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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
    3. 1.2 How Do Philosophers Arrive at Truth?
    4. 1.3 Socrates as a Paradigmatic Historical Philosopher
    5. 1.4 An Overview of Contemporary Philosophy
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  3. 2 Critical Thinking, Research, Reading, and Writing
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
    3. 2.2 Overcoming Cognitive Biases and Engaging in Critical Reflection
    4. 2.3 Developing Good Habits of Mind
    5. 2.4 Gathering Information, Evaluating Sources, and Understanding Evidence
    6. 2.5 Reading Philosophy
    7. 2.6 Writing Philosophy Papers
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  4. 3 The Early History of Philosophy around the World
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
    3. 3.2 Classical Indian Philosophy
    4. 3.3 Classical Chinese Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  5. 4 The Emergence of Classical Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Historiography and the History of Philosophy
    3. 4.2 Classical Philosophy
    4. 4.3 Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  6. 5 Logic and Reasoning
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Philosophical Methods for Discovering Truth
    3. 5.2 Logical Statements
    4. 5.3 Arguments
    5. 5.4 Types of Inferences
    6. 5.5 Informal Fallacies
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  7. 6 Metaphysics
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Substance
    3. 6.2 Self and Identity
    4. 6.3 Cosmology and the Existence of God
    5. 6.4 Free Will
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  8. 7 Epistemology
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
    3. 7.2 Knowledge
    4. 7.3 Justification
    5. 7.4 Skepticism
    6. 7.5 Applied Epistemology
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  9. 8 Value Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
    3. 8.2 Basic Questions about Values
    4. 8.3 Metaethics
    5. 8.4 Well-Being
    6. 8.5 Aesthetics
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  10. 9 Normative Moral Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory
    3. 9.2 Consequentialism
    4. 9.3 Deontology
    5. 9.4 Virtue Ethics
    6. 9.5 Daoism
    7. 9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  11. 10 Applied Ethics
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
    3. 10.2 Environmental Ethics
    4. 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  12. 11 Political Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Historical Perspectives on Government
    3. 11.2 Forms of Government
    4. 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
    5. 11.4 Political Ideologies
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  13. 12 Contemporary Philosophies and Social Theories
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Enlightenment Social Theory
    3. 12.2 The Marxist Solution
    4. 12.3 Continental Philosophy’s Challenge to Enlightenment Theories
    5. 12.4 The Frankfurt School
    6. 12.5 Postmodernism
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  14. Index

8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction

1.
What is the fact-value distinction?
2.
How are evaluative claims different from descriptive claims?
3.
How does Hume describe the is-ought problem?
4.
Why does Moore object to the naturalistic fallacy?
5.
Why do moral realists object to the fact-value distinction?
6.
How does ethical naturalism argue for moral objectivity?

8.2 Basic Questions about Values

7.
What is an intrinsic value?
8.
What is an extrinsic value?
9.
What is monism? Why would someone argue for this position?
10.
What is pluralism? Why would someone argue for this position?
11.
What is incommensurability? Why would it lead to pluralism?
12.
What is moral relativism?

8.3 Metaethics

13.
What does “ontology of value” mean?
14.
What does moral realism argue?
15.
What does moral anti-realism argue?
16.
How does the concept of God serve as a possible foundation for morality? How does religion serve as a possible foundation for morality?
17.
What is the Euthyphro problem? How is it related to divine command theory?
18.
How does nature serve as a possible foundation for morality and moral reasoning?
19.
What is feminist care ethics?
20.
What is Kant’s categorical imperative? How does it use reason to establish morality?

8.4 Well-Being

21.
What is hedonism, and how is it used to philosophize about well-being?
22.
What is Epicurus’s concept of pleasure?
23.
How do utilitarians determine what is valuable?
24.
What is Nozick’s experience machine, and how does it help you think about the limitations of hedonism?
25.
What is satisfactionism? Why is it important to consider informed desire?
26.
How do objective goods like knowledge, virtue, and friendship contribute to well-being?
27.
What is eudaimonia? How did Anscombe revive eudaimonism?
28.
What is Kant’s “kingdom of ends”?
29.
What is ikigai, and how is it distinct from hedonistic well-being?

8.5 Aesthetics

30.
What is Plato’s concept of beauty? Why does it make sense within the ancient Greek art world?
31.
What is Hume’s concept of beauty?
32.
What is Kant’s concept of aesthetic judgment?
33.
According to Sibley, how do people justify aesthetic judgments?
34.
What is the intentional fallacy? Why is limiting the meaning of a work of art to the artist’s intention a problem?
35.
How is art related to environmentalism?
36.
How does feminism use art?
37.
What is everyday aesthetics? How is it related to Japanese aesthetics?
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