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8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction

1 .
What is the fact-value distinction?
2 .
How are evaluative claims different from descriptive claims?
3 .
How does Hume describe the is-ought problem?
4 .
Why does Moore object to the naturalistic fallacy?
5 .
Why do moral realists object to the fact-value distinction?
6 .
How does ethical naturalism argue for moral objectivity?

8.2 Basic Questions about Values

7 .
What is an intrinsic value?
8 .
What is an extrinsic value?
9 .
What is monism? Why would someone argue for this position?
10 .
What is pluralism? Why would someone argue for this position?
11 .
What is incommensurability? Why would it lead to pluralism?
12 .
What is moral relativism?

8.3 Metaethics

13 .
What does “ontology of value” mean?
14 .
What does moral realism argue?
15 .
What does moral anti-realism argue?
16 .
How does the concept of God serve as a possible foundation for morality? How does religion serve as a possible foundation for morality?
17 .
What is the Euthyphro problem? How is it related to divine command theory?
18 .
How does nature serve as a possible foundation for morality and moral reasoning?
19 .
What is feminist care ethics?
20 .
What is Kant’s categorical imperative? How does it use reason to establish morality?

8.4 Well-Being

21 .
What is hedonism, and how is it used to philosophize about well-being?
22 .
What is Epicurus’s concept of pleasure?
23 .
How do utilitarians determine what is valuable?
24 .
What is Nozick’s experience machine, and how does it help you think about the limitations of hedonism?
25 .
What is satisfactionism? Why is it important to consider informed desire?
26 .
How do objective goods like knowledge, virtue, and friendship contribute to well-being?
27 .
What is eudaimonia? How did Anscombe revive eudaimonism?
28 .
What is Kant’s “kingdom of ends”?
29 .
What is ikigai, and how is it distinct from hedonistic well-being?

8.5 Aesthetics

30 .
What is Plato’s concept of beauty? Why does it make sense within the ancient Greek art world?
31 .
What is Hume’s concept of beauty?
32 .
What is Kant’s concept of aesthetic judgment?
33 .
According to Sibley, how do people justify aesthetic judgments?
34 .
What is the intentional fallacy? Why is limiting the meaning of a work of art to the artist’s intention a problem?
35 .
How is art related to environmentalism?
36 .
How does feminism use art?
37 .
What is everyday aesthetics? How is it related to Japanese aesthetics?
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