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Unfolding Case Study

1.
a. Breastfeeding increases the chances that an infant will absorb the proper nutrients because the nutrients provided in breast milk are more bioavailable than those in formula.
2.
d. Children with galactosemia need to be on a lactose-free diet their entire lives to prevent life-threatening problems.
3.
b. The problems that Hein faced in pregnancy drastically altered her microbiome and contributed to her infant’s low birth weight and birth at 37 weeks’ gestation. These complications all increased her infant’s risk for Crohn’s disease.
4.
a. High-fiber foods such as beans should be avoided during inflammatory phases of the disease because they can irritate the inflamed intestinal lining.

Review Questions

1.
a. The father’s microbiome is not shown to be a contributing factor to the child’s microbiome.
2.
b. Premature newborns need more calories per kilogram of body weight than a full-term infant does and should get 110–135 kcal/kg/day.
3.
d. Galactosemia is a genetic disease in which the individual lacks the proper enzymes to convert lactose into glucose.
4.
c. Adolescents like to be autonomous, but many tend to prefer convenience foods such as fast food. Parents should be instructed to provide a healthy diet whenever possible rather than simply incorporating healthy items into unhealthy diet.
5.
d. Consuming prebiotic or probiotic foods is conducive to maintaining good gut bacteria. Yogurt, kimchi, and honey are examples of prebiotic foods.
6.
d. Increasing water and fiber intake is important to prevent and manage constipation, a frequent problem among older adults.
7.
b. The client should be on a high-fiber diet when not in exacerbation but should be on a low-fiber diet due to inflammatory cycles.
8.
c. Kefir has anti-inflammatory properties that will help protect the microbiome.
9.
b. Ciprofloxacin, frequently used for diverticulitis, should not be taken with calcium-rich or calcium-fortified foods because the calcium can hinder ciprofloxacin’s absorption.
10.
d. Kale can help prevent vitamin K deficiency. Amoxicillin is known to deplete vitamin K and vitamin B12.
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