8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
What is the fact-value distinction?
How are evaluative claims different from descriptive claims?
How does Hume describe the is-ought problem?
Why does Moore object to the naturalistic fallacy?
Why do moral realists object to the fact-value distinction?
How does ethical naturalism argue for moral objectivity?
8.2 Basic Questions about Values
What is an intrinsic value?
What is an extrinsic value?
What is monism? Why would someone argue for this position?
What is pluralism? Why would someone argue for this position?
What is incommensurability? Why would it lead to pluralism?
What is moral relativism?
What does “ontology of value” mean?
What does moral realism argue?
What does moral anti-realism argue?
How does the concept of God serve as a possible foundation for morality? How does religion serve as a possible foundation for morality?
What is the Euthyphro problem? How is it related to divine command theory?
How does nature serve as a possible foundation for morality and moral reasoning?
What is feminist care ethics?
What is Kant’s categorical imperative? How does it use reason to establish morality?
What is hedonism, and how is it used to philosophize about well-being?
What is Epicurus’s concept of pleasure?
How do utilitarians determine what is valuable?
What is Nozick’s experience machine, and how does it help you think about the limitations of hedonism?
What is satisfactionism? Why is it important to consider informed desire?
How do objective goods like knowledge, virtue, and friendship contribute to well-being?
What is eudaimonia? How did Anscombe revive eudaimonism?
What is Kant’s “kingdom of ends”?
What is ikigai, and how is it distinct from hedonistic well-being?
What is Plato’s concept of beauty? Why does it make sense within the ancient Greek art world?
What is Hume’s concept of beauty?
What is Kant’s concept of aesthetic judgment?
According to Sibley, how do people justify aesthetic judgments?
What is the intentional fallacy? Why is limiting the meaning of a work of art to the artist’s intention a problem?
How is art related to environmentalism?
How does feminism use art?
What is everyday aesthetics? How is it related to Japanese aesthetics?