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a disorder that results in overgrowth of bones in the face, hands, and feet in response to abnormally high levels of growth hormone
short stature secondary to a genetic or medical condition
gestational diabetes
a disorder that produces glucose intolerance during pregnancy as the result of dysfunction or delayed response of the beta cells to blood glucose
glycemic index
a system that ranks carbohydrate-containing foods on a scale from 1 to 100 based on their ability to raise blood sugar levels quickly or significantly
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
a hormone that stimulates the corpus luteum to produce the progesterone necessary for promoting and maintaining a growing fetus; reduces the pregnant individual’s immune function to protect the fetus from immune rejection
hyperemesis gravidarum
a condition during pregnancy characterized by extreme, persistent nausea and vomiting
a blood glucose greater than 125 mg/dL or plasma blood glucose level greater than 150 mg/dL
a clinically abnormal, elevated level of thyroid hormone in the blood; characterized by an increased metabolic rate, excessive body heat and sweating, diarrhea, weight loss, tremors, and increased heart rate
a blood glucose level at or less than 40 mg/dL
a clinically abnormal, low level of thyroid hormone in the blood; characterized by low metabolic rate, weight gain, cold extremities, constipation, reduced libido, menstrual irregularities, and reduced mental activity
insulin-like growth factor (IGF)
a peptide hormone that promotes bone and tissue growth
occurs when the body either does not receive sufficient nutrients or is unable to absorb essential nutrients, resulting in body composition changes and impaired functions
a stage of development in which sexual maturation and reproduction capabilities refine and mature
a hormone secreted by the corpus luteum and then by the placenta to help prepare the body for childbirth
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
a hormone that triggers secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland
thyroxine (T4)
tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) long-acting hormone released by the thyroid gland that can be converted to T3
triiodothyronine (T3)
hormone released by the thyroid gland to help regulate processes including metabolism, weight, and energy levels
type 1 diabetes
insulin-dependent diabetes; develops when insulin producing cells (beta cells) are destroyed in the pancreas, resulting in low to non-existent levels of insulin
type 2 diabetes
noninsulin-dependent diabetes; results from insulin resistance that develops gradually from obesity and aging

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