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afferent
transmits impulses from peripheral organs to the central nervous system
albumin
a common protein in plasma that carries hormones and helps maintain the integrity of the blood vessels.
amyloids
proteins that tend to accumulate in clusters that are insoluble; amyloid proteins are associated with a number of conditions, including Alzheimer's disease
autonomic nervous system
regulates involuntary body processes such as blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, digestion, and sexual arousal
axons
the long slender projections of neurons that efficiently and rapidly conduct electrical impulses across nerve cells
cerebral autoregulation
the inherent ability of blood vessels in the cerebrum to maintain homeostatic cerebral blood flow despite a wide range of changes in mean arterial pressure
cerebral blood flow
the volume of blood that moves through the vessels in the brain
cerebral cortex
the protective outer layer of the cerebrum
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
efferent
carrying outward or away; in reference to the nervous system, transmitting impulses from the central nervous system outward to peripheral organs to initiate an active response or action
hyponatremia
a serum sodium level less than 135 mEq/L
Mediterranean diet
a diet low in saturated fat and rich in other nutrients, commonly consumed Greece and Southern Italy
myelin
the fatty protein membrane that provides a protective coating for nerve cells
neuromuscular junctions
locations at the terminal end of motor nerves, where action potential impulses are conducted to various muscles
neuroplasticity
the ability of the nervous system to change its activity in response to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, functions, or connections
neurotransmitters
chemicals within the body that allow neurons to communicate with each other to enable the brain to execute a wide range of functions through the process of chemical synaptic transmission
omega-3 fatty acids
a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that the human body requires but does not synthesize
parasympathetic nervous system
the part of the nervous system that relaxes the body after stress and danger and facilitates the body’s “rest-and-digest” response
polyphenols
micronutrients that have health-promoting properties and are present in many fruits and vegetables
prealbumin
a protein synthesized by the liver that transports various thyroid hormones in the blood
soma
the body of a neuron
somatic nervous system
facilitates movement and muscle control in the body
sympathetic nervous system
a division of the autonomic nervous sytem that is reponsible for the body’s “fight or flight” response
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release (SIADH)
an unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary gland or other nonpituitary sources that signals the body to retain fluid
tau proteins
present in nerve cells, proteins that stabilize microtubules
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