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3.1 What Is Culture?


The terms _______ and ______ are often used interchangeably, but have nuances that differentiate them.

  1. imperialism and relativism
  2. culture and society
  3. society and ethnocentrism
  4. ethnocentrism and Xenocentrism

The American flag is a material object that denotes the U.S. However, many associate ideas with the flag, like bravery and freedom. In this example, what are bravery and freedom?

  1. Symbols
  2. Language
  3. Material culture
  4. Nonmaterial culture

The belief that one’s culture is inferior to another culture is called:

  1. ethnocentrism
  2. nationalism
  3. xenocentrism
  4. imperialism

The irrational fear or hatred of another culture is called:

  1. ethnocentrism
  2. xenophobia
  3. xenophile
  4. ethnophobia

Rodney and Elise are U.S. students studying abroad in Italy. When they are introduced to their host families, the families kiss them on both cheeks. When Rodney’s host brother introduces himself and kisses Rodney on both cheeks, Rodney pulls back in surprise. Where he is from, unless they are romantically involved, men do not kiss one another. This is an example of:

  1. culture shock
  2. imperialism
  3. ethnocentrism
  4. xenocentrism

Most cultures have been found to identify laughter as a sign of humor, joy, or pleasure. Laughter is an examples of:

  1. relativism
  2. ethnocentrism
  3. xenocentrism
  4. universalism

3.2 Elements of Culture


A nation’s flag is:

  1. A symbol
  2. A value
  3. A culture
  4. A folkway

The existence of social norms, both formal and informal, is one of the main things that inform ___________, otherwise known as encouraging social conformity.

  1. values
  2. sanctions
  3. social control
  4. mores

The biggest difference between mores and folkways is that

  1. mores are linked to morality, whereas folkways are tied to commonplace behaviors
  2. mores are absolute, whereas folkways are temporary
  3. mores refer to material culture, whereas folkways refer to nonmaterial culture
  4. mores refer to nonmaterial culture, whereas folkways refer to material culture

The notion that people cannot feel or experience something that they do not have a word for can be explained by:

  1. linguistics
  2. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  3. Ethnographic imagery
  4. bilingualism

Cultural sanctions can also be viewed as ways that society:

  1. Establishes leaders
  2. Determines language
  3. Regulates behavior
  4. Determines laws

3.3 High, Low, Pop, Sub, Counter-culture and Cultural Change


An example of high culture is _________, whereas an example of popular culture would be ____________.

  1. Dostoevsky style in film; “American Idol” winners
  2. medical marijuana; film noir
  3. country music; pop music
  4. political theory; sociological theory

The Ku Klux Klan is an example of what part of culture?

  1. Counterculture
  2. Subculture
  3. Multiculturalism
  4. pop culture

Modern-day hipsters are an example of:

  1. ethnocentricity
  2. counterculture
  3. subculture
  4. high culture

Your eighty-three-year-old grandmother has been using a computer for some time now. As a way to keep in touch, you frequently send emails of a few lines to let her know about your day. She calls after every email to respond point by point, but she has never emailed a response back. This can be viewed as an example of:

  1. cultural lag
  2. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  3. Ethnographic imagery
  4. bilingualism

Some jobs today advertise in multinational markets and permit telecommuting in lieu of working from a primary location. This broadening of the job market and the way that jobs are performed can be attributed to:

  1. cultural lag
  2. diffusion
  3. discovery
  4. globalization

The major difference between invention and discovery is:

  1. Invention is based on technology, whereas discovery is usually based on culture
  2. Discovery involves finding items that already exists, but invention puts things together in a new way
  3. Invention refers to material culture, whereas discovery can be material or theoretic, like laws of physics
  4. Invention is typically used to refer to prehistoric objects, whereas discovery refers to local culture

McDonald’s restaurants are found in almost every country around the world. What is this an example of?

  1. globalization
  2. diffusion
  3. culture lag
  4. xenocentrism

3.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture


A sociologist conducts research into the ways that Hispanic American students are historically underprivileged in the U.S. education system. What theoretical approach is the sociologist Using?

  1. Symbolic interactionism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Conflict theory
  4. Ethnocentrism

Members of a counterculture movement believed that the economic disparity between the highest and the mid to lower economic classes is growing at an exponentially alarming rate. A sociologist who studies that movement by examining the interactions between its members would most likely use what theoretical approach?

  1. Symbolic interactionism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Conflict theory
  4. Ethnocentrism

What theoretical perspective views society as having a system of interdependent inherently connected parts?

  1. Sociobiology
  2. Functionalism
  3. Conflict theory
  4. Ethnocentrism

The “American Dream”—the notion that anybody can be successful and rich if they work hard enough—is most commonly associated with which sociological theory?

  1. Sociobiology
  2. Functionalism
  3. Conflict theory
  4. Ethnocentrism
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