17.10 Reactions of Phenols
    12. 17.11 Spectroscopy of Alcohols and Phenols
    13. Chemistry Matters—Ethanol: Chemical, Drug, and Poison
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  19. 18 Ethers and Epoxides; Thiols and Sulfides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 18.1 Names and Properties of Ethers
    3. 18.2 Preparing Ethers
    4. 18.3 Reactions of Ethers: Acidic Cleavage
    5. 18.4 Cyclic Ethers: Epoxides
    6. 18.5 Reactions of Epoxides: Ring-Opening
    7. 18.6 Crown Ethers
    8. 18.7 Thiols and Sulfides
    9. 18.8 Spectroscopy of Ethers
    10. Chemistry Matters—Epoxy Resins and Adhesives
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
    15. Preview of Carbonyl Chemistry
  20. 19 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 19.1 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
    3. 19.2 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones
    4. 19.3 Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 19.4 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
    6. 19.5 Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration
    7. 19.6 Nucleophilic Addition of HCN: Cyanohydrin Formation
    8. 19.7 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydride and Grignard Reagents: Alcohol Formation
    9. 19.8 Nucleophilic Addition of Amines: Imine and Enamine Formation
    10. 19.9 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrazine: The Wolff–Kishner Reaction
    11. 19.10 Nucleophilic Addition of Alcohols: Acetal Formation
    12. 19.11 Nucleophilic Addition of Phosphorus Ylides: The Wittig Reaction
    13. 19.12 Biological Reductions
    14. 19.13 Conjugate Nucleophilic Addition to α,β‑Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones
    15. 19.14 Spectroscopy of Aldehydes and Ketones
    16. Chemistry Matters—Enantioselective Synthesis
    17. Key Terms
    18. Summary
    19. Summary of Reactions
    20. Additional Problems
  21. 20 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 20.1 Naming Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    3. 20.2 Structure and Properties of Carboxylic Acids
    4. 20.3 Biological Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    5. 20.4 Substituent Effects on Acidity
    6. 20.5 Preparing Carboxylic Acids
    7. 20.6 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: An Overview
    8. 20.7 Chemistry of Nitriles
    9. 20.8 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    10. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin C
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  22. 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 21.1 Naming Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    3. 21.2 Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    4. 21.3 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
    5. 21.4 Chemistry of Acid Halides
    6. 21.5 Chemistry of Acid Anhydrides
    7. 21.6 Chemistry of Esters
    8. 21.7 Chemistry of Amides
    9. 21.8 Chemistry of Thioesters and Acyl Phosphates: Biological Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    10. 21.9 Polyamides and Polyesters: Step-Growth Polymers
    11. 21.10 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    12. Chemistry Matters—β-Lactam Antibiotics
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  23. 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 22.1 Keto–Enol Tautomerism
    3. 22.2 Reactivity of Enols: α-Substitution Reactions
    4. 22.3 Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 22.4 Alpha Bromination of Carboxylic Acids
    6. 22.5 Acidity of Alpha Hydrogen Atoms: Enolate Ion Formation
    7. 22.6 Reactivity of Enolate Ions
    8. 22.7 Alkylation of Enolate Ions
    9. Chemistry Matters—Barbiturates
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Summary of Reactions
    13. Additional Problems
  24. 23 Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 23.1 Carbonyl Condensations: The Aldol Reaction
    3. 23.2 Carbonyl Condensations versus Alpha Substitutions
    4. 23.3 Dehydration of Aldol Products: Synthesis of Enones
    5. 23.4 Using Aldol Reactions in Synthesis
    6. 23.5 Mixed Aldol Reactions
    7. 23.6 Intramolecular Aldol Reactions
    8. 23.7 The Claisen Condensation Reaction
    9. 23.8 Mixed Claisen Condensations
    10. 23.9 Intramolecular Claisen Condensations: The Dieckmann Cyclization
    11. 23.10 Conjugate Carbonyl Additions: The Michael Reaction
    12. 23.11 Carbonyl Condensations with Enamines: The Stork Enamine Reaction
    13. 23.12 The Robinson Annulation Reaction
    14. 23.13 Some Biological Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    15. Chemistry Matters—A Prologue to Metabolism
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  25. 24 Amines and Heterocycles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 24.1 Naming Amines
    3. 24.2 Structure and Properties of Amines
    4. 24.3 Basicity of Amines
    5. 24.4 Basicity of Arylamines
    6. 24.5 Biological Amines and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    7. 24.6 Synthesis of Amines
    8. 24.7 Reactions of Amines
    9. 24.8 Reactions of Arylamines
    10. 24.9 Heterocyclic Amines
    11. 24.10 Spectroscopy of Amines
    12. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry II: Ionic Liquids
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  26. 25 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 25.1 Classification of Carbohydrates
    3. 25.2 Representing Carbohydrate Stereochemistry: Fischer Projections
    4. 25.3 D,L Sugars
    5. 25.4 Configurations of the Aldoses
    6. 25.5 Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides: Anomers
    7. 25.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides
    8. 25.7 The Eight Essential Monosaccharides
    9. 25.8 Disaccharides
    10. 25.9 Polysaccharides and Their Synthesis
    11. 25.10 Some Other Important Carbohydrates
    12. Chemistry Matters—Sweetness
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  27. 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 26.1 Structures of Amino Acids
    3. 26.2 Amino Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation: Isoelectric Points
    4. 26.3 Synthesis of Amino Acids
    5. 26.4 Peptides and Proteins
    6. 26.5 Amino Acid Analysis of Peptides
    7. 26.6 Peptide Sequencing: The Edman Degradation
    8. 26.7 Peptide Synthesis
    9. 26.8 Automated Peptide Synthesis: The Merrifield Solid-Phase Method
    10. 26.9 Protein Structure
    11. 26.10 Enzymes and Coenzymes
    12. 26.11 How Do Enzymes Work? Citrate Synthase
    13. Chemistry Matters—The Protein Data Bank
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  28. 27 Biomolecules: Lipids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 27.1 Waxes, Fats, and Oils
    3. 27.2 Soap
    4. 27.3 Phospholipids
    5. 27.4 Prostaglandins and Other Eicosanoids
    6. 27.5 Terpenoids
    7. 27.6 Steroids
    8. 27.7 Biosynthesis of Steroids
    9. Chemistry Matters—Saturated Fats, Cholesterol, and Heart Disease
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  29. 28 Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 28.1 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
    3. 28.2 Base Pairing in DNA
    4. 28.3 Replication of DNA
    5. 28.4 Transcription of DNA
    6. 28.5 Translation of RNA: Protein Biosynthesis
    7. 28.6 DNA Sequencing
    8. 28.7 DNA Synthesis
    9. 28.8 The Polymerase Chain Reaction
    10. Chemistry Matters—DNA Fingerprinting
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  30. 29 The Organic Chemistry of Metabolic Pathways
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 29.1 An Overview of Metabolism and Biochemical Energy
    3. 29.2 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: The Fate of Glycerol
    4. 29.3 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: β-Oxidation
    5. 29.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
    6. 29.5 Catabolism of Carbohydrates: Glycolysis
    7. 29.6 Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
    8. 29.7 The Citric Acid Cycle
    9. 29.8 Carbohydrate Biosynthesis: Gluconeogenesis
    10. 29.9 Catabolism of Proteins: Deamination
    11. 29.10 Some Conclusions about Biological Chemistry
    12. Chemistry Matters—Statin Drugs
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Additional Problems
  31. 30 Orbitals and Organic Chemistry: Pericyclic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 30.1 Molecular Orbitals of Conjugated Pi Systems
    3. 30.2 Electrocyclic Reactions
    4. 30.3 Stereochemistry of Thermal Electrocyclic Reactions
    5. 30.4 Photochemical Electrocyclic Reactions
    6. 30.5 Cycloaddition Reactions
    7. 30.6 Stereochemistry of Cycloadditions
    8. 30.7 Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    9. 30.8 Some Examples of Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    10. 30.9 A Summary of Rules for Pericyclic Reactions
    11. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin D, the Sunshine Vitamin
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  32. 31 Synthetic Polymers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 31.1 Chain-Growth Polymers
    3. 31.2 Stereochemistry of Polymerization: Ziegler–Natta Catalysts
    4. 31.3 Copolymers
    5. 31.4 Step-Growth Polymers
    6. 31.5 Olefin Metathesis Polymerization
    7. 31.6 Intramolecular Olefin Metathesis
    8. 31.7 Polymer Structure and Physical Properties
    9. Chemistry Matters—Degradable Polymers
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  33. A | Nomenclature of Polyfunctional Organic Compounds
  34. B | Acidity Constants for Some Organic Compounds
  35. C | Glossary
  36. D | Periodic Table
  37. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
  38. Index

27.5 • Terpenoids

We saw in the Chapter 8 Chemistry Matters that terpenoids are a vast and diverse group of lipids found in all living organisms. Despite their apparent structural differences, all terpenoids contain a multiple of five carbons and are derived biosynthetically from the five-carbon precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (Figure 27.7). Although formally a terpenoid contains oxygen, while a hydrocarbon is called a terpene, we’ll use the term terpenoid to refer to both for simplicity.

The structure of isopentenyl diphosphate is given in the box. The structure of four terpenoids named Camphor (monoterpenoid), patchouli alcohol (sesquiterpenoid), lanosterol (triterpenoid), and beta-carotene (tetraterpenoid).
Figure 27.7 Structures of some representative terpenoids.

You might recall from the chapter on Alkenes: Reactions and Synthesis that terpenoids are classified according to the number of five-carbon multiples they contain. Monoterpenoids contain 10 carbons and are derived from two isopentenyl diphosphates, sesquiterpenoids contain 15 carbons and are derived from three isopentenyl diphosphates, diterpenoids contain 20 carbons and are derived from four isopentenyl diphosphates, and so on, up to triterpenoids (C30) and tetraterpenoids (C40). Lanosterol, for instance, is a triterpenoid from which steroid hormones are made, and β-carotene is a tetraterpenoid that serves as a dietary source of vitamin A (Figure 27.7).

The terpenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate, formerly called isopentenyl pyrophosphate and thus abbreviated IPP, is biosynthesized by two different pathways, depending on the organism and the structure of the final product. In animals and higher plants, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids arise primarily from the mevalonate pathway, whereas monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, and tetraterpenoids are biosynthesized by the 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) pathway, also called the methylerithritol phosphate, or MEP, pathway. In bacteria, both pathways are used. We’ll look only at the mevalonate pathway, which is more common and better understood at present.

Thye condensation of (R)-mevalonate and 1-deoxy-D-xylose-5-phosphate leads to the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate (I P P). This further forms terpenoids.

The Mevalonate Pathway to Isopentenyl Diphosphate

As shown in Figure 27.8, the mevalonate pathway begins with the conversion of acetate to acetyl CoA, followed by Claisen condensation to yield acetoacetyl CoA. A second carbonyl condensation reaction with a third molecule of acetyl CoA, this one an aldol-like process, then yields the six-carbon compound 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA, which is reduced to give mevalonate. Phosphorylation, followed by loss of CO2 and phosphate ion, completes the process.

Step 1 of Figure 27.8: Claisen Condensation

The first step in mevalonate biosynthesis is a Claisen condensation to yield acetoacetyl CoA, a reaction catalyzed by acetoacetyl-CoA acetyltransferase. An acetyl group is first bound to the enzyme by a nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction with a cysteine –SH group. Formation of an enolate ion from a second molecule of acetyl CoA, followed by Claisen condensation, then yields the product.

Claisen condensation of acetyl CoA and a thioacetate forms an intermediate that leads to the formation of acetoacetyl CoA.

Step 2 of Figure 27.8: Aldol Condensation

Acetoacetyl CoA next undergoes an aldol-like addition of an acetyl CoA enolate ion in a reaction catalyzed by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase. The reaction occurs by initial binding of the substrate to a cysteine –SH group in the enzyme, followed by enolate-ion addition and subsequent hydrolysis to give (3S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA).

Figure 27.8 MECHANISM
The mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate from three molecules of acetyl CoA. Individual steps are explained in the text.
A four-step reaction is involved to produce isopentenyl diphosphate from acetyl CoA via acetoacetyl CoA adol condensation, (3 S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reduction, and (R)-mevalonate phosphorylation.
Base catalyzed Aldol condensation of acetyl CoA with an enzyme-bound thiol diketone generated a tetrahedral intermediate which collapses to (3 S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A.

Step 3 of Figure 27.8: Reduction

Reduction of HMG-CoA to give (R)-mevalonate is catalyzed by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and requires 2 equivalents of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), a close relative of NADH (Section 19.12). The reaction occurs in two steps and proceeds through an aldehyde intermediate. The first step is a nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction involving hydride transfer from NADPH to the thioester carbonyl group of HMG-CoA. Following expulsion of HSCoA as leaving group, the aldehyde intermediate undergoes a second hydride addition to give mevalonate.

H M G CoA is reduced by two nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydride molecules to form an aldehyde intermediate and then (R)-mevalonate.

Step 4 of Figure 27.8: Phosphorylation and Decarboxylation

Three additional reactions are needed to convert mevalonate to isopentenyl diphosphate. The first two are straightforward phosphorylations by ATP that occur through nucleophilic substitution reactions on the terminal phosphorus. Mevalonate is first converted to mevalonate 5-phosphate (phosphomevalonate) by reaction with ATP; mevalonate 5-phosphate then reacts with a second ATP to give mevalonate 5-diphosphate (diphosphomevalonate). The third reaction results in phosphorylation of the tertiary hydroxyl group, followed by decarboxylation and loss of phosphate ion.

(R)-Mevalonate reacts to form mevalonate-5-phosphate that further reacts to form mevalonate-5-diphosphate. Adenosine triphosphate converts to adenosine diphosphate. This forms isopentenyl diphosphate. Adenosine triphosphate converts to carbon dioxide.

The final decarboxylation of mevalonate 5-diphosphate seems unusual because decarboxylations of acids do not typically occur except in β-keto acids and malonic acids, in which the carboxylate group is two atoms away from an additional carbonyl group. As discussed in Section 22.7, the function of this second carbonyl group is to act as an electron acceptor and stabilize the charge resulting from loss of CO2. In fact, though, the decarboxylation of a β-keto acid and the decarboxylation of mevalonate 5-diphosphate are closely related.

Catalyzed by mevalonate-5-diphosphate decarboxylase, the substrate is first phosphorylated on the free –OH group by reaction with ATP to give a tertiary phosphate, which undergoes spontaneous SN1-like dissociation to give a tertiary carbocation. The positive charge then acts as an electron acceptor to facilitate decarboxylation in the same way a β carbonyl group does, giving isopentenyl diphosphate. (In the following structures, the diphosphate group is abbreviated OPP.)

Mevalonate-5-diphosphate reacts with two molecules of adenosine triphosphate to form mevalonate 5-diphosphate. Decarboxylation of the diphosphate phosphate forms isopentenyl diphosphate and carbon dioxide
Problem 27-6

The conversion of mevalonate 5-phosphate to isopentenyl diphosphate occurs with the following result. Which hydrogen, pro-R or pro-S, ends up cis to the methyl group, and which ends up trans?

Mevalonate-5-diphosphate represented in wedge-dash form undergoes dehydration to form isopentenyl diphosphate.

Conversion of Isopentenyl Diphosphate to Terpenoids

The conversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to terpenoids begins with its isomerization to dimethylallyl diphosphate, abbreviated DMAPP and formerly called dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. These two C5 building blocks then combine to give the C10 unit geranyl diphosphate (GPP). The corresponding alcohol, geraniol, is itself a fragrant terpenoid that occurs in rose oil.

Further combination of GPP with another IPP gives the C15 unit farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), and so on, up to C25. Terpenoids with more than 25 carbons—that is, triterpenoids (C30) and tetraterpenoids (C40)—are synthesized by dimerization of C15 and C20 units, respectively (Figure 27.9). Triterpenoids and steroids, in particular, arise from dimerization of farnesyl diphosphate to give squalene.

Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerizes to dimethylallyl diphosphate which forms geranyl diphosphate. Geranyl diphosphate generates monoterpenes or farnesyl diphosphate. Farnesyl diphosphate undergoes dimerization to form squalene or triterpenes.
Figure 27.9 An overview of terpenoid biosynthesis from isopentenyl diphosphate.

The isomerization of isopentenyl diphosphate to dimethylallyl diphosphate is catalyzed by IPP isomerase and occurs through a carbocation pathway. Protonation of the IPP double bond by a hydrogen-bonded cysteine residue in the enzyme gives a tertiary carbocation intermediate, which is deprotonated by a glutamate residue as base to yield DMAPP. X-ray structural studies on the enzyme show that it holds the substrate in an unusually deep, well-protected pocket to shield the highly reactive carbocation from reaction with solvent or other external substances.

Protonation of isopentenyl diphosphate leads to a carbocation that rearranges to dimethylallyl diphosphate.

Both the initial coupling of DMAPP with IPP to give geranyl diphosphate and the subsequent coupling of GPP with a second molecule of IPP to give farnesyl diphosphate are catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase. The process requires Mg2+ ion, and the key step is a nucleophilic substitution reaction in which the double bond of IPP behaves as a nucleophile in displacing diphosphate ion leaving group (PPi) or DMAPP. Evidence suggests that the DMAPP develops a considerable cationic character and that spontaneous dissociation of the allylic diphosphate ion in an SN1-like pathway probably occurs (Figure 27.10).

Dimethylallyl diphosphate forms an allylic carbocation that reacts with isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form geranyl diphosphate. This further reacts to form farnesyl diphosphate.
Figure 27.10 Mechanism of the coupling reaction of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), to give geranyl diphosphate (GPP).

Further conversion of geranyl diphosphate into monoterpenoids typically involves carbocation intermediates and multistep reaction pathways that are catalyzed by terpene cyclases. Monoterpene cyclases function by first isomerizing geranyl diphosphate to its allylic isomer linalyl diphosphate (LPP), a process that occurs by spontaneous SN1-like dissociation to an allylic carbocation, followed by recombination. The effect of this isomerization is to convert the C2–C3 double bond of GPP into a single bond, thereby making cyclization possible and allowing E/Z isomerization of the double bond.

Further dissociation and cyclization by electrophilic addition of the cationic carbon to the terminal double bond then gives a cyclic cation, which might either rearrange, undergo a hydride shift, be captured by a nucleophile, or be deprotonated to give any of the several hundred known monoterpenoids. As just one example, limonene, a monoterpenoid found in many citrus oils, arises by the biosynthetic pathway shown in Figure 27.11.

Geranyl diphosphate via an allylic carbocation forms linalyl diphosphate, which further rearranges through an allylic carbocation cyclization to form limonene.
Figure 27.11 Mechanism for the formation of the monoterpenoid limonene from geranyl diphosphate.

Worked Example 27.1

Proposing a Terpenoid Biosynthesis Pathway

Propose a mechanistic pathway for the biosynthesis of α-terpineol from geranyl diphosphate.

The structure of alpha-terpineol in which cyclohexene has methyl on C 1, and a C H linked to two methyl groups and an alcohol on C 4 position.


α-Terpineol, a monoterpenoid, must be derived biologically from geranyl diphosphate through its isomer linalyl diphosphate. Draw the precursor in a conformation that approximates the structure of the target molecule, and then carry out a cationic cyclization, using the appropriate double bond to displace the diphosphate leaving group. Since the target is an alcohol, the carbocation resulting from cyclization evidently reacts with water.


Linalyl diphosphate forms a carbocation intermediate with the release of inorganic pyrophosphate. The attack of water on carbocation leads to alpha-terpineol.
Problem 27-7
Propose mechanistic pathways for the biosynthetic formation of the following terpenoids:
The structure of alpha-pinene in which cyclohexene has a methyl group on C 1, two methyl groups on C 3, and two methyl groups connected inside the ring.
Gamma-bisabolene comprises cyclohexene bonded with methyl and a double bond linked to methyl. Further linked to two methylene groups and C-H is linked to double bond with two methyl groups.

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