Examine the data pictured. The table shows the amount of oxygen consumed (third column) by different animals (first column) at different temperatures. The type of apparatus employed in this investigation measures the changes in volume of air to detect the removal of oxygen. However, organisms produce carbon dioxide as they take in oxygen. Predict what you would need to add to the setup in order to provide accurate measurements.
- a plant that will add oxygen to allow an animal to breathe
- a glucose reserve
- a substance that removes carbon dioxide gas
- a substance that adds carbon dioxide gas
Evaluate the table pictured. According to the data, the crickets at 25°C have greater oxygen consumption per gram of tissue than do the crickets at 10°C. This trend in oxygen consumption is the opposite of that in mice. Make a claim to explain the reason for this difference in trends in oxygen consumption among crickets and mice.
- It is caused by the animals' difference in size.
- It is a result of the animals' different modes of nutrition.
- It is a result of the animals' differences in metabolic heat production.
- It is a reflection of the animals' different modes of ATP production.
- the cytosol
- the mitochondria
- the plasma membrane
- the nucleus
- aerobic respiration
- the citric acid cycle
- oxidative phosphorylation
- Glycolysis takes place in anaerobic conditions, can metabolize cholesterol and fatty acids, and occurs even in methanogens.
- This pathway occurs in the cytosol, is found in all animals and plants, and does not require oxygen.
- Glycolysis is found in all three domains of living things. It also occurs in anaerobic conditions and in the cytosol.
- This pathway only occurs in the mitochondria. It is highly flexible because it is found in almost all organisms.
What is Structure X in the graphic?
- the inner mitochondrial membrane
- the mitochondrial matrix
- a eukaryotic plasma membrane
- the cytosol
Evaluate the process represented by the diagram. Predict the most direct result of blocking structure Z.
- Cytochrome c would not pass electrons from complex III to complex IV.
- Ubiquinone would not pass electrons from complex III to complex IV.
- NADH would not be converted to NAD+ and the electron transport chain would stop.
- No protons would be pumped across the membrane
Evaluate the diagram of the electron transport chain. Based on your understanding of this part of glucose metabolism, where do the electrons that are moving along the membrane come from, and where do the electrons end up?
- The electrons are given off by water and finally accepted by NAD+ and FAD+ to produce the energy currencies NADH and FADH2.
- The electrons are released by NADH and FADH2 and finally accepted by oxygen to form water.
- The electrons are given out by NADH and FADH2 and are, in turn, finally accepted by H2O.
- The electrons are emitted by ubiquinone and are in turn,finally accepted by H2O.
Glucose catabolism pathways are sequential and lead to the production of ATP. What is the correct order of the pathways for the breakdown of a molecule of glucose as shown in the formula?
- oxidative phosphorylation citric acid cycle oxidation of pyruvate glycolysis
- the oxidation of pyruvate citric acid cycle glycolysis oxidative phosphorylation
- glycolysis oxidation of pyruvate citric acid cycle oxidative phosphorylation
- citric acid cycle glycolysis oxidative phosphorylation oxidation of pyruvate
- During cold periods, pond-dwelling animals can increase the number of unsaturated fatty acids in their cell membranes, while some plants make antifreeze proteins to prevent ice crystal formation in their tissues.
- Bacteria lack introns, while many eukaryotic genes contain several of these intervening sequences.
- Carnivores have more teeth that are specialized for ripping food, while herbivores have more teeth specialized for grinding food.
- Plants generally use starch molecules for storage, while animals use glycogen and fats for storage.
- Glycolysis produces pyruvate, which is converted to acetyl-CoA and enters the citric acid cycle. This cycle produces NADH and FADH2, which donate electrons to the electron transport chain to pump protons and produce ATP through chemiosmosis. Production of ATP using an electron transport chain and chemiosmosis is called oxidative phosphorylation.
- The citric acid cycle produces pyruvate, which converts to glucose to enter glycolysis. This pathway produces NADH and FADH2, which enter oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP through chemiosmosis.
- The citric acid cycle produces NADH and FADH2, which undergo oxidative phosphorylation. This produces ATP by pumping protons through chemiosmosis. The ATP produced is utilized in large amount in the process of glycolysis.
- Glycolysis produces pyruvate, which directly enters the citric acid cycle. This cycle produces the energy currency that undergoes the electron transport chain to produce water and ATP.