Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

acromegaly
a disorder that results in overgrowth of bones in the face, hands, and feet in response to abnormally high levels of growth hormone
dwarfism
short stature secondary to a genetic or medical condition
gestational diabetes
a disorder that produces glucose intolerance during pregnancy as the result of dysfunction or delayed response of the beta cells to blood glucose
glycemic index
a system that ranks carbohydrate-containing foods on a scale from 1 to 100 based on their ability to raise blood sugar levels quickly or significantly
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
a hormone that stimulates the corpus luteum to produce the progesterone necessary for promoting and maintaining a growing fetus; reduces the pregnant individual’s immune function to protect the fetus from immune rejection
hyperemesis gravidarum
a condition during pregnancy characterized by extreme, persistent nausea and vomiting
hyperglycemia
a blood glucose greater than 125 mg/dL or plasma blood glucose level greater than 150 mg/dL
hyperthyroidism
a clinically abnormal, elevated level of thyroid hormone in the blood; characterized by an increased metabolic rate, excessive body heat and sweating, diarrhea, weight loss, tremors, and increased heart rate
hypoglycemia
a blood glucose level at or less than 40 mg/dL
hypothyroidism
a clinically abnormal, low level of thyroid hormone in the blood; characterized by low metabolic rate, weight gain, cold extremities, constipation, reduced libido, menstrual irregularities, and reduced mental activity
insulin-like growth factor (IGF)
a peptide hormone that promotes bone and tissue growth
malnutrition
occurs when the body either does not receive sufficient nutrients or is unable to absorb essential nutrients, resulting in body composition changes and impaired functions
puberty
a stage of development in which sexual maturation and reproduction capabilities refine and mature
relaxin
a hormone secreted by the corpus luteum and then by the placenta to help prepare the body for childbirth
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
a hormone that triggers secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland
thyroxine (T4)
tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) long-acting hormone released by the thyroid gland that can be converted to T3
triiodothyronine (T3)
hormone released by the thyroid gland to help regulate processes including metabolism, weight, and energy levels
type 1 diabetes
insulin-dependent diabetes; develops when insulin producing cells (beta cells) are destroyed in the pancreas, resulting in low to non-existent levels of insulin
type 2 diabetes
noninsulin-dependent diabetes; results from insulin resistance that develops gradually from obesity and aging
Citation/Attribution

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/nutrition/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/nutrition/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Mar 7, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.