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Calculus Volume 2

Key Concepts

Calculus Volume 2Key Concepts
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Approximating Areas
    3. 1.2 The Definite Integral
    4. 1.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
    5. 1.4 Integration Formulas and the Net Change Theorem
    6. 1.5 Substitution
    7. 1.6 Integrals Involving Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    8. 1.7 Integrals Resulting in Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Chapter Review Exercises
  3. 2 Applications of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Areas between Curves
    3. 2.2 Determining Volumes by Slicing
    4. 2.3 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells
    5. 2.4 Arc Length of a Curve and Surface Area
    6. 2.5 Physical Applications
    7. 2.6 Moments and Centers of Mass
    8. 2.7 Integrals, Exponential Functions, and Logarithms
    9. 2.8 Exponential Growth and Decay
    10. 2.9 Calculus of the Hyperbolic Functions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Chapter Review Exercises
  4. 3 Techniques of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Integration by Parts
    3. 3.2 Trigonometric Integrals
    4. 3.3 Trigonometric Substitution
    5. 3.4 Partial Fractions
    6. 3.5 Other Strategies for Integration
    7. 3.6 Numerical Integration
    8. 3.7 Improper Integrals
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Chapter Review Exercises
  5. 4 Introduction to Differential Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Basics of Differential Equations
    3. 4.2 Direction Fields and Numerical Methods
    4. 4.3 Separable Equations
    5. 4.4 The Logistic Equation
    6. 4.5 First-order Linear Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  6. 5 Sequences and Series
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sequences
    3. 5.2 Infinite Series
    4. 5.3 The Divergence and Integral Tests
    5. 5.4 Comparison Tests
    6. 5.5 Alternating Series
    7. 5.6 Ratio and Root Tests
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Chapter Review Exercises
  7. 6 Power Series
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Power Series and Functions
    3. 6.2 Properties of Power Series
    4. 6.3 Taylor and Maclaurin Series
    5. 6.4 Working with Taylor Series
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Chapter Review Exercises
  8. 7 Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Parametric Equations
    3. 7.2 Calculus of Parametric Curves
    4. 7.3 Polar Coordinates
    5. 7.4 Area and Arc Length in Polar Coordinates
    6. 7.5 Conic Sections
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  9. A | Table of Integrals
  10. B | Table of Derivatives
  11. C | Review of Pre-Calculus
  12. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
  13. Index

4.1 Basics of Differential Equations

  • A differential equation is an equation involving a function y=f(x)y=f(x) and one or more of its derivatives. A solution is a function y=f(x)y=f(x) that satisfies the differential equation when ff and its derivatives are substituted into the equation.
  • The order of a differential equation is the highest order of any derivative of the unknown function that appears in the equation.
  • A differential equation coupled with an initial value is called an initial-value problem. To solve an initial-value problem, first find the general solution to the differential equation, then determine the value of the constant. Initial-value problems have many applications in science and engineering.

4.2 Direction Fields and Numerical Methods

  • A direction field is a mathematical object used to graphically represent solutions to a first-order differential equation.
  • Euler’s Method is a numerical technique that can be used to approximate solutions to a differential equation.

4.3 Separable Equations

  • A separable differential equation is any equation that can be written in the form y=f(x)g(y).y=f(x)g(y).
  • The method of separation of variables is used to find the general solution to a separable differential equation.

4.4 The Logistic Equation

  • When studying population functions, different assumptions—such as exponential growth, logistic growth, or threshold population—lead to different rates of growth.
  • The logistic differential equation incorporates the concept of a carrying capacity. This value is a limiting value on the population for any given environment.
  • The logistic differential equation can be solved for any positive growth rate, initial population, and carrying capacity.

4.5 First-order Linear Equations

  • Any first-order linear differential equation can be written in the form y+p(x)y=q(x).y+p(x)y=q(x).
  • We can use a five-step problem-solving strategy for solving a first-order linear differential equation that may or may not include an initial value.
  • Applications of first-order linear differential equations include determining motion of a rising or falling object with air resistance and finding current in an electrical circuit.
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