 Elementary Algebra

# Chapter 7

Elementary AlgebraChapter 7

### Try It

7.1

16

7.2

2

7.3

$6x26x2$

7.4

$8y28y2$

7.5

$2ab2ab$

7.6

$3m3n3m3n$

7.7

$5m25m2$

7.8

$7x7x$

7.9

$6(a+4)6(a+4)$

7.10

$2(b+7)2(b+7)$

7.11

$14(x+1)14(x+1)$

7.12

$12(p+1)12(p+1)$

7.13

$8(u−2)8(u−2)$

7.14

$30(y−2)30(y−2)$

7.15

$5(x2−5x+3)5(x2−5x+3)$

7.16

$3(y2−4y+9)3(y2−4y+9)$

7.17

$2x2(x+6)2x2(x+6)$

7.18

$3y2(2y−5)3y2(2y−5)$

7.19

$2x(10x2−5x+7)2x(10x2−5x+7)$

7.20

$4y(6y2−3y−5)4y(6y2−3y−5)$

7.21

$3y2(3x+2x2+7y)3y2(3x+2x2+7y)$

7.22

$3p(p2−2pq+3q2)3p(p2−2pq+3q2)$

7.23

$−8(8z+8)−8(8z+8)$

7.24

$−9(y+3)−9(y+3)$

7.25

$−4b(b−4)−4b(b−4)$

7.26

$−7a(a−3)−7a(a−3)$

7.27

$(m+3)(4m−7)(m+3)(4m−7)$

7.28

$(n−4)(8n+5)(n−4)(8n+5)$

7.29

$(x+8)(y+3)(x+8)(y+3)$

7.30

$(a+7)(b+8)(a+7)(b+8)$

7.31

$(x−5)(x+2)(x−5)(x+2)$

7.32

$(y+4)(y−7)(y+4)(y−7)$

7.33

$(x+2)(x+4)(x+2)(x+4)$

7.34

$(y+3)(y+5)(y+3)(y+5)$

7.35

$(q+4)(q+6)(q+4)(q+6)$

7.36

$(t+2)(t+12)(t+2)(t+12)$

7.37

$(x+4)(x+15)(x+4)(x+15)$

7.38

$(v+3)(v+20)(v+3)(v+20)$

7.39

$(u−3)(u−6)(u−3)(u−6)$

7.40

$(y−7)(y−9)(y−7)(y−9)$

7.41

$(h−2)(h+6)(h−2)(h+6)$

7.42

$(k−4)(k+5)(k−4)(k+5)$

7.43

$(x+2)(x−6)(x+2)(x−6)$

7.44

$(y+4)(y−5)(y+4)(y−5)$

7.45

$(r+5)(r−8)(r+5)(r−8)$

7.46

$(s+2)(s−5)(s+2)(s−5)$

7.47

prime

7.48

prime

7.49

$(m+3)(m+6)(m+3)(m+6)$

7.50

$(n−3)(n−4)(n−3)(n−4)$

7.51

$(u+4v)(u+7v)(u+4v)(u+7v)$

7.52

$(x+6y)(x+7y)(x+6y)(x+7y)$

7.53

$(a−b)(a−10b)(a−b)(a−10b)$

7.54

$(m−n)(m−12n)(m−n)(m−12n)$

7.55

prime

7.56

prime

7.57

no method undo using FOIL factor with grouping

7.58

factor using grouping no method undo using FOIL

7.59

$4(m+1)(m−2)4(m+1)(m−2)$

7.60

$5(k+2)(k−5)5(k+2)(k−5)$

7.61

$3(r−1)(r−2)3(r−1)(r−2)$

7.62

$2(t−2)(t−3)2(t−2)(t−3)$

7.63

$5x(x−1)(x+4)5x(x−1)(x+4)$

7.64

$6y(y−2)(y+5)6y(y−2)(y+5)$

7.65

$(a+1)(2a+3)(a+1)(2a+3)$

7.66

$(b+1)(4b+1)(b+1)(4b+1)$

7.67

$(2x−3)(4x−1)(2x−3)(4x−1)$

7.68

$(2y−7)(5y−1)(2y−7)(5y−1)$

7.69

$(a−1)(8a+5)(a−1)(8a+5)$

7.70

$(2b+3)(3b−5)(2b+3)(3b−5)$

7.71

$(3x+2)(6x−5)(3x+2)(6x−5)$

7.72

$(3y+1)(10y−21)(3y+1)(10y−21)$

7.73

$5n(n−4)(3n−5)5n(n−4)(3n−5)$

7.74

$8q(q+6)(7q−2)8q(q+6)(7q−2)$

7.75

$(x+2)(6x+1)(x+2)(6x+1)$

7.76

$(2y+1)(2y+3)(2y+1)(2y+3)$

7.77

$(4h−5)(5h+3)(4h−5)(5h+3)$

7.78

$(q+4)(6q−5)(q+4)(6q−5)$

7.79

$(2t+5)(5t−3)(2t+5)(5t−3)$

7.80

$(u+1)(3u+5)(u+1)(3u+5)$

7.81

$4(2x−3)(2x−1)4(2x−3)(2x−1)$

7.82

$3(3w−2)(2w−3)3(3w−2)(2w−3)$

7.83

$(2x+3)2(2x+3)2$

7.84

$(3y+4)2(3y+4)2$

7.85

$(8y−5)2(8y−5)2$

7.86

$(4z−9)2(4z−9)2$

7.87

$(7x+6y)2(7x+6y)2$

7.88

$(8m+7n)2(8m+7n)2$

7.89

$(8r+3s)(2r+3s)(8r+3s)(2r+3s)$

7.90

$(3u+4)(3u+25)(3u+4)(3u+25)$

7.91

$2y(2x−3)22y(2x−3)2$

7.92

$3q(3p+5)23q(3p+5)2$

7.93

$(h−9)(h+9)(h−9)(h+9)$

7.94

$(k−11)(k+11)(k−11)(k+11)$

7.95

$(m−1)(m+1)(m−1)(m+1)$

7.96

$(9y−1)(9y+1)(9y−1)(9y+1)$

7.97

$(16m−5n)(16m+5n)(16m−5n)(16m+5n)$

7.98

$(12p−3q)(12p+3q)(12p−3q)(12p+3q)$

7.99

$(12−x)(12+x)(12−x)(12+x)$

7.100

$(13−p)(13+p)(13−p)(13+p)$

7.101

$(a2+b2)(a+b)(a−b)(a2+b2)(a+b)(a−b)$

7.102

$(x2+4)(x+2)(x−2)(x2+4)(x+2)(x−2)$

7.103

$7x(y−5)(y+5)7x(y−5)(y+5)$

7.104

$5b(3a−4)(3a+4)5b(3a−4)(3a+4)$

7.105

$8(a2+25)8(a2+25)$

7.106

$9(4y2+9)9(4y2+9)$

7.107

$(x+3)(x2−3x+9)(x+3)(x2−3x+9)$

7.108

$(y+2)(y2−2y+4)(y+2)(y2−2y+4)$

7.109

$(u−5)(u2+5u+25)(u−5)(u2+5u+25)$

7.110

$(v−7)(v2+7v+49)(v−7)(v2+7v+49)$

7.111

$(4−3x)(16+12x+9x2)(4−3x)(16+12x+9x2)$

7.112

$(3−2y)(9+6y+4y2)(3−2y)(9+6y+4y2)$

7.113

$(2x−3y)(4x2+6xy+9y2)(2x−3y)(4x2+6xy+9y2)$

7.114

$(10m−5n)(100m2−50mn+25n2)(10m−5n)(100m2−50mn+25n2)$

7.115

$4(5p+q)(25p2−5pq+q2)4(5p+q)(25p2−5pq+q2)$

7.116

$2(6c+7d)(36c2−42cd+49d2)2(6c+7d)(36c2−42cd+49d2)$

7.117

$3a3(a+6)3a3(a+6)$

7.118

$9b5(5b+3)9b5(5b+3)$

7.119

$(5a−6)(2a−1)(5a−6)(2a−1)$

7.120

$(2x−3)(4x−3)(2x−3)(4x−3)$

7.121

$x(x2+36)x(x2+36)$

7.122

$3(9y2+16)3(9y2+16)$

7.123

$4x(2x−3)(2x+3)4x(2x−3)(2x+3)$

7.124

$3(3y−4)(3y+4)3(3y−4)(3y+4)$

7.125

$(2x+5y)2(2x+5y)2$

7.126

$(3m+7n)2(3m+7n)2$

7.127

$8(y−1)(y+3)8(y−1)(y+3)$

7.128

$5(u−9)(u+6)5(u−9)(u+6)$

7.129

$2(5m+6)(25m2−30m+36)2(5m+6)(25m2−30m+36)$

7.130

$3(3q+4)(9q2−12q+16)3(3q+4)(9q2−12q+16)$

7.131

$4(a2+4)(a−2)(a+2)4(a2+4)(a−2)(a+2)$

7.132

$7(y2+1)(y−1)(y+1)7(y2+1)(y−1)(y+1)$

7.133

$6(x+b)(x−2c)6(x+b)(x−2c)$

7.134

$2(4x−1)(x+3y)2(4x−1)(x+3y)$

7.135

$4(p−1)(p−3)4(p−1)(p−3)$

7.136

$3(q−2)(2q+1)3(q−2)(2q+1)$

7.137

$x=3,x=−5x=3,x=−5$

7.138

$y=6,y=−9y=6,y=−9$

7.139

$m=23,m=−12m=23,m=−12$

7.140

$p=−34,p=34p=−34,p=34$

7.141

$u=0,u=15u=0,u=15$

7.142

$w=0,w=−32w=0,w=−32$

7.143

$x=1x=1$

7.144

$v=2v=2$

7.145

$x=4,x=−3x=4,x=−3$

7.146

$b=−2,b=−7b=−2,b=−7$

7.147

$c=0,c=43c=0,c=43$

7.148

$d=3,d=−12d=3,d=−12$

7.149

$a=0,a=−1a=0,a=−1$

7.150

$b=0,b=−13b=0,b=−13$

7.151

$p=75,p=−75p=75,p=−75$

7.152

$x=116,x=−116x=116,x=−116$

7.153

$m=1,m=32m=1,m=32$

7.154

$k=3,k=−3k=3,k=−3$

7.155

$x=0,x=32x=0,x=32$

7.156

$y=0,y=14y=0,y=14$

7.157

$a=−52,a=23a=−52,a=23$

7.158

$b=2,b=120b=2,b=120$

7.159

$−15,−16and15,16−15,−16and15,16$

7.160

$−21,−20and20,21−21,−20and20,21$

7.161

$55$ feet and $66$ feet

7.162

$1212$ feet and $1515$ feet

7.163

$55$ feet and $1212$ feet

7.164

$2424$ feet and $2525$ feet

### Section 7.1 Exercises

1.

2

3.

18

5.

10

7.

$xx$

9.

$8w28w2$

11.

$2pq2pq$

13.

$6m2n36m2n3$

15.

$2a2a$

17.

$5x35x3$

19.

$4(x+5)4(x+5)$

21.

$3(2m+3)3(2m+3)$

23.

$9(q+1)9(q+1)$

25.

$8(m−1)8(m−1)$

27.

$9(n−7)9(n−7)$

29.

$3(x2+2x−3)3(x2+2x−3)$

31.

$2(4p2+2p+1)2(4p2+2p+1)$

33.

$8y2(y+2)8y2(y+2)$

35.

$5x(x2−3x+4)5x(x2−3x+4)$

37.

$6y2(2x+3x2−5y)6y2(2x+3x2−5y)$

39.

$−2(x+2)−2(x+2)$

41.

$(x+1)(5x+3)(x+1)(5x+3)$

43.

$(b−2)(3b−13)(b−2)(3b−13)$

45.

$(y+3)(x+2)(y+3)(x+2)$

47.

$(u+2)(v−9)(u+2)(v−9)$

49.

$(b−4)(b+5)(b−4)(b+5)$

51.

$(p−9)(p+4)(p−9)(p+4)$

53.

$−10(2x+1)−10(2x+1)$

55.

$(x2+2)(3x−7)(x2+2)(3x−7)$

57.

$(x+y)(x+5)(x+y)(x+5)$

59.

$w(w−6)w(w−6)$

61.

### Section 7.2 Exercises

63.

$(x+1)(x+3)(x+1)(x+3)$

65.

$(m+1)(m+11)(m+1)(m+11)$

67.

$(a+4)(a+5)(a+4)(a+5)$

69.

$(p+5)(p+6)(p+5)(p+6)$

71.

$(n+3)(n+16)(n+3)(n+16)$

73.

$(a+5)(a+20)(a+5)(a+20)$

75.

$(x−2)(x−6)(x−2)(x−6)$

77.

$(y−3)(y−15)(y−3)(y−15)$

79.

$(x−1)(x−7)(x−1)(x−7)$

81.

$(p−1)(p+6)(p−1)(p+6)$

83.

$(y+1)(y−7)(y+1)(y−7)$

85.

$(x−4)(x+3)(x−4)(x+3)$

87.

$(a−7)(a+4)(a−7)(a+4)$

89.

$(w−9)(w+4)(w−9)(w+4)$

91.

prime

93.

$(x−4)(x−2)(x−4)(x−2)$

95.

$(x−12)(x+1)(x−12)(x+1)$

97.

$(p+q)(p+2q)(p+q)(p+2q)$

99.

$(r+3s)(r+12s)(r+3s)(r+12s)$

101.

$(m−2n)(m−10n)(m−2n)(m−10n)$

103.

$(x+8y)(x−10y)(x+8y)(x−10y)$

105.

$(m+n)(m−65n)(m+n)(m−65n)$

107.

$(a+8b)(a−3b)(a+8b)(a−3b)$

109.

prime

111.

prime

113.

$(u−6)(u−6)(u−6)(u−6)$

115.

$(x+2)(x−16)(x+2)(x−16)$

117.

$(r−4s)(r−16s)(r−4s)(r−16s)$

119.

$(k+4)(k+30)(k+4)(k+30)$

121.

prime

123.

$(m+8n)(m−7n)(m+8n)(m−7n)$

125.

$(u−15v)(u−2v)(u−15v)(u−2v)$

127.

prime

129.

$(x+8)(x−7)(x+8)(x−7)$

131.

133.

### Section 7.3 Exercises

135.

factor the GCF, binomial Undo FOIL factor by grouping

137.

undo FOIL factor by grouping factor the GCF, binomial

139.

$5(x+1)(x+6)5(x+1)(x+6)$

141.

$2(z−4)(z+3)2(z−4)(z+3)$

143.

$7(v−1)(v−8)7(v−1)(v−8)$

145.

$p(p−10)(p+2)p(p−10)(p+2)$

147.

$3m(m−5)(m−2)3m(m−5)(m−2)$

149.

$5x2(x−3)(x+5)5x2(x−3)(x+5)$

151.

$(2t+5)(t+1)(2t+5)(t+1)$

153.

$(11x+1)(x+3)(11x+1)(x+3)$

155.

$(4w−1)(w−1)(4w−1)(w−1)$

157.

$(3p−2)(2p−5)(3p−2)(2p−5)$

159.

$(4q+1)(q−2)(4q+1)(q−2)$

161.

$(4p−3)(p+5)(4p−3)(p+5)$

163.

$16(x−1)(x−1)16(x−1)(x−1)$

165.

$10q(3q+2)(q+4)10q(3q+2)(q+4)$

167.

$(5n+1)(n+4)(5n+1)(n+4)$

169.

$(3z+1)(3z+4)(3z+1)(3z+4)$

171.

$(2k−3)(2k−5)(2k−3)(2k−5)$

173.

$(5s−4)(s−1)(5s−4)(s−1)$

175.

$(3y+5)(2y−3)(3y+5)(2y−3)$

177.

$(2n+3)(n−15)(2n+3)(n−15)$

179.

prime

181.

$10(6y−1)(y+5)10(6y−1)(y+5)$

183.

$3z(8z+3)(2z−5)3z(8z+3)(2z−5)$

185.

$8(2s+3)(s+1)8(2s+3)(s+1)$

187.

$12(4y−3)(y+1)12(4y−3)(y+1)$

189.

$(4y−7)(3y−2)(4y−7)(3y−2)$

191.

$(a−5)(a+4)(a−5)(a+4)$

193.

$(2n−1)(3n+4)(2n−1)(3n+4)$

195.

prime

197.

$13(z2+3z−2)13(z2+3z−2)$

199.

$(x+7)(x−4)(x+7)(x−4)$

201.

$3p(p+7)3p(p+7)$

203.

$6(r+2)(r+3)6(r+2)(r+3)$

205.

$4(2n+1)(3n+1)4(2n+1)(3n+1)$

207.

$(x+6)(x−4)(x+6)(x−4)$

209.

$−16(t−6)(t+1)−16(t−6)(t+1)$

211.

213.

### Section 7.4 Exercises

215.

$(4y+3)2(4y+3)2$

217.

$(6s+7)2(6s+7)2$

219.

$(10x−1)2(10x−1)2$

221.

$(5n−12)2(5n−12)2$

223.

$(7x−2y)2(7x−2y)2$

225.

$(5n+4)(5n+1)(5n+4)(5n+1)$

227.

$(8m−1)2(8m−1)2$

229.

$10(k+4)210(k+4)2$

231.

$3u(5u−v)23u(5u−v)2$

233.

$(x−4)(x+4)(x−4)(x+4)$

235.

$(5v−1)(5v+1)(5v−1)(5v+1)$

237.

$(11x−12y)(11x+12y)(11x−12y)(11x+12y)$

239.

$(13c−6d)(13c+6d)(13c−6d)(13c+6d)$

241.

$(7x−2)(7x+2)(7x−2)(7x+2)$ $(2−7x)(2+7x)(2−7x)(2+7x)$

243.

$(2z−1)(2z+1)(4z2+1)(2z−1)(2z+1)(4z2+1)$

245.

$5(q−3)(q+3)5(q−3)(q+3)$

247.

$6(4p2+9)6(4p2+9)$

249.

$(x+5)(x2−5x+25)(x+5)(x2−5x+25)$

251.

$(z−3)(z2+3z+9)(z−3)(z2+3z+9)$

253.

$(2−7t)(4+14t+49t2)(2−7t)(4+14t+49t2)$

255.

$(2y−5z)(4y2+10yz+25z2)(2y−5z)(4y2+10yz+25z2)$

257.

$7(k+2)(k2−2k+4)7(k+2)(k2−2k+4)$

259.

$2(1−2y)(1+2y+4y2)2(1−2y)(1+2y+4y2)$

261.

$(8a−5)(8a+5)(8a−5)(8a+5)$

263.

$3(3q−1)(3q+1)3(3q−1)(3q+1)$

265.

$(4x−9)2(4x−9)2$

267.

$2(4p2+1)2(4p2+1)$

269.

$(5−2y)(25+10y+4y2)(5−2y)(25+10y+4y2)$

271.

$5(3n+2)25(3n+2)2$

273.

$(2w+15)2(2w+15)2$

275.

277.

### Section 7.5 Exercises

279.

$5x3(2x+7)5x3(2x+7)$

281.

$(y−3)(y+13)(y−3)(y+13)$

283.

$(2n−1)(n+7)(2n−1)(n+7)$

285.

$a3(a2+9)a3(a2+9)$

287.

$(11r−s)(11r+s)(11r−s)(11r+s)$

289.

$8(m−2)(m+2)8(m−2)(m+2)$

291.

$(5w−6)2(5w−6)2$

293.

$(m+7n)2(m+7n)2$

295.

$7(b+3)(b−2)7(b+3)(b−2)$

297.

$3(x−3)(x2+3x+9)3(x−3)(x2+3x+9)$

299.

$(k−2)(k+2)(k2+4)(k−2)(k+2)(k2+4)$

301.

$3(5p+4)(q−1)3(5p+4)(q−1)$

303.

$4(x+3)(x+7)4(x+3)(x+7)$

305.

$u2(u+1)(u2−u+1)u2(u+1)(u2−u+1)$

307.

prime

309.

$10(m−5)(m+5)(m2+25)10(m−5)(m+5)(m2+25)$

311.

$−16(t2−5)−16(t2−5)$ $−8(2t+5)(t−2)−8(2t+5)(t−2)$

### Section 7.6 Exercises

315.

$x=3,x=−7x=3,x=−7$

317.

$a=10/3,a=7/2a=10/3,a=7/2$

319.

$m=0,m=5/12m=0,m=5/12$

321.

$y=3y=3$

323.

$x=1/2x=1/2$

325.

$x=−3,x=−4x=−3,x=−4$

327.

$a=−4/5,a=6a=−4/5,a=6$

329.

$m=5/4,m=3m=5/4,m=3$

331.

$a=−1,a=0a=−1,a=0$

333.

$m=12/7,m=−12/7m=12/7,m=−12/7$

335.

$y=−1,y=6y=−1,y=6$

337.

$x=3/2,x=−1x=3/2,x=−1$

339.

$p=0,p=¾p=0,p=¾$

341.

$x=3/2x=3/2$

343.

$7and8;−8and−77and8;−8and−7$

345.

$4feet and7feet4feet and7feet$

347.

$6feet and8feet6feet and8feet$

349.

$x=−8,x=3x=−8,x=3$

351.

$p=−1,p=−11p=−1,p=−11$

353.

$m=−2,m=8m=−2,m=8$

355.

$a=0,a=−6,a=7a=0,a=−6,a=7$

357.

$10and11;−11and−1010and11;−11and−10$

359.

10 feet

361.

### Review Exercises

363.

6

365.

$1515$

367.

$6(4x−7)6(4x−7)$

369.

$3m2(5m2+2n)3m2(5m2+2n)$

371.

$(a+b)(x−y)(a+b)(x−y)$

373.

$(x−3)(x+7)(x−3)(x+7)$

375.

$(m2+1)(m+1)(m2+1)(m+1)$

377.

$(u+8)(u+9)(u+8)(u+9)$

379.

$(k−6)(k−10)(k−6)(k−10)$

381.

$(y+7)(y−1)(y+7)(y−1)$

383.

$(s−4)(s+2)(s−4)(s+2)$

385.

$(x+5y)(x+7y)(x+5y)(x+7y)$

387.

$(a+7b)(a−3b)(a+7b)(a−3b)$

389.

Undo FOIL

391.

Factor the GCF

393.

$6(x+2)(x+5)6(x+2)(x+5)$

395.

$3n2(n−8)(n+4)3n2(n−8)(n+4)$

397.

$(x+4)(2x+1)(x+4)(2x+1)$

399.

$(3a−1)(6a−1)(3a−1)(6a−1)$

401.

$(5p+4)(3p−2)(5p+4)(3p−2)$

403.

$(5s−2)(8s+3)(5s−2)(8s+3)$

405.

$3(x+4)(x−3)3(x+4)(x−3)$

407.

$5(4y+1)(3y−5)5(4y+1)(3y−5)$

409.

$(5x+3)2(5x+3)2$

411.

$(6a−7b)2(6a−7b)2$

413.

$10(2x+9)210(2x+9)2$

415.

$2y(y−4)22y(y−4)2$

417.

$(9r−5)(9r+5)(9r−5)(9r+5)$

419.

$(13m+n)(13m−n)(13m+n)(13m−n)$

421.

$(5p−1)(5p+1)(5p−1)(5p+1)$

423.

$(3+11y)(3−11y)(3+11y)(3−11y)$

425.

$5(2x−5)(2x+5)5(2x−5)(2x+5)$

427.

$u(7u+3)(7u−3)u(7u+3)(7u−3)$

429.

$(a−5)(a2+5a+25)(a−5)(a2+5a+25)$

431.

$2(m+3)(m2−3m+9)2(m+3)(m2−3m+9)$

433.

$4x2(6x+11)4x2(6x+11)$

435.

$(4n−7m)2(4n−7m)2$

437.

$(r+6)(5r−8)(r+6)(5r−8)$

439.

$(n2+9)(n+3)(n−3)(n2+9)(n+3)(n−3)$

441.

$5(x−3)(x+4)5(x−3)(x+4)$

443.

$(m+5)(m2−5m+25)(m+5)(m2−5m+25)$

445.

$a=3a=−7a=3a=−7$

447.

$m=0m=52m=–6m=0m=52m=–6$

449.

$x=−4,x=−5x=−4,x=−5$

451.

$p=−52,p=8p=−52,p=8$

453.

$m=512,m=−512m=512,m=−512$

455.

$−21,−2221,22−21,−2221,22$

### Practice Test

457.

$7(y−6)7(y−6)$

459.

$40a2(2+3a)40a2(2+3a)$

461.

$(x+7)(x+6)(x+7)(x+6)$

463.

$3a(a+4)(a−6)3a(a+4)(a−6)$

465.

$5(n+3)25(n+3)2$

467.

$(x−8)(y+7)(x−8)(y+7)$

469.

$(3s−2)2(3s−2)2$

471.

$(10−a)(10+a)(10−a)(10+a)$

473.

$3(x+5y)(x−5y)3(x+5y)(x−5y)$

475.

$(a−3)(b−2)(a−3)(b−2)$

477.

$(4m+1)(2m+5)(4m+1)(2m+5)$

479.

$y=−11,y=12y=−11,y=12$

481.

$b=1,b=−1b=1,b=−1$

483.

$n=−74,n=−3n=−74,n=−3$

485.

$12and13;−13and−1212and13;−13and−12$

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