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Organic Chemistry

21.6 Chemistry of Esters

Organic Chemistry21.6 Chemistry of Esters

Table of contents
  1. Dedication and Preface
  2. 1 Structure and Bonding
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 1.1 Atomic Structure: The Nucleus
    3. 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals
    4. 1.3 Atomic Structure: Electron Configurations
    5. 1.4 Development of Chemical Bonding Theory
    6. 1.5 Describing Chemical Bonds: Valence Bond Theory
    7. 1.6 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Methane
    8. 1.7 sp3 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethane
    9. 1.8 sp2 Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Ethylene
    10. 1.9 sp Hybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Acetylene
    11. 1.10 Hybridization of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 1.11 Describing Chemical Bonds: Molecular Orbital Theory
    13. 1.12 Drawing Chemical Structures
    14. Chemistry Matters—Organic Foods: Risk versus Benefit
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  3. 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 2.1 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity
    3. 2.2 Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments
    4. 2.3 Formal Charges
    5. 2.4 Resonance
    6. 2.5 Rules for Resonance Forms
    7. 2.6 Drawing Resonance Forms
    8. 2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted–Lowry Definition
    9. 2.8 Acid and Base Strength
    10. 2.9 Predicting Acid–Base Reactions from pKa Values
    11. 2.10 Organic Acids and Organic Bases
    12. 2.11 Acids and Bases: The Lewis Definition
    13. 2.12 Noncovalent Interactions between Molecules
    14. Chemistry Matters—Alkaloids: From Cocaine to Dental Anesthetics
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  4. 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 3.1 Functional Groups
    3. 3.2 Alkanes and Alkane Isomers
    4. 3.3 Alkyl Groups
    5. 3.4 Naming Alkanes
    6. 3.5 Properties of Alkanes
    7. 3.6 Conformations of Ethane
    8. 3.7 Conformations of Other Alkanes
    9. Chemistry Matters—Gasoline
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  5. 4 Organic Compounds: Cycloalkanes and Their Stereochemistry
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 4.1 Naming Cycloalkanes
    3. 4.2 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes
    4. 4.3 Stability of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain
    5. 4.4 Conformations of Cycloalkanes
    6. 4.5 Conformations of Cyclohexane
    7. 4.6 Axial and Equatorial Bonds in Cyclohexane
    8. 4.7 Conformations of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes
    9. 4.8 Conformations of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
    10. 4.9 Conformations of Polycyclic Molecules
    11. Chemistry Matters—Molecular Mechanics
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  6. 5 Stereochemistry at Tetrahedral Centers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 5.1 Enantiomers and the Tetrahedral Carbon
    3. 5.2 The Reason for Handedness in Molecules: Chirality
    4. 5.3 Optical Activity
    5. 5.4 Pasteur’s Discovery of Enantiomers
    6. 5.5 Sequence Rules for Specifying Configuration
    7. 5.6 Diastereomers
    8. 5.7 Meso Compounds
    9. 5.8 Racemic Mixtures and the Resolution of Enantiomers
    10. 5.9 A Review of Isomerism
    11. 5.10 Chirality at Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur
    12. 5.11 Prochirality
    13. 5.12 Chirality in Nature and Chiral Environments
    14. Chemistry Matters—Chiral Drugs
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Additional Problems
  7. 6 An Overview of Organic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 6.1 Kinds of Organic Reactions
    3. 6.2 How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms
    4. 6.3 Polar Reactions
    5. 6.4 An Example of a Polar Reaction: Addition of HBr to Ethylene
    6. 6.5 Using Curved Arrows in Polar Reaction Mechanisms
    7. 6.6 Radical Reactions
    8. 6.7 Describing a Reaction: Equilibria, Rates, and Energy Changes
    9. 6.8 Describing a Reaction: Bond Dissociation Energies
    10. 6.9 Describing a Reaction: Energy Diagrams and Transition States
    11. 6.10 Describing a Reaction: Intermediates
    12. 6.11 A Comparison Between Biological Reactions and Laboratory Reactions
    13. Chemistry Matters—Where Do Drugs Come From?
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  8. 7 Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 7.1 Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkenes
    3. 7.2 Calculating the Degree of Unsaturation
    4. 7.3 Naming Alkenes
    5. 7.4 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Alkenes
    6. 7.5 Alkene Stereochemistry and the E,Z Designation
    7. 7.6 Stability of Alkenes
    8. 7.7 Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes
    9. 7.8 Orientation of Electrophilic Additions: Markovnikov’s Rule
    10. 7.9 Carbocation Structure and Stability
    11. 7.10 The Hammond Postulate
    12. 7.11 Evidence for the Mechanism of Electrophilic Additions: Carbocation Rearrangements
    13. Chemistry Matters—Bioprospecting: Hunting for Natural Products
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Additional Problems
  9. 8 Alkenes: Reactions and Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 8.1 Preparing Alkenes: A Preview of Elimination Reactions
    3. 8.2 Halogenation of Alkenes: Addition of X2
    4. 8.3 Halohydrins from Alkenes: Addition of HO-X
    5. 8.4 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Oxymercuration
    6. 8.5 Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of H2O by Hydroboration
    7. 8.6 Reduction of Alkenes: Hydrogenation
    8. 8.7 Oxidation of Alkenes: Epoxidation and Hydroxylation
    9. 8.8 Oxidation of Alkenes: Cleavage to Carbonyl Compounds
    10. 8.9 Addition of Carbenes to Alkenes: Cyclopropane Synthesis
    11. 8.10 Radical Additions to Alkenes: Chain-Growth Polymers
    12. 8.11 Biological Additions of Radicals to Alkenes
    13. 8.12 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to an Achiral Alkene
    14. 8.13 Reaction Stereochemistry: Addition of H2O to a Chiral Alkene
    15. Chemistry Matters—Terpenes: Naturally Occurring Alkenes
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  10. 9 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 9.1 Naming Alkynes
    3. 9.2 Preparation of Alkynes: Elimination Reactions of Dihalides
    4. 9.3 Reactions of Alkynes: Addition of HX and X2
    5. 9.4 Hydration of Alkynes
    6. 9.5 Reduction of Alkynes
    7. 9.6 Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes
    8. 9.7 Alkyne Acidity: Formation of Acetylide Anions
    9. 9.8 Alkylation of Acetylide Anions
    10. 9.9 An Introduction to Organic Synthesis
    11. Chemistry Matters—The Art of Organic Synthesis
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  11. 10 Organohalides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 10.1 Names and Structures of Alkyl Halides
    3. 10.2 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkanes: Radical Halogenation
    4. 10.3 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alkenes: Allylic Bromination
    5. 10.4 Stability of the Allyl Radical: Resonance Revisited
    6. 10.5 Preparing Alkyl Halides from Alcohols
    7. 10.6 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Grignard Reagents
    8. 10.7 Organometallic Coupling Reactions
    9. 10.8 Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
    10. Chemistry Matters—Naturally Occurring Organohalides
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  12. 11 Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 11.1 The Discovery of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
    3. 11.2 The SN2 Reaction
    4. 11.3 Characteristics of the SN2 Reaction
    5. 11.4 The SN1 Reaction
    6. 11.5 Characteristics of the SN1 Reaction
    7. 11.6 Biological Substitution Reactions
    8. 11.7 Elimination Reactions: Zaitsev’s Rule
    9. 11.8 The E2 Reaction and the Deuterium Isotope Effect
    10. 11.9 The E2 Reaction and Cyclohexane Conformation
    11. 11.10 The E1 and E1cB Reactions
    12. 11.11 Biological Elimination Reactions
    13. 11.12 A Summary of Reactivity: SN1, SN2, E1, E1cB, and E2
    14. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry
    15. Key Terms
    16. Summary
    17. Summary of Reactions
    18. Additional Problems
  13. 12 Structure Determination: Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 12.1 Mass Spectrometry of Small Molecules: Magnetic-Sector Instruments
    3. 12.2 Interpreting Mass Spectra
    4. 12.3 Mass Spectrometry of Some Common Functional Groups
    5. 12.4 Mass Spectrometry in Biological Chemistry: Time-of-Flight (TOF) Instruments
    6. 12.5 Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    7. 12.6 Infrared Spectroscopy
    8. 12.7 Interpreting Infrared Spectra
    9. 12.8 Infrared Spectra of Some Common Functional Groups
    10. Chemistry Matters—X-Ray Crystallography
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  14. 13 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 13.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    3. 13.2 The Nature of NMR Absorptions
    4. 13.3 Chemical Shifts
    5. 13.4 Chemical Shifts in 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    6. 13.5 Integration of 1H NMR Absorptions: Proton Counting
    7. 13.6 Spin–Spin Splitting in 1H NMR Spectra
    8. 13.7 1H NMR Spectroscopy and Proton Equivalence
    9. 13.8 More Complex Spin–Spin Splitting Patterns
    10. 13.9 Uses of 1H NMR Spectroscopy
    11. 13.10 13C NMR Spectroscopy: Signal Averaging and FT–NMR
    12. 13.11 Characteristics of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    13. 13.12 DEPT 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    14. 13.13 Uses of 13C NMR Spectroscopy
    15. Chemistry Matters—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Additional Problems
  15. 14 Conjugated Compounds and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 14.1 Stability of Conjugated Dienes: Molecular Orbital Theory
    3. 14.2 Electrophilic Additions to Conjugated Dienes: Allylic Carbocations
    4. 14.3 Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control of Reactions
    5. 14.4 The Diels–Alder Cycloaddition Reaction
    6. 14.5 Characteristics of the Diels–Alder Reaction
    7. 14.6 Diene Polymers: Natural and Synthetic Rubbers
    8. 14.7 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
    9. 14.8 Interpreting Ultraviolet Spectra: The Effect of Conjugation
    10. 14.9 Conjugation, Color, and the Chemistry of Vision
    11. Chemistry Matters—Photolithography
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Summary of Reactions
    15. Additional Problems
  16. 15 Benzene and Aromaticity
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 15.1 Naming Aromatic Compounds
    3. 15.2 Structure and Stability of Benzene
    4. 15.3 Aromaticity and the Hückel 4n + 2 Rule
    5. 15.4 Aromatic Ions
    6. 15.5 Aromatic Heterocycles: Pyridine and Pyrrole
    7. 15.6 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
    8. 15.7 Spectroscopy of Aromatic Compounds
    9. Chemistry Matters—Aspirin, NSAIDs, and COX-2 Inhibitors
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  17. 16 Chemistry of Benzene: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 16.1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Bromination
    3. 16.2 Other Aromatic Substitutions
    4. 16.3 Alkylation and Acylation of Aromatic Rings: The Friedel–Crafts Reaction
    5. 16.4 Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Substitutions
    6. 16.5 Trisubstituted Benzenes: Additivity of Effects
    7. 16.6 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
    8. 16.7 Benzyne
    9. 16.8 Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds
    10. 16.9 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds
    11. 16.10 Synthesis of Polysubstituted Benzenes
    12. Chemistry Matters—Combinatorial Chemistry
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  18. 17 Alcohols and Phenols
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 17.1 Naming Alcohols and Phenols
    3. 17.2 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols
    4. 17.3 Preparation of Alcohols: A Review
    5. 17.4 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Reduction
    6. 17.5 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Grignard Reaction
    7. 17.6 Reactions of Alcohols
    8. 17.7 Oxidation of Alcohols
    9. 17.8 Protection of Alcohols
    10. 17.9 Phenols and Their Uses
    11. 17.10 Reactions of Phenols
    12. 17.11 Spectroscopy of Alcohols and Phenols
    13. Chemistry Matters—Ethanol: Chemical, Drug, and Poison
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  19. 18 Ethers and Epoxides; Thiols and Sulfides
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 18.1 Names and Properties of Ethers
    3. 18.2 Preparing Ethers
    4. 18.3 Reactions of Ethers: Acidic Cleavage
    5. 18.4 Cyclic Ethers: Epoxides
    6. 18.5 Reactions of Epoxides: Ring-Opening
    7. 18.6 Crown Ethers
    8. 18.7 Thiols and Sulfides
    9. 18.8 Spectroscopy of Ethers
    10. Chemistry Matters—Epoxy Resins and Adhesives
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
    15. Preview of Carbonyl Chemistry
  20. 19 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 19.1 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
    3. 19.2 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones
    4. 19.3 Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 19.4 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
    6. 19.5 Nucleophilic Addition of H2O: Hydration
    7. 19.6 Nucleophilic Addition of HCN: Cyanohydrin Formation
    8. 19.7 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydride and Grignard Reagents: Alcohol Formation
    9. 19.8 Nucleophilic Addition of Amines: Imine and Enamine Formation
    10. 19.9 Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrazine: The Wolff–Kishner Reaction
    11. 19.10 Nucleophilic Addition of Alcohols: Acetal Formation
    12. 19.11 Nucleophilic Addition of Phosphorus Ylides: The Wittig Reaction
    13. 19.12 Biological Reductions
    14. 19.13 Conjugate Nucleophilic Addition to α,β‑Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones
    15. 19.14 Spectroscopy of Aldehydes and Ketones
    16. Chemistry Matters—Enantioselective Synthesis
    17. Key Terms
    18. Summary
    19. Summary of Reactions
    20. Additional Problems
  21. 20 Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 20.1 Naming Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    3. 20.2 Structure and Properties of Carboxylic Acids
    4. 20.3 Biological Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    5. 20.4 Substituent Effects on Acidity
    6. 20.5 Preparing Carboxylic Acids
    7. 20.6 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: An Overview
    8. 20.7 Chemistry of Nitriles
    9. 20.8 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles
    10. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin C
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Summary of Reactions
    14. Additional Problems
  22. 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 21.1 Naming Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    3. 21.2 Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions
    4. 21.3 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
    5. 21.4 Chemistry of Acid Halides
    6. 21.5 Chemistry of Acid Anhydrides
    7. 21.6 Chemistry of Esters
    8. 21.7 Chemistry of Amides
    9. 21.8 Chemistry of Thioesters and Acyl Phosphates: Biological Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    10. 21.9 Polyamides and Polyesters: Step-Growth Polymers
    11. 21.10 Spectroscopy of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
    12. Chemistry Matters—β-Lactam Antibiotics
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  23. 22 Carbonyl Alpha-Substitution Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 22.1 Keto–Enol Tautomerism
    3. 22.2 Reactivity of Enols: α-Substitution Reactions
    4. 22.3 Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones
    5. 22.4 Alpha Bromination of Carboxylic Acids
    6. 22.5 Acidity of Alpha Hydrogen Atoms: Enolate Ion Formation
    7. 22.6 Reactivity of Enolate Ions
    8. 22.7 Alkylation of Enolate Ions
    9. Chemistry Matters—Barbiturates
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Summary of Reactions
    13. Additional Problems
  24. 23 Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 23.1 Carbonyl Condensations: The Aldol Reaction
    3. 23.2 Carbonyl Condensations versus Alpha Substitutions
    4. 23.3 Dehydration of Aldol Products: Synthesis of Enones
    5. 23.4 Using Aldol Reactions in Synthesis
    6. 23.5 Mixed Aldol Reactions
    7. 23.6 Intramolecular Aldol Reactions
    8. 23.7 The Claisen Condensation Reaction
    9. 23.8 Mixed Claisen Condensations
    10. 23.9 Intramolecular Claisen Condensations: The Dieckmann Cyclization
    11. 23.10 Conjugate Carbonyl Additions: The Michael Reaction
    12. 23.11 Carbonyl Condensations with Enamines: The Stork Enamine Reaction
    13. 23.12 The Robinson Annulation Reaction
    14. 23.13 Some Biological Carbonyl Condensation Reactions
    15. Chemistry Matters—A Prologue to Metabolism
    16. Key Terms
    17. Summary
    18. Summary of Reactions
    19. Additional Problems
  25. 24 Amines and Heterocycles
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 24.1 Naming Amines
    3. 24.2 Structure and Properties of Amines
    4. 24.3 Basicity of Amines
    5. 24.4 Basicity of Arylamines
    6. 24.5 Biological Amines and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation
    7. 24.6 Synthesis of Amines
    8. 24.7 Reactions of Amines
    9. 24.8 Reactions of Arylamines
    10. 24.9 Heterocyclic Amines
    11. 24.10 Spectroscopy of Amines
    12. Chemistry Matters—Green Chemistry II: Ionic Liquids
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  26. 25 Biomolecules: Carbohydrates
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 25.1 Classification of Carbohydrates
    3. 25.2 Representing Carbohydrate Stereochemistry: Fischer Projections
    4. 25.3 D,L Sugars
    5. 25.4 Configurations of the Aldoses
    6. 25.5 Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides: Anomers
    7. 25.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides
    8. 25.7 The Eight Essential Monosaccharides
    9. 25.8 Disaccharides
    10. 25.9 Polysaccharides and Their Synthesis
    11. 25.10 Some Other Important Carbohydrates
    12. Chemistry Matters—Sweetness
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Summary of Reactions
    16. Additional Problems
  27. 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 26.1 Structures of Amino Acids
    3. 26.2 Amino Acids and the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation: Isoelectric Points
    4. 26.3 Synthesis of Amino Acids
    5. 26.4 Peptides and Proteins
    6. 26.5 Amino Acid Analysis of Peptides
    7. 26.6 Peptide Sequencing: The Edman Degradation
    8. 26.7 Peptide Synthesis
    9. 26.8 Automated Peptide Synthesis: The Merrifield Solid-Phase Method
    10. 26.9 Protein Structure
    11. 26.10 Enzymes and Coenzymes
    12. 26.11 How Do Enzymes Work? Citrate Synthase
    13. Chemistry Matters—The Protein Data Bank
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Summary of Reactions
    17. Additional Problems
  28. 27 Biomolecules: Lipids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 27.1 Waxes, Fats, and Oils
    3. 27.2 Soap
    4. 27.3 Phospholipids
    5. 27.4 Prostaglandins and Other Eicosanoids
    6. 27.5 Terpenoids
    7. 27.6 Steroids
    8. 27.7 Biosynthesis of Steroids
    9. Chemistry Matters—Saturated Fats, Cholesterol, and Heart Disease
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  29. 28 Biomolecules: Nucleic Acids
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 28.1 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
    3. 28.2 Base Pairing in DNA
    4. 28.3 Replication of DNA
    5. 28.4 Transcription of DNA
    6. 28.5 Translation of RNA: Protein Biosynthesis
    7. 28.6 DNA Sequencing
    8. 28.7 DNA Synthesis
    9. 28.8 The Polymerase Chain Reaction
    10. Chemistry Matters—DNA Fingerprinting
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Additional Problems
  30. 29 The Organic Chemistry of Metabolic Pathways
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 29.1 An Overview of Metabolism and Biochemical Energy
    3. 29.2 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: The Fate of Glycerol
    4. 29.3 Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: β-Oxidation
    5. 29.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
    6. 29.5 Catabolism of Carbohydrates: Glycolysis
    7. 29.6 Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
    8. 29.7 The Citric Acid Cycle
    9. 29.8 Carbohydrate Biosynthesis: Gluconeogenesis
    10. 29.9 Catabolism of Proteins: Deamination
    11. 29.10 Some Conclusions about Biological Chemistry
    12. Chemistry Matters—Statin Drugs
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Additional Problems
  31. 30 Orbitals and Organic Chemistry: Pericyclic Reactions
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 30.1 Molecular Orbitals of Conjugated Pi Systems
    3. 30.2 Electrocyclic Reactions
    4. 30.3 Stereochemistry of Thermal Electrocyclic Reactions
    5. 30.4 Photochemical Electrocyclic Reactions
    6. 30.5 Cycloaddition Reactions
    7. 30.6 Stereochemistry of Cycloadditions
    8. 30.7 Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    9. 30.8 Some Examples of Sigmatropic Rearrangements
    10. 30.9 A Summary of Rules for Pericyclic Reactions
    11. Chemistry Matters—Vitamin D, the Sunshine Vitamin
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary
    14. Additional Problems
  32. 31 Synthetic Polymers
    1. Why This Chapter?
    2. 31.1 Chain-Growth Polymers
    3. 31.2 Stereochemistry of Polymerization: Ziegler–Natta Catalysts
    4. 31.3 Copolymers
    5. 31.4 Step-Growth Polymers
    6. 31.5 Olefin Metathesis Polymerization
    7. 31.6 Intramolecular Olefin Metathesis
    8. 31.7 Polymer Structure and Physical Properties
    9. Chemistry Matters—Degradable Polymers
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Additional Problems
  33. A | Nomenclature of Polyfunctional Organic Compounds
  34. B | Acidity Constants for Some Organic Compounds
  35. C | Glossary
  36. D | Periodic Table
  37. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
  38. Index

21.6 • Chemistry of Esters

Esters are among the most widespread of all naturally occurring compounds. Many simple esters are pleasant-smelling liquids that are responsible for the fragrant odors of fruits and flowers. For example, methyl butanoate is found in pineapple oil, and isopentyl acetate is a constituent of banana oil. The ester linkage is also present in animal fats and in many biologically important molecules.

The first structure shows methyl butanoate, the second shows isopentyl acetate, and the third shows a fat molecule where R denotes carbon chain-length varying from eleven to seventeen.

The chemical industry uses esters for a variety of purposes. Ethyl acetate, for instance, is a commonly used solvent, and dialkyl phthalates are used as plasticizers to keep polymers from becoming brittle. You may be aware that there is current concern about the possible toxicity of phthalates at high concentrations, although a recent assessment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found the risk to be minimal for most people, with the possible exception of male infants.

The structure of dibutyl phthalate shows a benzene ring with two carbonyl groups ortho to each other. The carbonyl groups are each attached to butoxy groups.

Preparation of Esters

Esters are usually prepared from carboxylic acids by the methods already discussed. Thus, carboxylic acids are converted directly into esters by SN2 reaction of a carboxylate ion with a primary alkyl halide or by Fischer esterification of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of a mineral acid catalyst. In addition, acid chlorides are converted into esters by treatment with an alcohol in the presence of base (Section 21.4).

The flow chart shows conversion of carboxylic acids to esters. The first example uses sodium hydroxide and an alkyl halide, the second uses an alcohol and acid, and the third uses thionyl chloride, followed by an alcohol and pyridine.

Reactions of Esters

Esters undergo the same kinds of reactions that we’ve seen for other carboxylic acid derivatives, but they are less reactive toward nucleophiles than either acid chlorides or anhydrides. All their reactions are applicable to both acyclic and cyclic esters, called lactones.

The structure shows a lactone (cyclic ester) in which an oxygen atom replaces carbon in a cyclohexane ring. The carbon atom adjacent to oxygen is double-bonded to oxygen.

Conversion of Esters into Carboxylic Acids: Hydrolysis

An ester is hydrolyzed, either by aqueous base or aqueous acid, to yield a carboxylic acid plus an alcohol.

The lactone structure comprises of a six-membered ring containing a carbonyl group with an oxygen atom next to it in the ring.

Ester hydrolysis in basic solution is called saponification, after the Latin word sapo, meaning “soap.” We’ll see in Section 27.2 that soap is in fact made by boiling animal fat with aqueous base to hydrolyze the ester linkages.

As shown in Figure 21.8, ester hydrolysis occurs through a typical nucleophilic acyl substitution pathway in which hydroxide ion is the nucleophile that adds to the ester carbonyl group to give a tetrahedral intermediate. Loss of alkoxide ion then gives a carboxylic acid, which is deprotonated to give the carboxylate ion. Addition of aqueous HCl, in a separate step after the saponification is complete, protonates the carboxylate ion and gives the carboxylic acid.

Figure 21.8 MECHANISM
Mechanism of base-induced ester hydrolysis (saponification).
The curly arrow mechanism of saponification shows the four steps involved in forming a carboxylic acid from an ester in the presence of hydroxide ions.

The mechanism shown in Figure 21.8 is supported by isotope-labeling studies. When ethyl propanoate labeled with 18O in the ether-like oxygen is hydrolyzed in aqueous NaOH, the 18O label shows up exclusively in the ethanol product. None of the label remains with the propanoic acid, indicating that saponification occurs by cleavage of the C–OR′ bond rather than the CO–R′ bond.

The reaction shows an ester (ethyl propionate) reacting with aqueous sodium hydroxide followed by treatment with acid to give propanoic acid and ethanol.

Acid-catalyzed ester hydrolysis can occur by more than one mechanism, depending on the structure of the ester. The usual pathway, however, is just the reverse of a Fischer esterification reaction (Section 21.3). As shown in Figure 21.9, the ester is first activated toward nucleophilic attack by protonation of the carboxyl oxygen atom, and nucleophilic addition of water then occurs. Transfer of a proton and elimination of alcohol yields the carboxylic acid. Because this hydrolysis reaction is the reverse of a Fischer esterification reaction, Figure 21.9 is the reverse of Figure 21.5.

Figure 21.9 MECHANISM
Mechanism of acid-catalyzed ester hydrolysis. The forward reaction is a hydrolysis; the back-reaction is a Fischer esterification and is thus the reverse of Figure 21.5.
The curly arrow mechanism for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of an ester shows the four steps involved in forming a carboxylic acid from an ester and hydronium ions.

Ester hydrolysis is common in biological chemistry, particularly in the digestion of dietary fats and oils. We’ll save a complete discussion of the mechanistic details of fat hydrolysis until Section 29.2 but will note for now that the reaction is catalyzed by various lipase enzymes and involves two sequential nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions. The first is a transesterification reaction in which an alcohol group on the lipase adds to an ester linkage in the fat molecule to give a tetrahedral intermediate that expels alcohol and forms an acyl enzyme intermediate. The second is an addition of water to the acyl enzyme, followed by expulsion of the enzyme to give a hydrolyzed acid and a regenerated enzyme.

The reaction shows a fat reacting with an enzyme and base to form a fatty acid and regenerating the enzyme. The reaction involves tetrahedral intermediates, shown in parentheses. The curly arrow mechanism is also shown

Problem 21-16
Why is the saponification of an ester irreversible? In other words, why doesn’t treatment of a carboxylic acid with an alkoxide ion yield an ester?

Conversion of Esters into Amides: Aminolysis

Esters react with ammonia and amines to yield amides. The reaction is not often used, however, because it’s usually easier to prepare an amide by starting with an acid chloride (Section 21.4).

Methyl benzoate reacts with ammonia in ether to form benzamide and methanol. The benzamide structure has a benzene ring attached to the amide (C O N H 2) group.

Conversion of Esters into Alcohols: Reduction

Esters are easily reduced by treatment with LiAlH4 to yield primary alcohols (Section 17.4).

Ethyl-2-pentenoate is converted to 2-penten-1-ol in ninety-two percent yield when treated with lithium aluminum hydride followed by acid. A five-membered lactone is converted to 1,4-pentanediol in eighty-six percent yield using the same reagents.

The mechanism of ester reduction is similar to that of acid chloride reduction in that a hydride ion first adds to the carbonyl group, followed by elimination of alkoxide ion to yield an aldehyde. Further reduction of the aldehyde gives the primary alcohol.

The curly arrow mechanism for the lithium aluminum hydride reduction of an ester to an alcohol is shown. A tetrahedral alkoxide and an aldehyde are formed as intermediates.

The aldehyde intermediate can be isolated if 1 equivalent of diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH, or DIBAL-H) is used as the reducing agent instead of LiAlH4. The reaction has to be carried out at –78 °C to avoid further reduction to the alcohol. Such partial reductions of carboxylic acid derivatives to aldehydes also occur in numerous biological pathways, although the substrate is either a thioester or acyl phosphate rather than an ester.

The conversion of ethyl dodecanoate to dodecanal (eighty-eight percent) and ethanol using D I B A H, a reagent with two isobutyl groups single-bonded to a central aluminum atom single-bonded to a hydrogen atom.

Problem 21-17

What product would you expect from the reaction of butyrolactone with LiAlH4? With DIBAH?

The structure of butyrolactone comprises of a five-membered ring with one oxygen and four carbon atoms. The carbon adjacent to oxygen is a carbonyl group.
Problem 21-18
Show the products you would obtain by reduction of the following esters with LiAlH4:
(a)
The structure shows a five-carbon chain ester with a methoxy group bonded to the carbonyl carbon. The carbon adjacent to carbonyl bears a methyl group.
(b)
The structure of an ester is depicted. One benzene ring is single-bonded to carbonyl carbon single-bonded to oxygen single-bonded to benzene ring.

Conversion of Esters into Alcohols: Grignard Reaction

Esters react with 2 equivalents of a Grignard reagent to yield a tertiary alcohol in which two of the substituents are identical (Section 17.5). The reaction occurs by the usual nucleophilic substitution mechanism to give an intermediate ketone, which reacts further with the Grignard reagent to yield a tertiary alcohol.

Methyl benzoate reacts with two moles of phenyl magnesium bromide followed by acid hydrolysis forming a product with tetrahedral carbon single-bonded to three benzene rings and hydroxyl (triphenylmethanol (ninety-six percent)).

Problem 21-19
What ester and what Grignard reagent might you start with to prepare the following alcohols?
(a)
Alt Text Placeholder
(b)
The structure of tertiary alcohol where a central carbon is bound to a benzene ring, two methyl groups, and a hydroxyl group.
(c)
The structure shows a tertiary alcohol with a seven-carbon parent chain. Hydroxyl and ethyl groups are attached as substituents on C 3 of the chain.
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