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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
27.
Which element of the cell theory has practical applications in health care because it promotes the use of sterilization and disinfection?
  1. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
  2. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
  3. A cell is the basic unit of life.
  4. A nucleus and organelles are found in prokaryotic cells.
28.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of light microscopes? What are the advantages and disadvantages of electron microscopes?
  1. Advantage: In light microscopes, the light beam does not kill the cell. Electron microscopes are helpful in viewing intricate details of a specimen and have high resolution. Disadvantage: Light microscopes have low resolving power. Electron microscopes are costly and require killing the specimen.
  2. Advantage: Light microscopes have high resolution. Electron microscopes are helpful in viewing surface details of a specimen. Disadvantage: Light microscopes kill the cell. Electron microscopes are costly and low resolution.
  3. Advantage: Light microscopes have high resolution. Electron microscopes are helpful in viewing surface details of a specimen. Disadvantage: Light microscopes can be used only in the presence of light and are costly. Electron microscopes uses short wavelength of electrons and hence have lower magnification.
  4. Advantage: Light microscopes have high magnification. Electron microscopes are helpful in viewing surface details of a specimen. Disadvantage: Light microscopes can be used only in the presence of light and have lower resolution. Electron microscopes can be used only for viewing ultra-thin specimens.
29.
Mitochondria are observed in plant cells that contain chloroplasts. Why do you find mitochondria in photosynthetic tissue?
  1. Mitochondria are not needed but are an evolutionary relic.
  2. Mitochondria and chloroplasts work together to use light energy to make sugars.
  3. Mitochondria participate in the Calvin cycle/light independent reactions of photosynthesis.
  4. Mitochondria are required to break down sugars and other materials for energy.
30.
In what situation, or situations, would the use of a light microscope be ideal? Why?
  1. A light microscope is used to view the details of the surface of a cell as it cannot be viewed in detail by the transmission microscope.
  2. A light microscope allows visualization of small living cells, which have been stained and cannot be viewed by scanning electron microscope.
  3. A standard light microscope is used to view living organisms with little contrast to distinguish them from the background, which would be harder to see with the electron microscope.
  4. A light microscope reveals the internal structures of a cell, which cannot be viewed by transmission electron microscopy.
31.
The major role of the cell wall in bacteria is protecting the cell against changes in osmotic pressure, pressure caused by different solute concentrations in the environment. Bacterial cells swell, but do not burst, in low solute concentrations. What happens to bacterial cells if a compound that interferes with the synthesis of the cell wall is added to an environment with low solute concentrations?
  1. Bacterial cells will shrink due to the lack of cell wall material.
  2. Bacterial cells will shrink in size.
  3. Bacterial cells may burst due to the influx of water.
  4. Bacterial cells remain normal; they have alternative pathways to synthesize cell walls.
32.
We have discussed the upper limits of cell size; yet, there is a lower limit to cell size. What determines how small a cell can be?
  1. The cell should be large enough to escape detection.
  2. The cell should be able to accommodate all the structures and metabolic activities necessary to survival.
  3. The size of the cell should be large enough to reproduce itself.
  4. The cell should be large enough to adapt to the changing environmental conditions.
33.
Which of these is a possible explanation for the presence of a rigid cell wall in plants?
  1. Plants remain exposed to changes in temperature and thus require rigid cell walls to protect themselves.
  2. Plants are subjected to osmotic pressure and a cell wall helps them against bursting or shrinking.
  3. Plant cells have a rigid cell wall to protect themselves from grazing animals.
  4. Plant cells have a rigid cell wall to prevent the influx of waste material.
34.
Bacteria do not have organelles; yet, the same reactions that take place on the mitochondria inner membrane, the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, and chloroplasts, photosynthesis, take place in bacteria. Where do these reactions take place?
  1. These reactions take place in the nucleoid of the bacteria.
  2. These reactions occur in the cytoplasm present in the bacteria.
  3. These reactions occur on the plasma membrane of bacteria.
  4. These reactions take place in the mesosomes.
35.
What are the structural and functional similarities and differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts?
  1. Similarities: double membrane, inter-membrane space, ATP production, contain DNA. Differences: mitochondria have inner folds called cristae, chloroplast contains accessory pigments in thylakoids, which form grana and a stroma.
  2. Similarities: DNA, inter-membrane space, ATP production, and chlorophyll. Differences: mitochondria have a matrix and inner folds called cristae; chloroplast contains accessory pigments in thylakoids, which form grana and a stroma.
  3. Similarities: double membrane and ATP production. Differences: mitochondria have inter-membrane space and inner folds called cristae; chloroplast contains accessory pigments in thylakoids, which form grana and a stroma.
  4. Similarities: double membrane and ATP production. Differences: mitochondria have inter-membrane space, inner folds called cristae, ATP synthase for ATP synthesis, and DNA; chloroplast contains accessory pigments in thylakoids, which, form grana and a stroma.
36.
Is the nuclear membrane part of the endomembrane system? Why or why not?
  1. The nuclear membrane is not a part of the endomembrane system as the endoplasmic reticulum is a separate organelle of the cell.
  2. The nuclear membrane is considered a part of the endomembrane system as it is continuous with the Golgi body.
  3. The nuclear membrane is part of the endomembrane system as it is continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  4. The nuclear membrane is not considered a part of the endomembrane system as the nucleus is a separate organelle.
37.
What happens to the proteins that are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytoplasm? Do they go through the Golgi apparatus?
  1. These proteins move through the Golgi apparatus and enter in the nucleus.
  2. These proteins go through the Golgi apparatus and remain in the cytosol.
  3. The proteins do not go through the Golgi apparatus and move into the nucleus for processing.
  4. The proteins do not go through the Golgi apparatus and remain free in the cytosol.
38.
What are the similarities and differences between the structures of centrioles and flagella?
  1. Centrioles and flagella are made of microtubules but show different arrangements.
  2. Centrioles are made of microtubules but flagella are made of microfilaments and both show the same arrangement.
  3. Centrioles and flagella are made of microfilaments. Centrioles have a 9 + 2 arrangement.
  4. Centrioles are made of microtubules and flagella are made of microfilaments and both have different structures.
39.
Inhibitors of microtubule assembly, vinblastine for example, are used for cancer chemotherapy. How does an inhibitor of microtubule assembly affect cancerous cells?
  1. The inhibitors restrict the separation of chromosomes, thereby stopping cell division.
  2. The inhibition of microtubules interferes with the synthesis of proteins.
  3. The inhibitors bind the microtubule to the nuclear membrane, stopping cell division.
  4. The inhibitor interferes with energy production.
40.
How do cilia and flagella differ?
  1. Cilia are made of microfilaments and flagella of microtubules.
  2. Cilia are helpful in the process of engulfing food. Flagella are involved in the movement of the organism.
  3. Cilia are short and found in large numbers on the cell surface whereas flagella are long and fewer in number.
  4. Cilia are found in prokaryotic cells and flagella in eukaryotic cells.
41.
In which human tissues would you find desmosomes? Think of tissues that undergo strong mechanical stress and must be held together with some flexibility.
  1. bone cells and cartilage cells
  2. muscle cells and skin cells
  3. nerve cells and muscle cells
  4. secretory cells and muscle cells
42.
If there is a mutation in the gene for collagen, such as the one involved in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and the individual produces defective collagen, how would it affect coagulation?
  1. The syndrome affects the clotting factors and platelet aggregation.
  2. The disease leads to hyper-coagulation of blood.
  3. Coagulation is not affected because collagen is not required for coagulation.
  4. The disease occurs due to the breakdown of platelets.
43.
How does the structure of a plasmodesma differ from that of a gap junction?
  1. Gap junctions are essential for transportation in animal cells and plasmodesmata are essential for the movement of substances in plant cells.
  2. Gap junctions are found to provide attachment in animal cells and plasmodesmata are essential for attachment of plant cells.
  3. Plasmodesmata are essential for communication between animal cells and gap junctions are necessary for attachment of cells in plant cells.
  4. Plasmodesmata help in transportation and gap junctions help in attachment, in plant cells.
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