Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

amino acid pool
molecules of essential and nonessential amino acids regulated by the liver and available for use by the body
bioavailability
the ability of an organic substance to enter the circulation and produce an active effect
carbohydrates
large food category that includes starches, cellulose, and sugars
complex carbohydrates
long chains of monosaccharides such as those found in starch
disaccharides
compounds containing two monosaccharide molecules
glucose
simple monosaccharide that is an important energy source and is found in carbohydrates
glycemic index
system that ranks foods on a scale from 1 to 100 based on their effect on blood glucose levels
glycemic load
method of indicating the amount of carbohydrate contained in a specified serving of a particular food and its impact on blood glucose
glycogen
stored form of glucose
high-density lipoprotein
molecule comprising lipids and proteins; it removes cholesterol from the blood
low-density lipoprotein
molecule comprising lipids and proteins; it transports cholesterol throughout the bloodstream
monosaccharide
sugar molecule that cannot be further metabolized
polypeptides
linear organic molecules consisting of many amino acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part or all of a protein
proteolysis
enzymatic breakdown of proteins or peptides into amino acids
triglycerides
compounds formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups; the main constituents of natural fats and oils
ultraprocessed foods
foods altered by commercial techniques, usually by adding five or more artificial substances
whole foods
foods that have been processed or refined as little as possible and are free from additives and other artificial substances
Citation/Attribution

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/nutrition/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/nutrition/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Mar 7, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.