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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
    3. 1.2 How Do Philosophers Arrive at Truth?
    4. 1.3 Socrates as a Paradigmatic Historical Philosopher
    5. 1.4 An Overview of Contemporary Philosophy
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  3. 2 Critical Thinking, Research, Reading, and Writing
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
    3. 2.2 Overcoming Cognitive Biases and Engaging in Critical Reflection
    4. 2.3 Developing Good Habits of Mind
    5. 2.4 Gathering Information, Evaluating Sources, and Understanding Evidence
    6. 2.5 Reading Philosophy
    7. 2.6 Writing Philosophy Papers
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  4. 3 The Early History of Philosophy around the World
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
    3. 3.2 Classical Indian Philosophy
    4. 3.3 Classical Chinese Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  5. 4 The Emergence of Classical Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Historiography and the History of Philosophy
    3. 4.2 Classical Philosophy
    4. 4.3 Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  6. 5 Logic and Reasoning
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Philosophical Methods for Discovering Truth
    3. 5.2 Logical Statements
    4. 5.3 Arguments
    5. 5.4 Types of Inferences
    6. 5.5 Informal Fallacies
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  7. 6 Metaphysics
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Substance
    3. 6.2 Self and Identity
    4. 6.3 Cosmology and the Existence of God
    5. 6.4 Free Will
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  8. 7 Epistemology
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
    3. 7.2 Knowledge
    4. 7.3 Justification
    5. 7.4 Skepticism
    6. 7.5 Applied Epistemology
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  9. 8 Value Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
    3. 8.2 Basic Questions about Values
    4. 8.3 Metaethics
    5. 8.4 Well-Being
    6. 8.5 Aesthetics
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  10. 9 Normative Moral Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory
    3. 9.2 Consequentialism
    4. 9.3 Deontology
    5. 9.4 Virtue Ethics
    6. 9.5 Daoism
    7. 9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  11. 10 Applied Ethics
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
    3. 10.2 Environmental Ethics
    4. 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  12. 11 Political Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Historical Perspectives on Government
    3. 11.2 Forms of Government
    4. 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
    5. 11.4 Political Ideologies
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  13. 12 Contemporary Philosophies and Social Theories
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Enlightenment Social Theory
    3. 12.2 The Marxist Solution
    4. 12.3 Continental Philosophy’s Challenge to Enlightenment Theories
    5. 12.4 The Frankfurt School
    6. 12.5 Postmodernism
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  14. Index
A
A posteriori knowledge 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
A priori knowledge 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
A Treatise of Human Nature 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
Academic Skepticism 4.2 Classical Philosophy
Academic Skeptics 4.2 Classical Philosophy
Act utilitarians 9.2 Consequentialism
actuality Introduction
ad hominem attack 5.5 Informal Fallacies
Aesthetic theory 8.5 Aesthetics
Aesthetics 8.5 Aesthetics
allegory of the cave 6.1 Substance
altruism 8.3 Metaethics
anarcha-feminism 11.4 Political Ideologies
Anatolia Introduction
ancient China 9.2 Consequentialism
Anscombe 8.4 Well-Being
anthropocentric 10.2 Environmental Ethics
anthropogenic climate change 10.2 Environmental Ethics
Anti-realism 8.3 Metaethics
Appeal to ignorance 5.5 Informal Fallacies
Applied epistemology 7.5 Applied Epistemology
ataraxia 8.4 Well-Being
Auto-deconstruction 12.5 Postmodernism
Axial Age Introduction
B
Beardsley 8.5 Aesthetics
Begging the question 5.5 Informal Fallacies
Behaviorism 6.2 Self and Identity
benefit (li), 9.2 Consequentialism
biased sample 5.5 Informal Fallacies
Blue Nile rift Introduction
brain in a vat 7.4 Skepticism
bundle theory 6.2 Self and Identity
C
capability approach 11.4 Political Ideologies
carbon emissions tax 10.2 Environmental Ethics
Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education 9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
categorical imperative 8.3 Metaethics, 8.4 Well-Being
Charismatic legitimacy 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
Chi K’ang 9.4 Virtue Ethics
Chinese revolution 12.2 The Marxist Solution
class struggle 12.2 The Marxist Solution
climate crisis 10.2 Environmental Ethics
Cognitive illusions 2.6 Writing Philosophy Papers
Cognitivism 8.4 Well-Being
coherence of beliefs 7.3 Justification
commitment view 7.5 Applied Epistemology
communist party 12.2 The Marxist Solution
communitarian philosophy 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
compassion 8.3 Metaethics
compatibilism 6.4 Free Will
conscience 8.3 Metaethics
conservative explanation 5.4 Types of Inferences
Conservativism 11.4 Political Ideologies
correspondence theory of truth 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
critical pedagogy 12.4 The Frankfurt School
Critical race theory 12.5 Postmodernism
Critical thinking Introduction, Introduction
Critique of the Power of Judgment 8.5 Aesthetics
Cultural Revolution 12.2 The Marxist Solution
cuneiform Introduction
D
D’Holbach 6.4 Free Will
De Rerum Natura (On the nature of things) 4.2 Classical Philosophy
de Saussure 12.5 Postmodernism
deconstruction 12.5 Postmodernism
Deductive reasoning 7.3 Justification
descriptive claims 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
determinism 6.4 Free Will
dialectic method 12.2 The Marxist Solution
dialectical materialism 12.2 The Marxist Solution
différance 12.5 Postmodernism
direct realism 7.3 Justification
distributive justice 11.4 Political Ideologies
divine command theory 8.3 Metaethics
doctrine of dependent origination 6.2 Self and Identity
doctrine of the four causes 4.2 Classical Philosophy
Double-blind methods 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
Dunning-Kruger effect 2.3 Developing Good Habits of Mind
E
earthworks 8.5 Aesthetics
egalitarianism 11.4 Political Ideologies
Emotional appeals 5.5 Informal Fallacies
Emotivism 8.4 Well-Being
empathy 8.3 Metaethics
Enlightenment philosophers 8.5 Aesthetics
environmental aesthetics 8.5 Aesthetics
Environmental ethics 10.2 Environmental Ethics
Epistemic injustice 7.5 Applied Epistemology
epistemic peer 7.5 Applied Epistemology
Ethical naturalism 8.3 Metaethics
ethnophilosophy 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
eudaimonism 8.4 Well-Being
Euthyphro problem 8.3 Metaethics
evaluative claims 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
Everyday aesthetics 8.5 Aesthetics
experience machine 8.4 Well-Being
Explanatory virtues 5.4 Types of Inferences
Externalism 7.3 Justification
Extraordinary claims 5.4 Types of Inferences
F
fact-value distinction 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
fallacies of relevance 5.5 Informal Fallacies
Fallacies of unwarranted assumption 5.5 Informal Fallacies
fallacies of weak induction 5.5 Informal Fallacies
fallacy of diversion 5.5 Informal Fallacies
False dichotomy 5.5 Informal Fallacies
false lemma 7.2 Knowledge
Feminist care ethics 8.3 Metaethics
Firestone/Ford tire controversy 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
foundation 8.3 Metaethics
foundational beliefs 7.3 Justification
four noble truths 6.2 Self and Identity
Frankfurt 6.4 Free Will
free will 6.4 Free Will
friendship 8.4 Well-Being
H
hasty generalization 5.5 Informal Fallacies
hedonism 8.4 Well-Being
higher pleasures 9.2 Consequentialism
Hindu caste system 11.2 Forms of Government
historical reliabilism 7.3 Justification
Human augmentation 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
human genetic modification 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
humanity formulation 9.3 Deontology
hypothetical imperative 9.3 Deontology
I
Impartiality 9.2 Consequentialism
incidental friendships 9.4 Virtue Ethics
Indian atomism 6.1 Substance
Indigenous philosophy 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
induction 7.3 Justification
Inductive reasoning 7.3 Justification
infallible belief 7.3 Justification
inferential beliefs 7.3 Justification
inferential justification 7.3 Justification
informal fallacies 5.5 Informal Fallacies
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Computer Society 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
institutional review boards 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
instrumental value 10.2 Environmental Ethics
intentional fallacy 8.5 Aesthetics
invalid inference 5.4 Types of Inferences
isolation objection 7.3 Justification
M
Magritte Introduction
Marcus Aurelius 4.2 Classical Philosophy
marginalized communities 10.2 Environmental Ethics
Marxism Introduction
Mediterranean Introduction
Mendieta 8.5 Aesthetics
Mesoamerican peoples 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
Mesopotamia Introduction, Introduction
messianic impulse 12.4 The Frankfurt School
Milesian school 4.2 Classical Philosophy
modus ponens 7.4 Skepticism
modus tollens 7.4 Skepticism
Moody-Adams 8.3 Metaethics
moral laws 9.3 Deontology
Morality (yi) 9.2 Consequentialism
Mujeres Libres 11.4 Political Ideologies
P
particulars 6.1 Substance
patenting genetic material 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
Paxson 7.2 Knowledge
perception 7.3 Justification
perfect friendships 9.4 Virtue Ethics
perfectionism 8.4 Well-Being
petroglyphic spirals 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
philosopher-king 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
philosophy Introduction, 9.5 Daoism
physicalism 6.2 Self and Identity
Pleasure 8.4 Well-Being
political philosophy Introduction
Polykleitos 8.5 Aesthetics
positive liberty 11.4 Political Ideologies
Postmodernism 12.5 Postmodernism
potentiality Introduction
pre-Socratics 6.1 Substance
premises 5.3 Arguments
prima facie duties 9.3 Deontology
Principle of Alternative Possibilities 6.4 Free Will
principle of autonomy 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
principle of beneficence 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
principle of charity 2.5 Reading Philosophy
principle of clinical equipoise 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
principle of justice 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
principle of nonmaleficence 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
principle of utility 9.2 Consequentialism
Procedural knowledge 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
psychoanalysis 12.5 Postmodernism
Pythagorean theorem 4.2 Classical Philosophy
S
sanatana dharma 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
satisfaction of desire 8.4 Well-Being
satisfactionism 8.4 Well-Being
selective attention test 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
Ship of Theseus 6.2 Self and Identity
skeptical hypothesis 7.4 Skepticism
social contract theory 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
softness 9.5 Daoism
somatic cell interventions 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
Spring and Autumn period 3.3 Classical Chinese Philosophy
Strong artificial intelligence 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
structured argument 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
substance 6.1 Substance
substitution heuristic 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
sufficient condition 5.2 Logical Statements
sufficient conditions 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
Sumer Introduction
T
ten doctrines 9.2 Consequentialism
The Communist Manifesto 12.2 The Marxist Solution
The Consolation of Philosophy 4.3 Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
the is-ought problem 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
the law of three stages 12.1 Enlightenment Social Theory
The Origins of Totalitarianism 11.2 Forms of Government
theories of justification 7.3 Justification
theory of the forms 4.2 Classical Philosophy
Totalitarianism 11.2 Forms of Government
traditional account of knowledge 7.2 Knowledge
Traditional legitimacy 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
transformative model of identity 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
Trolley problems 9.2 Consequentialism
Truth analysis 5.3 Arguments
Tuskegee syphilis study 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
U
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 10.2 Environmental Ethics
universal affirmative statement 5.2 Logical Statements
universal law formulation 9.3 Deontology
Universal statements 5.2 Logical Statements
Utilitarianism 8.4 Well-Being
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