Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Key Terms

8.1 Gathering and Organizing Data

  • sample
  • units
  • data
  • population
  • simple random sample
  • systematic random sample
  • stratified sample
  • cluster sample
  • quantitative data
  • categorical data
  • categorical frequency Distribution
  • binned frequency distribution

8.2 Visualizing Data

  • proportion
  • bar chart
  • pie chart
  • stem-and-leaf plot
  • distribution (of quantitative data)
  • histogram
  • bar chart for labeled data

8.3 Mean, Median and Mode

  • mode
  • bimodal
  • median
  • mean

8.4 Range and Standard Deviation

  • range
  • standard deviation

8.5 Percentiles

  • percentile
  • quartile
  • quintile
  • quantile

8.6 The Normal Distribution

  • normal distribution
  • 68-95-99.7 Rule
  • standardized score (zz-score)

8.8 Scatter Plots, Correlation, and Regression Lines

  • response variable (dependent variable)
  • explanatory variable (independent variable)
  • scatter plot
  • positive linear relationship
  • negative linear relationship
  • correlation coefficient
  • regression line (least-squares line, line of best fit)
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Dec 21, 2023 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.